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3 3433 06819260 2 














{Auociate Editor ») 



(Department of Syttematic Theology) 


(Department of Minor Denomination*) 


(Department of Ltiurgic* and Religion* Orden) 


(Department of the Old TeHament) 


(Department of the New Tettament) 


(Department of Church History) 


(Department of Pronunciation and Typography) 

Complete in twelve IDolumee 



t * 









(Attodate Editor) 



(Department of Systematic Theology) 


(Department of Minor Denomination*) 


(Department of Liturgies and Religious Order*) 


(Department of the Old Testament) 


(Department of the New Testament) 


(Department of Church Hittory) 


{Department of Pronunciation and Typography) 




The new tobk 



Atmifi, LENOX AND 


B 1!<45 L 

Copyright, 1911, bt 

Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 

Printed in the United State* of America 
Published September, 1911 



Professor of Church History, New York University. 


(Associate Editor.) 

New York, 

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion, 

Bangor Theological Seminary. 




{Department of Systematic Theology.) 
Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological 



{Department of Minor Denominations.) 

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section 
for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference. 


(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders.) 
Sector of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y. 



(Department of the Old Testament.) 
Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, 



(Department of the New Testament.) 
Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New 
Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. 


(Department of Church History.) 

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist 

Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex. 


(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.) 
Managing Editor of the Standard Dictionabt, etc, 

New York City. 



Missionary in Bombay, India. 


Professor of Church History, University of Halle. 


Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Ecclesiastical History, 
Theological Seminary, Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 


Former President of the Lutheran Western Theological 
Seminary, Atchison, Kan. 

D.D., LL.D., 

President of Adrian College, Adrian, Mich. 


ATTAIN, Th.Lic, 

Decent in the University of Upsala, Sweden. 


S.S., D.D., LL.D., 

President of St. Patrick's Seminary, Menlo Park, Cal. 

D.D., LL.D., 

it of Western Theological Seminary, Holland, Mich. 



Consistorial Councilor and First Preacher, Bayreuth. 



Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological 



Former Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, 
Auburn Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y. 

GEORG BEER, Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of 


Late Pastor Emeritus in Christiania. 


Professor of Church History, University of Kdnigsberg. 

BENZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

German Orientalist and Vice-Consul for Holland in 


Late Pastor of St. Michael's, Hamburg. 




Professor of Church History, Independent School of 

Divinity, Paris. 



Professor of Church History, University of Gdttingen. 


Senior of the Prediger-Miniflterium, Frankfort. 


Retired Pastor, Stuttgart. 


Dean of Oberlin Theological Seminary, Oberlin, Ohio. 



Reformed Minister and Chaplain at Buckeburg, Schaum- 



President of German Wallace College, Berea, Ohio. 


Editorial Secretary for the China Inland Mission, London. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, Union Theological 
Seminary, New York. 


Secretary of the Religious Tract Society, London. 

BUDDENSIEG (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Author and Educator, Dresden. 



Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Copenhagen. 


Professor of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and 
Secretary, Luther Seminary, St. Paul, Minn. 


President of the Board of Trustees, Eugene Bible Univer- 
sity, Eugene, Oregon. 


Professor of Hebrew and Cognate Languages, McCormick 
Theological Seminary, Chicago. 


Assistant Rector of the Church of the Blessed Sacrament, 

New York. 

Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

Gymnasia! Professor at Zwickau. 



Senior Minister of the Collegiate Church, New York. 

COHRS, Th.D., 

Consistorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany. 


IE. A., 

Instructor in English, College of the City of New York. 


Pastor of the French Reformed Church, Frankfort. 


Professor of the History of Christianity, University of 

Amsterdam, and Professor of Practical Theology, 

Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam. 



Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Univer- 
sity of Lcipsic, and President of the German Evangelical 
Archeological Institute, Jerusalem. 


Pastor in Frankfort. 


Professor of Historical Theology, Theological School of the 
Christian Reformed Church, Grand Rapids, Mich. 


Professor of Old Testament Language and literature, Ban- 
gor Theological Seminary, Bangor, Me. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Supreme Consistorial Councilor, City Superintendent, and 
Pastor of the Kreuxkirche, Dresden. 


Chancellor of the Southwestern Presbyterian University, 

Clarkaville, Tenn. 


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Breslau. 


Rector of St. Gabriel's, New Rochclle, N. Y. 


librarian, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J. 


President of Westminster Theological Seminary, 
Westminster, Md. 


Professor of Theology. Augsburg Seminary, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Habe. 


Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological 
. Faculty, University of Strasburg. 


President of Lombard College and Ryder Divinity School, 

Galesburg, III. 


Emeritus Gymnasial Professor, Parchim, Mecklenburg. 

Th.D., Dr.Jur., 

Late Professor of Ecclesiastical. Public, and German Law, 

University of Leipsic. 


Professor of Church History, Wartburg Evangelical Lutheran 

Seminary, Dubuque, la. 



Late Historian of Transcendentalism, Boston, Mass. 


Minister of Arlington St Church (Unitarian), Boston, Mass. 


Secretary, Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society, 

Point Loma, Gal. 

Ph.D., D.D., 

Principal of the Evangelical Theological Seminary, 

Naperville, 111. 




Secretary of the Divinity School of the Protectant Epis- 
copal Church in Philadelphia. 


librarian, Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Maw. 


Former Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on 

Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological 

Seminary, Bangor, Me. 


Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn. 


Late Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High 
School, and Professor, Military Academy, Munich 


Richmond, Va. 


Professor of Reformed Church History and Liturgies, Cen- 
tral Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio. 



Registrar, University of Chicago. 


Professor of Exegetical Theology, Mission House, 

Plymouth, Wis. 


Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University of 




Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock. 


Chief of the Staff of Stenographers, Senate of France. 


President of St. Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y. 


Extraordinary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, 
University of Leipsio. 


Pastor in Bern and Lecturer on New Testament Exegesis, 

University of Bern. 


Dean of the Bible College, Drake University, Des Moines, 


HALL, D.D., LL.D., 

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont. 


Late Professor of Theology, University of Munich. 


D.D., LL.D., 

President of Tufts College, Mi 

Th.D., Dr. Jut., 

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin. 

Litt.D., LL.D., 

Director of Studies at the Friends' Settlement, Woodbrooke, 
near Birmingham, England. 


of Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Conn. 

ALBERT HAUOK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.Jur., 

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic, Editor- 
in-chief of the Hauck-Hersog ReaUncvktop&die. 


Professor of the New Testament, University of Greifswald. 


President of Hamma Divinity School, Springfield, Ohio. 

MAX HEINZE (f), PhJ>., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipsic. 

J>J>. 9 LL.D., 

President of the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of 
Kentucky, Louisville, Ky. 

ERNST HENXE (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Theology, University of Marburg. 

Privat-docent in Church History, University of Leipsio. 


Senior Professor of Theology, Hartwiok Seminary, near 

Cooperstown, N. Y. 


Dean of the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. 

HOFFMANN, Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

Privat-docent in Church History, University of Leipsic. 


Professor of Homiletics and liturgies, University of Leipsic. 



Professor of Church History, University of Lund, Sweden. 


President of Atlanta Theological Seminary, Atlanta, Ga. 


Missionary at Beirut, Syria. 


President of Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va. 



Dean of the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Mount Airy, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 


Professor of English literature and Rhetoric, Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America, New York. 

Late Missionary at Beirut, Syria. 


Kansas City Baptist Theological Seminary. 


Home Secretary of the London Missionary Society. 


Professor of Church History and New Testament Exegesis, 

University of Marburg. 


Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, 

University of Halle. 


Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle. 



Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of 




Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Provost of St. Peter's, 
Berlin, and Honorary Professor, University of Berlin. 


President of Western Theological Seminary, Pittsburg, Pa. 

OTTO KIRN (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipsio. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsio. 

RUDOLF KOEGEL (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Court Preacher, Berlin. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Privy Councilor in Cannstadt, formerly Professor of 
Theology, University of Gieseen. 


President of Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

KOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen. 

otto Edward xriege, d.d., 

President of the German Theological Seminary, Central 
•Wesleyan College, Warrenton, Mo. 


Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen. 


City Pastor in Leonberg, Warttemberg. 


President of San Francisco Theological Seminary, San 

Anselmo, Cal. 


Plainfield, N. J. 



Secretary to the Dean of Nashotah House, Nashotah, Wis. 


Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg. 


Chief Inspector of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart. 


Secretary and librarian of the Church Divinity School of 
the Pacific, San Mateo, Cal. 


Vice-president and Professor of Theology, Augustana Theo- 
logical Seminary, Rock Island, 111. 


Privat-docent in Church History, University of Bonn. 

Professor of Church History, University of Halle. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erlangen. 


Warden, Seabury Divinity School, Faribault, Minn. 

President of Pacific Theological Seminary, Berkeley, Cat 


D.D., LL.D., 

Chairman of the Faculty, Columbia Theological Seminary, 

Columbia, S. C. 


Dean of the School of Theology and Vice-president of Sus- 
quehanna University, Selingsgrove, Pa. 



Chancellor to the Orthodox Catholic Archbishop of America. 


President of the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Omaha, 



Author and Lecturer, Great Baddow, Chelmsford, England. 


Pastor in Gr. Urleben near Tennstedt. 


Secretary of the Ecclesiastical Council, Zurich, Switzerland. 


Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Hanover. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of History, University of Zurich. 


Secretary of the Nordfriesischer Verein fur Heimatkunde 
und Heimatliebe, Klanxbull in Sleswick. 


Professor of Church History, University of Marburg. 


President of Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va. 


D.D., LL.D., 

President of Xenia Theological Seminary, Xenia, Ohio. 


librarian Emeritus, Divinity School of Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Mass. 


Former Professor of Theology, Lane Theological Seminary, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

B.D., Ph.D., 

Dean of the Faculty, College of the Bible, Lexington, Ky. 



Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen. 


President of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 

Louisville, Ky. 


Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New 
Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, 



NELLE, Th.D., 

Superintendent in Hamm, Westphalia. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor in the TbeologioeJ 8emlnary, Maulbronn, 



Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist Theo- 
logical Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Professor of English, University of Iowa. 

Supreme Conststorial Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria. 



Late Bishop of Aarhus, Denmark. 


President of Walden College, MePherson, Kan. 



Late Professor of Old Testament Theology, Tubingen. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of 
Religion, University of Basel. 

Late Professor of Theology, Tubingen. 


Pastor of 8t Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris. 

Field Secretary of Asbury College, Wilmore, Ky. 


President of Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Mo. 


Fellow of the Theosophioal Society, Norfolk, Va. 


P r of essor of Music and Hymnology, Hartford Theological 
Seminary, Hartford, Conn. 


Pastor at Hirschhorn-on-the-Neokar, Germany. 


President of Westminster College of Theology, Tehuacana, 



Attorney, Yonkers, N. Y. 


Pastor at GaterBleben, Prussian Saxony. 


Pastor in Cologne. 


Professor of New Testament language and Literature and 
of Ecclesiastical History. Hillsdale Baptist Seminary, 

Hillsdale, Mich. 


Professor of Church History, Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary, Columbia, 8. C. 


Instructor in the Theological Seminary at Gnadenfeid, 



President of Lincoln University, Pa. 


Editor, American Sunday-School Union, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Professor of Church History. Theological Seminary of the 
Reformed Church, Lancaster, Pa. 


Ph.D., LL.D., 

Pr o fe s so r of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Drew 
T h e o logical Seminary, Madison, New Jersey. 


Assistant Professor of Church History, Newton Theological 
Institution, Newton Center, Mass. 


Dean of the Faculty, Dubuque German College and Semi- 
nary, Dubuque, la. 


Late Professor of Theology, University of Zurich. 


Head of the Deaconess Institute, Altona. 


Professor of Church History, Western Theologioal Seminary, 

Pittsburg* Pennsylvania. 


Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Semi- 
nary, New York. 


President of the Lutheran Theological Seminary, 
Wauwatosa, Wis. 


Secretary of the Faculty, Capital University, Columbus, O. 



Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, 
University of Greifswald. 



Late Professor of Theology, University of Jena. 



Resident Professor, Moravian College and Theological 
Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa. 


Professor of History, Universitylof Zurich. 


President of the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Church, New Brunswick, N. J. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin. 


r of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, 
University of Erlangen. 


President of the Swedenborg Scientific Association, 

Washington, D. C. 

SHEDD (f), D.D., LL.D., 

Late Professor of Systematic Theology, Union Theologioal 

Seminary, New York. 


Ph.D., Th.D., 
Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn. 


Professor of Latin, New York University. 

Extraordinary Professor of Practical Theology, University 

of Berlin. 



President of the Lutheran Theological Seminary, 

Gettysburg, Pa. 



President and Dean of the Faculty, Meadville Theologieal 

School, Meadville, Pa. 


Pastor in Basel. 

Late Bavarian Royal Councilor. 


Formerly Member of the Editorial Staff tdAUaniu, 

New York City. 

X. F. STEIGER (t)> 
Late Pastor in Eglishof . 


President of Auburn Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y. 



Honorary Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and 

rary iroiessor 01 uid Testament exegesis 
Semitic Languages, University of Berlin. 


Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Bonn. 


President of Augsburg Seminary, Minneapolis, Minn. 


General Secretary of the American Tract Society, New York. 


Professor of Christian Doctrine, Garrett Biblical Institute, 

Evanston, 111. 

Late Consistorial Councilor, Hermannstadt, Hungary. 


THOLUOK (f), Th.D., 
Late Professor of Theology, University of Halle. 


Associate Professor of History, University of Chicago. 



Professor of Homiletics and Catechetics, University of Jena. 


Dean of the Theological Faculty, Vanderbilt University, 

Nashville, Tenn. 

O.S.A., D.D., 

Regent of Studies, Monastery of St. Thomas, Villanova, Pa. 

Late Professor of Church History, University of Gdttingen. 


General Secretary of the Student Volunteer Movement for 
Foreign Missions, New York. 


UHLHORN (f), Th.D., 

Late Abbot of Lokkum, Germany. 


President of Taylor University, Upland, Indiana. 


Professor of Church History, Croser Theological Seminary, 

Chester, Pa. 


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeolocy, 
University of Utrecht, 


Professor of Church History, Independent Senool of 

Divinity, Paris. 


President of Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 

Austin, Texas. 


librarian, General Theological Seminary, New York City. 


Dean of Lutheran Theological Seminary, Columbia, S. C 



Late Consistorial Councilor, Gdttingen. 


Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Yale University, New 

Haven, Conn. 


President of Swedish Theological Seminary, Evanston, 111. 


Secretary of the Faculty of the Protestant Episcopal Theo- 
logical Seminary in Virginia, near Alexandria, Va. 

S.T.D., LL.D., 

Dean of the School of Theology, Boston University. 


Professor of Theology and Church History, German Theo- 
logical School, Bloomfield, N. J. 

S.T.D., D.D., LL.D., 

President of the Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary. 

Professor of Theology, Concordia College, Springfield, 111. 


Professor of Church History and Homiletics, Seminary of 
the United Norwegian Lutheran Church, St. 
Anthony Park, Minn. 


Retired Public Schoolmaster, London. 

WIEGAND, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, University of Greifswald. 


Dean of the Pacific Unitarian School for the Ministry, 

Berkeley, Cal. 


trofessor of Biblical Literature. Reformed Presbyterian 
Seminary, Pittsburg, Pa. 


Late Pastor at Friedersdorf, Brandenburg, and Editor of 
the Bvanodische Kirchemeilung. 


President of New Church Theological School, Cambridge, 


Ph.D., Th.D., 

Retired Professor, Dresden. 


Pastor in Oranienbaum, Germany. 


Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogy, University of 


OTTO ZOECKLER (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Church History and Apologetie% 
University of Greifswald^ 


The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles 
contained in vols. I.-XL, and brings the literature down to June 20, 1911. In this list each title entry 
is printed in capital letters. It is to be noted that, throughout the work, in the articles as a rule only 
first editions are given. In the bibliographies the aim is to give either the best or the latest edition, 
and in case the book is published both in America and in some other country, the American place of 
issue is usually given the preference. 

Abbott, L.: The Problem of Human Destiny, as 
Conditioned by Free Witt. Discussion, Bos- 
ton, 1911. 

Africa: G. B. A. Gerdener, Studies in the Evangel- 
isation of South Africa, London, 1911. 
A. R. Tucker, Eighteen Years in Uganda and 
East Africa, New York, 1911. 

Albebtus Magnus: AJbertus Magnus, Being the ap- 
proved, verified, sympathetic and natural Egyp- 
tian Secrets, while and black Art for Man and 
Beast, by that celebrated occult Student, new 
and revised ed., ed. L. W. de Laurence, 
Chicago, 1910. 

Antichrist: H. Preuss, Die VorsteUungen vom 
Antichrist im spdtern Mittelalter, bet Luther 
und in der konfessioneUen Polemik, Leipsic, 

Apologetics: W. H. Carslaw, The Early Christian 

Apologists, London, 1911. 
W. Ulert, Prolegomena der Oeschichtsphilosophie. 

Studie zur Grundlage der Apologetik, Leipsic, 

A. E. Garnie, Christian Life and Belief. A De- 
scription and Defence of the Gospel, London, 

D. Macfadyen, Truth in Religion. Studies in 

the Nature of Christian Certainty, London, 

C. H. Robinson, Studies in the Character of 

Christ: an Argument for the Truth of Chris- 

tianity, New York, 1911. 

Abcheoloot, Biblical: See below, Jeremias, A. 

Architecture: G. H. West, Gothic Architecture in 
England and France, London, 1911. 

Athan asian Greed: R. O. P. Taylor, The Athana- 
sian Creed in the Twentieth Century, Edin- 
burgh and New York, 1911. 

Atonement: S. H. Langdon, in Expository Times, 
April, 1911, pp. 320-325, and C. F. Burney 
in the same, pp. 325-327 (important). 

Augustine: H. Schols, Glaube und Unglaube in der 
Weltgeschichte. Ein Kommentar zu Augus- 
tine De civitate Dei, Leipsic, 1911. 

Babylonia: A. Poebel, Die sumerischen Person- 
namen zur Zeii der Dynastie von Larsam und 
der ersten Dynastie von Babylonien, Breslau, 

Babylonia: C. Frank, Studien zur babylonischen 
Religion, vol. i., Strasburg, 1911. 

J. Krauss, Die Gdttemamen in den babylonia 
schen Siegelcylinderlegenden, Leipsic, 1911. 

S. Langdon, A Sumerian Grammar and Chres- 
tomathy, with a Vocabulary of the Principal 
Roots %n Sumerian and a List of the most im- 
portant Syllabic and Vowel Transcriptions, 
New York, 1911. 

Bamberg: J. Looshorn, Die Geschichte des Bisthums 
Bamberg. Nach den QueUen bearbeUet, vol. 
viii., Das Bisthum Bamberg von 1729-1808, 
fasc. 2, Von 1747-1808, Bamberg, 1910. 

Baptism: D. E. Dortch, Bible Lights on Baptism, 
Tullahoma, 1911. 

Baptists: W. J. McGlothlin, Baptist Confessions of 
Faith, Philadelphia, 1911. 

Beibsel, S. : Geschichte der Verehrung Marias, vol. 
ii., Freiburg, 1910. 

Belgium: D. C. Boulger, Belgium of the Belgians, 
New York, 1911. 

Benediction: A. Frans, Die Hrchlichen Benedik- 
tionen im Mittelalter, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1909. 

Bennett, W. H.: The MoabUe Stone, Edinburgh, 

Bible Societies: W. Canton, History of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, London, 1911. 

Bible Text: The Four Gospels from the Codex 
Veronensis, with Introduction descriptive of 
the MS. by E. S. Buchanan. Old Latin Bib- 
lical Texts (no. 6), London, 1911. 

Bible Versions: J. Brown, The History of the Eng- 
lish Bible, London, 1911. 

Coptic Version of the New Testament in the South- 
ern Dialect, otherwise called Sahidic and The- 
baic, with critical Apparatus, with literal Eng- 
lish Translation, Register of Fragments and 
Estimate of the Version, 3 vols, London, 1911. 

W. Muir, Our Grand Old Bible. Being the Story 
of the Authorized Version of the English Bible 
told for the Tercentenary Celebration, New 
York, 1911. 

J. D. Payne, The English Bible. An Historical 
Survey, from the Dawn of English History, to 
the Present Day, London, 1911. 



Bible Vbrsionb: Records of the English Bible. The 
Documents relating to the Translation and 
Publication of the Bible in English, 1626- 
1611, ed. with an introduction by A. W. 
Pollard, London and New York, 1911. 
The Hexaplar Psalter. Being the Book of Psalms 
in Six English Versions, ed. W. A. Wright, 
Cambridge, 1011. 

Biblical Criticism: C. W. Emmet, The Eschato- 
logical Question in the Oospels, and Other 
Studies in Recent New Testament Criticism, 
Edinburgh, 1911. 
A. Freitag, Zerstort die historisch-kritische The- 
clogie den Wert der neutestamenUichen Schrjf- 
ten als OeschichtsqueUenf Giessen, 1911. 

E. A. Hutton, An Atlas of Textual Criticism. 
Being an Attempt to show, the Mutual Rela- 
tionship of the Authorities for the Text of the 
New Testament up to about 1000 AD., Lon- 
don, 1911. 

Biblical Introduction: J. Moffatt. An Introduc- 
tion to the Literature of the New Testament, 
London and New York, 1911. 

Biblical Theology: M. Wohlrab, Das neutesta- 
menUiche Christentum, auf psychologischer 
Qrundktge dargesteUt, Dresden, 1910, 1911. 
M. Slavic 1 , Dee Ephesier- und Kofosserbriefes 
Lehre uber die Person ChrisH und sein HeUs- 
werk, Vienna, 1911. 

F. Q. Smith, Evolution of Christianity; or, 
Origin, Nature, and Development of the Re- 
ligion of the Bxble, Anderson, Ind., 1911. 

Also see below, Robinson. 

Bonaventura: L. Coetelloe, Saint Bonaventure, the 
Seraphic Doctor, London and New York, 

Browne, Sir Thomas: W. Schonack, Sir Thomas 
Brownes Religw Medici [in German]. Ein 
verschoUenes Denkmal dee englischen Theis- 
mus, Tubingen, 1911. 

Buddhism: T. W. Rhys Davids. Sacred Books of 
the Buddhists, Translated by various Orien- 
tal Scholars. Dialogues of the Buddha. Part 
II. Translated by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys- 
Davids, London, 1911. 

Q. A. Esengrini, Le visioni del Bouddha, Turin, 

W. W. Hicks, The Sanctuary, Boston, 1911. 

Bulgaria: W. Ruland, Geschichte der Bulgaren, 
Berlin, 1911. 

Chbynb, T. K.: The Two Religions of Israel. With 
a Reexamination of the Prophetic Narratives 
and Utterances, London, 1910, New York, 

China: W. E. Griffis, China's Story in Myth, Legend, 
Art and Annals, Boston, 1910. 

A. E. Moule, Half a Century in China. Recol- 
lections and Observations, London, 1911. 

Lin Shao-Yang, A Chinese Appeal to Christen- 
dom concerning Christian Missions, New 
York, 1911. 

Christian Socialism: T. Fallot, Christianisme so- 
cial, Paris, 1910. 

Chribtologt: H. B. Swete, The Ascended Christ: 

a Study in the earliest Christian Teaching, 

London and New York, 1910. 
W. J. Simpson, The Resurrection and Modern 

Thought, London, 1911. 
K. Thieme, Von der Gottheit ChrisH. Oegen den 

rcliaifoen RUckschritt in Grutzmachers Dreiei- 

nigkeitslehre, Giessen! 1911, 

Church History: See above, Biblical Theology, 
T. S. Holmes, The Origin and Development of 
the Christian Church in Gaul during the First 
Six Centuries of the Christian Era, London, 

Combntub: J. Kvacala, Analecta Comeniana, Ber- 
lin, 1910. 

Common Prayer, Book of: W. H. Frere, Some 
Principles of Liturgical Reform. A Contribu- 
tion towards the Revision of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, London, 1911. 

Comparative Religion: M. BrQckner, Der sterbende 
und auferstehende Gottheiland in den oriental- 
ischen Religionen und ihr Verhdltnis turn 
Christentum, Tubingen, 1908. 

W. W. Fowler, The Religious Experience of the 
Roman People from the Earliest Times to the 
Age of Augustus, London, 1911. 

J. G. Fraser, The Magic Art and the Evolution 
of Kings. 2 vols., London, 1911 (a part of 
the 3d ed. of The Golden Bough). 

Also see below, Loisy. 

Davdb8, T. W.: See below, Magic. 

Dbcius: P. M. Meyer, Die IAbeUi aus der decian- 
ischen Christenverfolgung, Berlin, 1910. 

Diseases and the Healing Art, Hebrew: J. 
Preuss, Biblisch-talmudische Medizin. Beir 
trage zur Geschichte der Heilkunde und der 
Kultur uberhaupt, Berlin, 1911. 

Divorce: H. Ringrose, Marriage and Divorce Laws 
of the World, London, 1911. 

Doctrine, History of: J. P. Kirsch, The Doctrine 
of the Communion of Saints in the Ancient 
Church, St. Louis, 1911. 

Dogma, Dogmatics: L. Labauche, Lecons de thS- 
otogie dogmatigue. Dogmatique sptciale, vol. 
i., Paris, 1910. 

Dreams: H. Ellis, The World of Dreams, London, 

Duhm, B. L.: The Ever-coming Kingdom of God: a 
Dissertation on religious Progress, New York, 

Egypt: V. Ermoni, La Religion de V6gypte an- 
cienne, Paris, 1911. 

Elagabalus: J. S. Hay, The Amazing Emperor 
Heliogabalus, London, 1911. 

England, Church of: Visitation Articles and In- 
junctions of the Period of the Reformation^ ed. 
W. H. Frere, 3 vols., London, 1910. 

G. A. Cobbold, This Church of England, Lon- 
don, 1911. 

J. E. C. Welldon, The Religious Aspects of Dis- 
establishment and Disendowment, London, 

Epicureanism: A. E. Taylor, Epicurus, London, 

Ethics: S. W. Davis, Origin and Evolution of Ethics, 
Los Angeles, Cal., 1910. 

Exegesis: D. KQnst linger, Altjudische BibddeuU 
ung, Berlin, 1911. 

Faith: A. Chandler, Faith and Experience: an 
Analysis of the Factors of Religious Knowl- 
edge, London, 1911. 

Feasts and Festivals: F. B linger, Geschichte der 
Ncujahrsfeier in der Kirche, Gflttingen, 1911 


• • • 

France: D. Lortsch, Histoire de la Bible en France, 
Geneva, 1910. 
Also see Church History, Holmes. 

Francis, Saint, op Assisi: H. Grimley, Saint 
Francis and his Friends: rendered into Eng- 
lish from Franciscan Chronicles, Cambridge 
and New York, 1908. 
N. Tamassia, Saint Francis of Assisi and His 
Legend, London, 1911. 

George, Saint: Saint George for England. The 
Life, Legends and Lore of our Glorious Patron. 
Compiled by H. 0. F., 2d ed., London, 1911. 

Gerhard, J.: Add to the bibliography: R. Hup- 
feld, Die Ethik Joh. Gerhards, Berlin, 1908. 

Germany: F. Uhlhorn, Geschichte der deutschrlu- 
therischen Kirche, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1911. 

God: J. R. Illingworth, Divine Transcendence, and 
its Reflection in Religious Authority: an Es- 
say, London, 1911. 
Also see below, Pohle, J. 

Gospel and Gospels: G. Fulliquet, Sources des 
ivangiles, Paris, 1910, Geneva, 1911. 
G. Friedlander, The Jewish Sources of the Ser- 
mon on the Mount, London, 1911. 

E. Mangenot, Les EvangUes synoptiques. Con- 
ferences apologttiques, Paris, 1911. 

Studies in the Synoptic Problem, by Members of 
the University of Oxford, ed. W. Sanday, 
New York, 1911. 

Also see below, Harnack; Loisy; Luke. 

Gregory VII.: Add to sources: A Selection of the 
Letters of HUdebrand, Pope Gregory VII. . . . 
by G. Finch, London, 1853. 

Habakkux: G. G. N. Stonehouse, Introduction, 
Translation, and Notes on the Hebrew Text 
of the Book of Habakkuk, London, 1911. 

Hammurabi and his Code: E. Wohlfromm, Un- 
tersuchungen zur Syntax des Codex Ham- 
murabis, Konigsberg, 1910. 

Harnack, A.: Neue Untersuchungen zur AposteU 
geschichte und zur Abfassungszeit der synop- 
tischen Evangelien, Leipsic, 1911. 

Hebrew Language: C. E. Hesselgrave, The He- 
brew Personification of Wisdom: Us Origin, 
Development and Influence, New York, 1911. 

Hegel: J. O. Knott, Seekers after Soul, Boston, 
1911 (the seekers considered are: Job, Plato, 
Kant, Hegel, and Browning). 

Hellenistic Greek: L. Radermacher, Neutesta- 
mentliche Grammatik, Tubingen, 1911. 

Hexateuch: J. S. Griffiths, The Problem of Deute- 
ronomy, London, 1911. 

F. P. Ramsay, An Interpretation of Genesis, 
Washington, D. C, 1911. 

Hittites: A. Gleye, Hittitische Studien, part 1, 
Leipsic, 1910. 

Holland: Gedenkstukken der algemeene Geschiedenis 
van Nederland van 1796 tot 1840, vol. v., ed. 
H. T. Colenbrander, The Hague, 1910. 
Acta der particuliere Synoden van Zuid-Holland, 
vol. Hi., 1646-66, ed. W. P. C. Knuttel, The 
Hague, 1910. 

Huusean Lectures: E. A. Edghill, The Revelation 
of the Son of God: some Questions and Con- 
siderations arising out of a Study of Second 
Century Christianity. Being the Hulsean Lec- 
tures for 1910-11, London and New York, 

Idealism: C. Dunan, Les Deux IdSalismes, Paris, 

P. Natorp, Philosophic. Ihr Problem und ihre 

Probleme. EinfyLhrung in den kritischen 

Idealismus, Gottingen, 1911. 
A. Wernicke, Die SegrHndung des deutschen 

Idealismus durch Immanud Kant. Ein Bei- 

traa zum Verstdndnisse des gemeinsamen 

Wtrkens von Goethe und Schiller, Brunswick, 


Ignatius of Loyola: D. Angeli, San? Ignaxio de 
Loyola nella vita e neWarte, Lanciano, 1910. 

Immortality: F. Blades, Is the Life of Man eternal? 
New York, 1911. 
G. L. Dickinson, Religion and Immortality, 
Boston, 1911. 

India: T. C. Hodson, The Naga Tribes of Manipur, 
New York, 1911. 

Innere Mission: J. F. Ohl, The Inner Mission: a 
Handbook for Christian Workers, Philadel- 
phia, 1911. 

Isaiah: C. D. Ginsburg, Isaias. Diligenter revisus 
juxta Massorah atque editiones principes cum 
variis lectionibus e mss. atque antiquis versioni- ' 
bus coUectis, London, 1909. 
R. H. Kennett, The Composition of the Book of 
Isaiah in the Light of History and Archeology, 
London, 1911; idem, The Servant of the Lord, 
New York 1911. 
G. W. Wade,' The Book of the Prophet Isaiah. 
With Introduction and Notes, London, 1911. 

Israel, History of: R. Lescynsky, Die Juden in 
Arabien zur Zeit Muhammeds, Berlin, 1910. 

M. Gemoil, Grundsteine zur Geschichte Israels. 
AlttestamenUiche Studien, Leipsic, 1911. 

C. F. Lehman-Haupt, Israel. Seine Entwick- 
lung im Rahmen der Weltgeschichte, Tu- 
bingen, 1911. 

M. Lonr, Israels KuUurentwickelung, Strasburg. 

James, W.: E. Boutroux, William James, Paris. 

Jeremias, A.: The Old Testament in the Light of the 
Ancient East: Manual of Biblical Archaeol- 
ogy, 2 vols., London, 1911. 

Jesuits: C. Coppens, Who are the Jesuits? St. 
Louis, 1911. 

Jesus Christ: K. Dunkmann, Der historische Jesus, 

der mythologische Christ us und Jesus der 

Christ, Leipsic, 1910. 
P. Jensen, Hat der Jesus der Evangelien wirk- 

lich gelebt? Frankfort, 1910. 
A. Drews, Die Christusmythe, part 2, Die Zeug- 

nisse fur die GeschichUichJceit Jesu, Jena, 

W. A. Grist, The Historic Christ in the Faith of 

To-day, London, 1911. 
G. Jahn, Ueber die Person Jesu und tiber die 

Entstehung des Christentums und den Wert 

desselben fur moderne Gebildete, mil einer 

Kritik der Evangelien und der neuesten Schrif- 

ten iiber Jesu, Leyden, 1911. 

Jesus Christ, Monogram of: F. J. Dolger, I*% 
Das Fischsymbol in frUhchristlicher Zeit, vol. 
i., Rome, 1910. 

Jews, Missions to the : A. L. Williams, A Manual 
of Christian Evidences for Jewish People, 
Cambridge, 1911. 

Job: See above, Hegel. 


John the Apostle : J. Chapman, John the Presbyter 
and the Fourth Gospel, London, 1910. 
J. T. Dean, Visions and Revelations. Discourses 

on the Apocalypse, London, 1911. 
A. Merx, Das Evangelium des Johannes nach 
der syrischen im Sinaikloster gefundenen Pa- 
limpsUthandschrift erldutert, Berlin, 1911. 

John, Saint, Order of: J. Delaville le Rouix, Me- 
langes sur Vordre de S. Jean de Jerusalem, 
Paris, 1910. 

Kant: See above, Hegel. 

Kingdom of God: See above, Dtthm. 

Korea: M. C. Fenwick, The Church of Christ in 
Corea, New York, 1911. 

Lamaism: A. Cunningham, Ladak, London, 1854. 
A. II. Francke, History of Western Tibet, Lon- 
don, 1907. 

Loisy, A. : A vropos dhistoire des religions, Paris, 
191 1 ; idem, Jtsus et la tradition evangdique, 
ib. 1911. 

Lollards: J. Gairdner, LoUardy and the Reforma- 
tion in England, vol. iii., London, 1911. 

Lord's Supper: F. Graebke, Die Konstruktion der 
Abendmahlslehre Luthers in ihrer Entwicklung 
dargestelU, Leipsic, 1908. 

Luke : H. Koch, Die Abfassungszeit des Ivkanischen 
Geschichtswerkes. Eine historisch-kritische 
und exeaetische Untersuchung, Leipsic, 1911. 
Also see above, Harnack. 

Luther: L. P. Winter, A Life of Martin Luther, 
the Great Reformer of the 16th Century, Nash- 
ville, 1911. 

Lutherans: The Book of Concord; or, the Symbol- 
ical Books of the Evanaelical Lutheran Church; 
transl. from the original Languages, with 
Analyses and exhaustive Index; ed. by H. 
Eyster Jacobs, Philadelphia, 1911. 
L. B. Wolf, Missionary Heroes of the Lutheran 
Church, Philadelphia, 1911. 

McGiffert, A. C. : Protestant Thought before Kant, 
New York, 1911. 

Magic: T. W. Davies, " Magic " Black and White 
(2d ed. of Magic, Divination, and Demonology 
Among the Hebrews and Their Neighbours, 
London, 1897), Chicago, 1910. 
T. de Cauzons, La Magie et la sorceUerie en 
France, vol. iii., La SorceUerie de la Reforms 
A la Revolution. Les Convents posseULes. La 
Franc-Maconnerie. Le Magn&isme animal, 
Paris, 1911. 

Mark: M. J. Lagrange, fivangile selon saint Marc, 
Paris, 1911 (translation and commentary). 

Marriage: See above, Divorce. 

Marttneau, J.: Prayers in the Congregation and in 
College, London, 1911. 

Mart, Mother of Jesus Christ: See above, 

Mennonites: D. Philipz, Enchiridion; or Hand 
Book of the Christian Doctrine and Religion, 
composed (by the Grace of God) from the Holy 
Scriptures for the Benefit of all Lovers of the 
Truth, Elkhart, Ind., 1910. 

Messiah: E. A. Gordon, Messiah: the Ancestral 
Hope of the Ages, London, 1911. 
E. F. Scott, The Kingdom and the Messiah, 
Edinburgh, 1911. 

Methodists: J. R. Gregory, A History of Method- 
ism, chiefly for the Use of Students, 2 vols., 
London, 1911. 

Miracles: J. M. Thompson, Miracles in the New 
Testament, New York, 1911. 

Missions: J. M. Buckley, Theory and Practice of 
Foreign Missions, New York, 1911. 

S. M. Zwemer, The Unoccupied Mission Fields 
of Africa and Asia, London and New York, 

Also see above, Lutherans. 

Mtthra, Mtthraism: T. Kluge, Der Mithrakult. 
Seine Anfdnge, EntwicHungsgeschichte und 
seine Denkmdler, Leipsic, 1911. 

Moabite Stone: See above, Bennett. 

Moberlt, G.: Miss C. A. E. Moberly, Dulce Domum: 
Georqe Moberly, his Famuy and Friends, 
London, 1911. 

Modernism: The Priest: a Tale of Modernism in 
New England. By the Author of " Letters to 
His Holiness, Pope Pius X," Boston, 1911. 

Moffatt, J.: See above, Biblical Introduction. 

Mohammed: D. B. Macdonald, Aspects of Islam, 
New York, 1911. 
E. Montet, De Vital present et de Vavenir de 
V Islam, Paris, 1911. 

Mormons: C. A. Shook, The True Origin of Mormon 
Polygamy, Mendota, 111., 1911. 

Morrison, R.: J. F. Goucher, Growth of the Mis- 
sionary Concept, chaps, i.-ii., New York, 

Mysticism: E. Underhill. Mysticism: a Study in 
the Nature and Development of Man's Spiritual 
Consciousness, London, 1911. 

Nietzsche, F.: A. R. Orage, Friedrich Nietzsche, 
the Dionysian Spirit of the Age, Chicago, 191 1. 

Non-Conformists: G. L. Turner, Original Records 
of Early Nonconformity under Persecution and 
Indulgence, London, 1911. 

Non-jurors: H. Broxap, A Biography of Thomas 
Deacon, the Manchester Nonjuror, London, 

Occam, William of: F. Kropatscheck, Occam und 
Luther, Gutersloh, 1900. 

Oswald, Saint: A. C. Ghampneys, Saint Oswald, 
London, 1911. 

Palestine: Kate B. Scheuerman, The Holy Land 
as seen through Bible Eyes. Being a Record 
of a Journey through Syria, Palestine and 
Europe in the Years 1908-09, Seattle, 1910. 

L. L. Henson, Researches in Palestine, Boston, 

E. Huntington, Palestine and Its Transforma- 
tion, London and Boston, 1911. 

Paton, J. G.: A. K. Langridge and F. H. L. Paton, 
John G. Paton: Later Years and Farewell. 
A Sequel to John G. Paton, an Autobiography, 
2d ed., New York, 1910. 

Paul the Apostle: R. Bultmann, Der Stil der pau- 
linischen Predigt und die kynisch-stoische Dia- 
tribe, Gottingen, 1910. 

J. R. Cohu, St. Paul in the Light of Modern Re- 
search, New York and London, 1911. 

J. Weiss, Der 1. Korintherbrief. Gottingen, 

T. W. Drury, The Prison-Ministry of St. Paul, 
London, 1911. 

C. H. Dudley, St. Paul's Friendships and his 
Friends, Boston, 1911. 

A. Robertson and A. Plummer, A Critical and 
Exegetical Commentary on the First Epistle cf 
St. Paul to the Corinthians, London, 1911. 


Peace Movements: H. M. Chittenden, War or 
Peace: a Present Duty and a Future Hope, 
Chicago, 1911. 

Pharisees and Sadducees: W. Caspar i, Die Phari- 
sdcr bis an die SchweUe des Neuen Testaments, 
Gross Lichterfelde, 1909. 

Platonism. See above, Hegel. 

Pohle, J.: Dogmatic Theology, vol. L, God, St. 
Louis, 1911. 

Pope, Papacy: Add to bibliography: H. Grisar, 
Geschichte Roms und der Pdpste im Mittelalter, 
Freiburg, 1898 sqq. (to be in 6 vols.), Eng. 
transl., History of Rome and the Popes in the 
Middle Ages, vol. i., London, 1911. 

Pragmatism: L. B. Macdonald, Life in the Making: 
an Approach to Religion through the Method 
of Modern Pragmatism, Boston, 1911. 

Prophecy: O. Procksch, Die kleinen prophetischen 
Schriften vor dem Exil, Stuttgart, 1910. 
Mary A. Taylor, The Historic Meaning of Proph- 
ecy, Cincinnati, 1911. 
H. Wace, Prophecy: Jewish and Christian, 
London and Milwaukee, 1911. 

Protestant Episcopalians: Constitution and 
Canons for the Government of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States of 
America Adopted in General Conventions, 
1789-1910, New York, 1910. 

Pseudepigrapha: J. Viteau, Les Psaumes de Sal- 
omon, Paris, 1910 (with introduction, Greek 
text, translation, and notes). 

Red Cross Society: H. Rundle, With the Red Cross 
in the Franco-German War, A. D., 1870-71. 
Some Reminiscences, London, 1911. 

Reformation: Documents Illustrative of the Conti- 
nental Reformation, ed. B. J. Kidd, London, 

Religion: J. M. Hodgson, Religion: the Quest of 
the Ideal, Edinburgh, 1911. 

Religion, Philosophy op: J. J. Gourd, PhUosophie 
de la religion, Paris, 1910. 

Revelation: G. A. Cooke, The Progress of Revela- 
tion, New York, 1911. 

Revivals: T. B. Kilpatrick, New Testament Evan- 
gelism, New York, 1911. 

Reward: V. Kirchner, Der " Lohn " in der alien 
PhUosophie, im bUrgerlichen Recht, besonders 
im Neuen Testament, Gutersloh, 1908. 

Robinson, J. A.: The Advent Hope in St. Pauls 
Epistles, New York, 1911. 

Roscelinus: F. Pica vet, Roscelin, philosophe et 
theologien, oVapres la legende et d'apres Ihis- 
toire. Sa place dans Ihistoire gfrntrale et com- 
pared des philosophies midUvales, Paris, 1911. 

Rousseau: G. Yalette, Jean Jacques Rousseau 

Genevois, Paris, 1910. 
Russia: M. Tamarati, L'figlise gcorgienne des 
origines jusqu'd nos jours, London, 1910. 

Saints: Hagiographica orientalis. Bibliographic 
des testes hagioaraphiques publUs en arabe, en 
annenien, en eihiopien, en copte et en syriaque, 
Brussels, 1910. 
Vita sanctorum Danorum, ed. M. C. Gertz, part 
2, Copenhagen, 1910. 

Saltation Army: A. M. Nicol, General Booth and 
The Salvation Army, London, 1911. 

Sanday, W. : See Gospel and Gospels. 

Schopenhauer: T. Ruyssen, Schopenhauer, Paris, 

Scotland: G. Anderson, The Scottish Pastor, Edin- 
burgh, 1911. 

Scotland: J. Dowden, The Medieval Church in 
Scotland: its Constitution, Organization and 
Law, New York, 1911. 

Seven Sleepers of Ephesus: P. M. Huber, Die 
Wanderlegende von den sieben Schldfern, 
Leipsic, 1910. 

Slam: Mrs. L. Milne, Shans at Home, London, 1910 
(contains 2 chapters on Shan history and 
literature by W. W. Cochrane). 

Sin: M. L. Burton, The Problem of Evil, Chicago, 

Sinai: M. J. Rendall, Sinai in Spring, London, 

Socialism: C. Noel, Socialism in Church History, 
Milwaukee, 1911. 

Sorcery: V. J. Mansikka, Ueber russische Zauber- 
formeln mil Berucksichtigung der Blut- und 
Verrenkungssegen, Helsingfors, 1910. 

Soteriology: E. Krebs, Der Logos als HeUand im 
ersten Jahrhundert. Ein religions- und dog- 
mengeschichtlicher Beitrag zur Erldsungslehre, 
Freiburg, 1911. 

Soule, J.: H. M. Du Bose, Life of Joshua Soule, 
Nashville, 1911. 

South Sea Islands: W. Churchill, The Polynesian 
Wanderings. Tracks of the Migration deduced 
from an Examination of the Proto-Samoan 
Content of the EfaU and other Languages Of 
Melanesia, Washington, D. C, 1911. 

Spain: G. H. B. Ward, The Truth about Spain, 
New York, 1911. 

Speaking with Tongues: E. Lombard, De la glos- 
solalie chez les premiers chre'tiens et des ph6- 
nomenes similatres, Paris, 1911. 
E. Mosiman, Das Zungenreden, Tubingen, 1911. 

Spiera, F.: Add to bibliography: P. Schaf, Die 
SUnde wider den heiligen Geist . . . nebst 
einen . . . Anhange Hber das Lebensende des 
Francesco Spiera, Halle, 1841. 

Stoicism: V. Arnold, Roman Stoicism, Cambridge, 

Sunday-schools: A. H. McKinney, Practical Peda- 
gogy in the Sunday School, New York and 
London, 1911. 

Symbolism: F. E. Hulme, The History, Principles, 
and Practice of Symbolism in Christian Art, 
6th ed., London, 1911. 

Talmud: Add to bibliography: The most impor- 
tant parts of the Mishnah are edited from 
MSS., translated and explained by H. L. 
Strack as follows, all at Leipsic: Yoma, 1904; 
Abhodha Zara, 1909; Sanhedrin Makkoth, 
1911; Pesahim, 1911; Berakhoth and the 
three Babhoth will appear 1912-13. Add 
also: H. L. Strack, Jesus, die Hdretiker und 
die Christen nach den dltesten jiidischen Anga- 
ben, Leipsic, 1910. 

Tertullian: R. Heinze, TertuUians Apologeticum, 
Leipsic, 1911. 

Theism: G. Wobbermin, Monismus und Mono- 
theismus, Tubingen, 1911. 

Theodoret: Kirchengeschichte, ed. L. Parmentier 
for the Prussian Academy, Leipsic, 1911. 

Thomas Aquinas: P. Conway, Saint Thomas 
Aquinas of the Order of Preachers, 1225-74, 
London, 1911. 

Time, Biblical Reckoning of: F. Westbere, Zur 
neutestamentlichen Chronologie und Golgothas 
Ortlage, Leipsic, 1911. 

Transfiguration: E. Curling, The Transfiguration. 
With other Sermons, London, 1911. 



Adler, H. N.: d. in London July 18, 1911. 

Atterbury, W. W.: d. at Bennington, Vt., Aug. 
6, 1911. 

Bernard, J. H.: Chosen bishop of Ossory, 1911. 

Curtis, E. L. : d. near Rockland, Me., Aug. 26, 1911. 

Dargai E. C: Elected professor of homiletics in 
the Southwestern Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary, Fort Worth, Tex., 1911. 

Devins, J. B.: d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 26, 1911. 

Dunning, A. E. : Retired from the editorial staff of 
The Congregalionalist, 1911. 

Ewald, H. A. P.: d. at Erlangen, Germany, May 
27, 1911. 

Hughes, T. P.: d. at King's Park, Long Island, 
Aug. 8, 1911. 

Inge, W. R. : Became dean of St. Paul's, London, 

Kirn, 0.: d. at Leipsic Aug. 18, 1911. 

Knight, G. T.: d. at Medford, Mass., Sept. 10, 

Moran, P. F.: d. at Sydney, New South Wales, 
Aug. 16, 1911. 

Morgan, G. C: Becomes president of Cheshunt 
College, Cambridge, in 1911, without resign- 
ing his pastoral work. 

Paget, F.: d. in London, England, Aug. 2, 1911. 

Partridge, S. C: Enthroned bishop of Kansas 
City June 27, 1911. 

Pierson, A. T.: d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 2, 1911. 

Power, F. D.: d. at Washington, D. C, June 14, 

Revel, A.: d. at Florence, Italy, Nov. 22, 1888 (see 

vol. x., p. 3). 
Robson, G.: d. at Edinburgh Aug. 2, 1911. 
Simons, W. E.: Succeeded Achelis as professor of 

practical theology at Marburg. 1911. 

Strong, A. H.: Resigned presidency of Rochester 
Theological Seminary to take effect in 1912. 


Yol. i., p. 173, col. 2, line 23 from bottom: Read 
" Ohio " for " 111."; p. 350, col. 2, line 2: 
Read " T. J. Crawford " for " T. G. Craw- 
ford "; p. 352, col. 1, line 37: Read " Trum- 
bull " for " Trumbell." 

Vol. ii., p. 68, col. 1, lines 44 and 47: Read " Greek 
Testament " for " Bible." 

Vol. v., p. 162, col. 1, line 46: Read " Schult* John- 
son " for " Schultz, Johnson." 

Vol. vi., p. 19, col. 1, line 45: Read " Foster " for 
" Forster," and line 19 from bottom read 
14 C. Elliott " for " E. Elliott ": p. 124, col. 
2, line 16: Read " C. J. Ball *' for " C. F. 
Ball "; p. 208, col. 1, line 25: Read " H. R. 
Reynolds " for " R. H. Reynolds "; p. 225, 
line 4 from bottom: Read " 1893 " for 
" 1894 "; p. 227, col. 1, line 13: Read 
"Thomson" for "Thompson"; p. 254, 
col. 1, last line: Read " 410 " for " 140 "; 
p. 267, col. 1, line 26: Read " Albert " for 
u Robert "; p. 345, col. 2, line 4 from bot- 
tom: Read " homiletics " for " polemics," 
and line 3 from bottom: Add " but did not 
accept"; p. 346, col. 1, line 28 from bot- 

tom: Read " Sparks " for " Spark "; p. 486, 
col. 2, line 13: Read " CassePs " for " Cas- 

Vol. vii., j). 378, col. 1, line 5: Read " Birks " for 
" Binks." 

Vol. viii., p. 3, col. 1, line 4: Read " passed " for 
" based "; p. 143, col. 2, signature: Read 
" Odhner " for " Odlmer." 

Vol x., p. 110, col. 1, line 40: Read " Chamier " for 
"Chanier"; p. Ill, col. 2, line 18: Read 
" G. R." for " G. B."; p. 131, col. 1, line 29: 
Read " Felix " for " Filix "; p. 188, col. 1, 
line 22: Read "M. Bristol " for " T. Bris- 
tol "; p. 302, col. 1, line 19 from bottom: 
Read "Balmes" for "Balme"; p. 370, col. 
1, line 21 from bottom: Read " 1887-88" 
for "1899"; p. 401, col. 2, line 16: Read 
" W. R. Greg F ' for " R. W. Gregg "; p. 402, 

col. 1, line 28 from bottom 
York h for " London." 

'regg ; 
: Read 

" New 

Vol. xi., p. 19, col. 2, signature: Read " G. E." for 
" D."; p. 130, col. 2, line 17 from bottom: 
Read " mosaische " for " mos&ische" 


Abbreviations in common use or self-evident are not included here. For additional information con- 
cerning the works listed, see vol. i., pp. viii.-xx., and the appropriate articles in the body of the work. 


. nD jAUgemeine deutsche Biographic, Leipsic, 

ADB 1 1875 sqq., vol. 53, 1907 

Adv adversus, " against " 

i;p ( American Journal of Philology, Balti- 

* jr 1 more. 1880 sqq. 

. ,«, j American Journal of Theology, Chicago, 

AJT 1807 aqq. 

kVX> Arthiv fur katholisches Kirchenrecht, 

AKiS 1 Innsbruck, 1857-61, Mains, 1872 sqq. 

{Archiv fur Litteratur- und Kircheng*- 
ALKO. < schichte dee MiUdaUers, Freiburg, 1885 

I «qq ; 

Am American 

AX£A j Abhandlungen der MUnchener Akademie, 

AMA 1 Munich, 1763 sqq. 

{Ante-Nicene Father*, American edition 
by A. Cleveland doze, 8 vols, and in- 
dex, Buffalo, 1887; vol. ix., ed. Allan 
Mensies, New York, 1807 

Apoc Apocrypha, apocryphal 

Apol Apologia, Apology 

Arab Arabic 

Aram Aramaic 

art article 

Art. 8chmal 8chmalkald Articles 

* an j Acta sanctorum, ed. J. Bolland and others, 

Aau Antwerp, 1643 sqq. 

iC1/ Acta sanctorum oraxnis S. BenedicU, ed. 

ASM 1 J. Mabillon, vols., Paris, 1668-1701 

Asnrr Assyrian 

A. T AUes Testament, " Old Testament " 

Ann. Con Augsburg Confession 

A. V Authorised Version (of the English Bible) 

n-M— ;„ ( J> M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy 

^SSlU, . i and Psychology, 3 vols, m 4, New York, 
Duxumary J 1001-05 

Bardenhewer, j O. Bardenhewer, Oeschichte der aUkirch- 
Geschiehte . . . . } lichen Litteratur, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1002 

Bardenhewer, j O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie, 2d ed., Frei- 
Patrologie 1 burg, 1901 

B--u S ^** ^dionary Historical and Critical of 

Sictionaru _ "J ^ r - Feter Bayle, 2d ed., 5 vols., London, 

Benxinger, j I. Benxinger, Hebraische Archaologie, 2d 

Archaologie. . . I ed., Freiburg, 1007 

(J. Bingham, Origins* ecdesiastica, 10 
< vols., London, 1708-22; new ed., Ox- 

( ford, 1855 

(M. Bouquet, Recueil dee hietoriene dee 
Bouquet, RecueU\ Oaulee et de la France, continued by 

various hands. 23 vols.. Paris. 1738-76 

Archibald Bower, History of the Pope* 

. . . to 1768, continued by S. H. Cox, 

3 vols., Philadelphia, 1845-47 

DDK } Baptist Quarterly Review, Philadelphia, 

as/a I 1867 sqq. 

BRO See Jaffe 

Cant Canticles, Song of Solomon 

cap caput, " chapter " 

p-ii- 4 „*__. ( R. OeUlier, Histoire dee auteur* *acri* et 
Ceitoe* Auteml tccUsiasHques, 16 vols, in 17, Paris, 

"***' I 1858-60 

Chron Chronicon, " Chronicle " 

I Chron- I Chronicles 

II Chron II Chronicles 

s,,sj j Corpus inscriptionum Gracarum, Berlin, 

Cia 1825 sqq. 

s,, T Corpus inscriptionum LaUnarum, Berlin, 

ClL 1863sqq. 

C ja . > Corpus inscriptionum SemiHcarum, Paris, 

eod- codex 

cod. Theod codex Theodosianus 

CoJ Epistle to the Colossians 

col., cols. column, columns 

Conf Confessiones, " Confessions " 

I Car. First Epistle to the Corinthians 

fj Car. Second Epistle to the Corinthians 

COT ^ ee Schrader 

_^_*"" J The Church Quarterly Review, London, 

CQB. •I 1875 sqq. 


Bower, Pope*. 

Corpus reformatorum, begun at Halle, 

CR ■{ 1834, vol. Ixxxix., Berlin and Leipsic, 

1005 sqq. 

ignton, a tixswry oj me fapacy 
from the Great Schism to the Sack of 




fM. Creighton, A History of the Pa 
! from the Great Schism to the Sac 
] Rome, new ed., 6 vols., New York and 
I London, 1807 

l Corpus scriptorum Christianorum oricnta- 
< hum, ed. J. B. Chabot, I. Guidi, and 
( others, Paris and Leipsic, 1003 sqq. 
siqbt jCorpus scriptorum ecdesiasticorum Lati- 

^ ajSL> } norum, Vienna, 1867 sqq. 

noun J Corpus scriptorum histories Byzantines, 40 

LSHB vols., Bonn, 1828-78 

Currier, Religious C. W. Currier, History of Religious Orders, 

Orders 1 New York, 1806 

D Deuteronomist 

Dan Daniel 

J. Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, 4 
vols, and extra vol., Edinburgh and 
New York, 1808-1004 
W. Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary 
of Christian Antiquities, 2 vols., London, 
W. Smith and H. Wace, Dictionary of 
Christian Biography, 4 vols., Boston, 
J. Hastings, J. A. Selbie, and J. C. Lambert, 
A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels, 2 
vols., Edinburgh and New York, 1006- 

Deut Deuteronomy 

De xrir. ill De viris illustrious 

DGQ See Wattenbach 

L. Stephen and S. Lee, Dictionary of 
National Biography, 63 vols, and 
supplement 3 vols., London, 1885-1001 
S. R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature 
of the Old Testament, 10th ed., New 
York, 1010 

E '.Elohist 

T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black, Encydo- 






Driver, Introduc- 


padia Biblica, 4 vols., London and 
t New York. 1800-1003 

Eccl Bcdesia, " Church "; ecdesiasticus, " ec- 
clesiastical " 

Eocles Eoclesiastes 

Ecclus Ecdesiasticus 

ed edition; edidit, " edited by " 

Eph Epistle to the Ephesians 

Epist Epistola, Epistola " Epistle," " Epistles " 

Erach and Gru- ( J. S. Ersch and J. G. Gruber, Augemeine 
ber. Encyklo- 1 Bncyklopadie der Wissenschaften und 
padie ( Kunste, Leipsic, 1818 sqq. 

E. V English versions (of the Bible) 

Ex Exodus 

Esek Esekiel 

faso fasciculus 

Fr French 

tt^^«„u trr% J J. Friedrich, Kirchengeschichte Deutsch- 
*nedncn, XLU . . -j Jand9 2 yo] ^ Bambergf 1867-60 

Gal Epistle to the Galatians 

( P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum ecdesia 

< Catholicm, Regensburg, 1873, and sup- 

' f plement, 1886 

j„ ( H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, Documents 

ay '< Illustrative of English Church History, 

" • [ London, 1806 

Germ German 

mia 3 Qdttingische Gdehrte Ameigen, Gdttingen, 

"^^ ;•] 1824 sqq. 

r«;KK«« n-j;— \ E. Gibbon, History of the Dedine and 
SSVfl^ 1 FaU <>f *»* Roman Empire, ed. J. B. 

ana raU I Bury, 7 vols., London, 1806-1000 

Gk Greek 

( C. Gross, The Sources and Literature of 
Gross, Sources.. < English History . . . to 1485, London, 

I 1000 

Hab Habakkuk 

w.,u.« ««^ f A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, Councils 
K2HL^L«J and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating 
Stubbs, toun-i to ^^ Britain and Ireland, 3 vols., 

**• I Oxford, 1860-78 

Gams, Series 

Gee and Hardy, 


Helen to patristic works on 
heretics. Tectullinn's De — 
the Pros hai ' 

frenssus, the 

Hnrduin, Con- 
Harnaok, Dogma- 


Concilivrum coUeetio regia 

. Harnack. Hilton of Dogma . . . from 
the 3d German edition, 7 vols., Boston, 

a. i> r.-u_ ( A- Harnaok, GetchichU dtr altchrieUichen 

Ha™ok.f*Kera-J LMeTalar ^ Eueebiue, 2 vol.. in 3. 

" r I I*iiwi,, 1893-190* 

uck, Kirchengeechichte Deuttch- 

i, KD . 



, 1906; < 

, 1904; 

IRealenckylopadie far prolrttantiiehe The- 
ologie und Kirch*, founded by J. J. 
Her«on,3d ed. by A. Hauek, Leipeio, 

3. J. TOM Hefek i,C&ncQtonoeKhuJiU, oo 
tinned by J. HergenrOlher, vols. L-v 
_ viii.-ii.. Freiburg. 1883-93 

den und Aon-- 

ffreaationen. . , 

Holyot. Ordres . 

i. 1907 
P. Holyot, HMoirt dee c-ruVes m 

tiauee, religieux et militairti, 8 
Paris, 1714-19; new ed.. 1839-42 

Henderson, Dee- 1 E. F. Henderson, Select Historical Docu- 
umerue 1 merits of the Middle Age- • — '— ■■"» 

Hist History, tailaire, hieteria 

&**•** 1 History' 

Horn HomUia, Aornilini, " homily, bomiliee 

>{the Middle Agee, London, 1892 
11 Church 

Jehvist (Yehwist) 

Journal A tiariirittr, Paris, 1822 eqq. 

A Standard Bible Dictionary, ed. II. W. Ja- 
cobus, . . . E. E. Noarse, . . . and A. C. 
Zenos. New York end London. 1900 

P. JarJe, Bibliotheca rerun Gtrmani- 
carum, 6 vols.. Berlin. 1864-73 

P. Jaffa, Rtgata pontifical ~ 
... ad annum life. 
2d ed., Leipsia, 

Journal of the American unenuu society. 
New Haven 1849 sqq. 

Journal of Biblical Literature and Erege- 
eie, first appeared as Journal of the 
Society of Biblical Litorature and Eze- 
ottie, Middletawn, 1883-88, than Bos- 
ton, 1890 nq. 

The Jevieh Encyclopedia, 12 vols., New 

. Berlin, 

The o 

bined n 

1 the Jehvist 

(Yahwist) and Elohirt 
lavius Josephus, " Antiquities of the 
Against Aplon " 

Josephus, Apian . Flavins Josephus, 

Josephus, life. . . Lite of Flavius Jose] 

Josephus, War... Flavins Josephus, " The Ji 



Julian, Hpm- 

KAT . . 


I JaArfcucAer far proteetantieche Thevlooie, 
  I Leipsia, 1876 sqq. 

J The Jciviih Quarterly Review, London, 

- 1 1888 sqq. 

I Journal of the Royal Aeiatie Society. Lon- 

- 1 don, 1834 sqq. 

I Journal of Theological Studies, London, 
' - 1 1899 sqq. 

. Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology, 
- ^ -' - J - - '—•-■a, 1907 

revised edition, London. 


See Friedricb, Hauek. RettberE 
Weber und FVslts's KirchenUaton, 2d 
ed., by J. HorgonrOther and F. Kaulen, 

. ._-,£?*!__. 

(0. Krufor, Hittaryaf Early Cnrietian 
Krflger, Hietoryi Literature in the Firit Three Centuries, 
I New York,—" 

uv..— h.„i,„ I X. Krumbac — - — - 

Krumbacber, ^ tiniechen Littentur, 2d ed., 
P. Labbe, Socrorum conciliorun 

, Krumbacher, Geechichle der bytai 

Labbe, Concilia 1 anpTiisinia callertio, 31 v 
j and Venioe, 1759-B8 

Lam Lamentations 

, i c. , I J. Laniaan, Ecdeeiaetical History of Ire- 

L *gB B ' ' \ MMsi 13* Century, 4 voli.. Dub- 

Hul .. 

J len inT'-itxanai 
, .The Beptiuurint 

J A. MaL ScriDtorui 
I tscfio. 10 vols., Bx 

Rome. 1825-38 


]>wni "OI.lf-.-i l\ 'iters"; 
Chr,. n . mi,,.. Chnmira minora. " Leeeer 
Chronicles"; Dip.. DifJ. , •„,!(.:. " Di- 
l*nv. l«.--jn.*i.U . f pi; Sf^e- 
tola:, •' Letters "'; Gat. punt. Rom., 

trite 1 

" Books oonoeminc 
Jib Civil and Ecele- 
s in the Eleventh 

and Twelfth Centu,™, ,.„.., „„■ 

eralogia Germania, " Necrology of 
Germany "; Post. Lai, avi Car.. 
Poeta Latini avi Carolini, " Latin 
Poets of the Caroline Time "; Post. 
Lot. mod. mi, Poerat ialini msdii an, 
"Latin Poets of the Middle Ages"; 

rer. Germ.. Scriptoree reruns Germani- 
carum, " Writers on German Sub- 
jects "; Script, rer. Langob,, Seriptaru 
rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum, 
" Writers on Lombard and Italian 
Subjects "; Script, rer. Merov., Scrip- 
lores rerun tferorirwicorum, " Writers 
□ n Merovirmian Subjeets " 

Hi cab 

H. H. Milman, Hittory of Latin Chrie- 
tianity, Including that of the Popee tt 
. . . WicAolos V.,  — '- 

I C. llirbc, QueUen tur Geechichte da Papet- 
Mirfat, QuoIIen. . < turns und dee rotniscAen Kolaeliosaws, 

| TDbingen, 1901 
UEV] j J. P. MiEpe, Patralogia cursus conpicfus, 

Mtv 1 series TSraco, 162 vols,, Paris, 1867-60 

ui! 1 J. P. Migne, Patralogia cursus compietue, 

Mr " } series Lolinee. 221 vols.. Paris, 1844-*4 

Ma., M8S Manuscript, Manuscripts 

Muratori. Scrip- J L. A. Huratori, Rerun Italicarum serin- 
tores 1 tore*, 28 vols.. 1728-61 

I JVsues Archiv der Oeeetttchafl far aucr. 
NA < deuUthe Geechiehtekunde, Hanover, 

in dale of publication 

L. Neander, General Hielory of the Ch< 

lion Roiiainn and CnurcA, vols., t 

indei, Boston, 1872-81 

Nielsen, Papacy . J 
NippoM, Papacy 1 

NKZ | 

Nowack. ArcAo-lwr 

.ork. 1908 

Nippold. The Papacy in the JtfinctccntA 

lentury. New York, 1900 

■a kirchliche Zeifrhrift. Leipeic, 1890 

no place of publics 

INew Tes 

. . . .Obadiah 

1 vols.. New York. 1890-1900 
unent. Novum Tietamentum, 
Teetament, Nouee Teelament 

..Old Testament 


Smith, OTJC. . | * 
Smith, Prop™***.. (' 
Smith. Rtl o/iW 

I London, 1891-1908 
pp , J Poa-c i ocdceue Anolicana. ed. J. A. Gilee, 

™* 1 34 vols.. Loudon. 1838-16 

PEF PaleetiDe Exploration Fund 

I IVt Fint Epistle of Peter 

II Pat Second Epistle of Peter 

IB. Platina, Line of Ike Pone* from . . . 
FUtina, Pop»i. . -{ OreooryVII. to . . . Paul //., 2 voli.. 

' London, n.d. 
Puny, Hial. naf.. .Pliny, Hiitoria narurcdu 
i. ,.h..> IP— .(*• Potlhaet, Bioliolaeeo e-ietorieo medii 
"a"* ff *-< ari. W«n«ie*r durrA die QeedkidU*- 

"*■*•* ) isB-fat. Berlin, 1890 

Pror Proverbe 

p,b'j jPrvceedirue «/ fte Society of Biblical 

raaA , ArdMem, London, 1880 eqq. 

q v.. qq.v. . ...... .CTUod (ouor) vide, " which see " 

n.nb. Pnw I** TOn R* Bl 'e. HMnm of Me Pope), 
Banke, Popee. . . ' 3 Toll LoSgn, igos 

RDM Aexue dee deui mendei, Psiie, 1831 eqq. 

BB See Hauck-Heraog 

Reich, Doev- I E. Reich, Betas! Ooeumenle flluetrafina «•- 

■nb 1 dienal and if odern Hillary. London, 1605 

BKJ . . .Hevue dee etude* iuioei. Paris, 1880 eqq. 

t F. W. Rettberg, JCveAenaeieAidUe DeuteeA- 
' ' \ lantti, 2 vole., Gottingen, 1846-48 
. . .Book of Revelation 

I Rente de I'hiitoin dee religion; Paria, 

I L'.C. RieSiideon, Alphabetical Subject ln- 
i- I lex and Index Encyclopaedia to Period- 
. ] icol Artidee on fieliaitm, 1880-89, Sew 

Richter, Kirch**-) 

. L. Richter, Lthrbuch do. .-.,,.. 
und fmnosIiedUn XircAenrecAU. 
ed. by W. Kmhl. Leipuc, 1880 
. RobinKD, Biblical Reiearchei in 
Palatine. Boston, 1841, and Lota 
BioIicoJ Researches in Paieitine, 3d ed. 

Beard. Modern 

I J, H. 

J K. Bofii 

men. of Modern Europe. 2 

Reading! in Buropean 

vol*., Boston, 1904-08 

 ",. A. Beard, Dtvelcp- 

BTI , I Keene de throleoie ef de philosophic, 
R. V Revieed Vernon (of the English Bible) 

I Siiruiwebtrichle dec Berliner Aibademie. 

I U^rlTn HW> fain 

>. BchsS. .. . 
vole. i.Hv., 

Book, of the Old 
Bibta 1 '), Leip 

.psic, London, end 

R..1..A- n,;.*;™ 1 p - Sehaff, History o/ the Christian Chis-eh, 

octuje. Cfineoanj to1> J-_. ^ ^ New Y ork,I882-92. 

parte, by D. 8. ScbaS. 1907-10 

I r„~l. i p - Behaff, Tie Creed, of Christendom, 

E. Schrader, Cumiiorm /necripfwiu 
fae Old reMomenf, 2 vols., Lon 

Scfander, COT. . 

Btorader KAT l E ' ^ t ^ aa '^ r - &* Ktilintchriften 
Schrader, KB 


E. Schrader, KeilintchrifUiclu. BMiotbtk, 
vols., Berlin. 1889-1001 

E. Schurer. OcerAicftle dee iiidieenen 
FeUee im Zciioller Je.u Cnriefi. 4th ed., 
3 vole., Leipeic lB02gqq.; Enf. tranal., S 

Manchester Aka- 

and Marriage in 

. K, Smitn, rrvpneu OJ Imtl . . . to 

(he Kiehth Centura. London. 189S 

. R. Smith, ReRoion of the Semite*, 

S. P. o. s. 

S. P. G ] 

Sweio," in'tr^duc- V 

Taatcher and 

London, 1864 
Society for the * 

Society tor the Propagation 

in Foreign Parte 

ThT . 

<ete. Introduction to Hit Old Tet- 
„. in GrcrV, London, 1900 

0. J. Thatcher and E. H. UcNeal, A 
Source Book for Mediamil Hieloru. 
New York. 1906 

Fint Epietle to the Tb«ealoniana 

Second Epietle to the TheeeaJoniaa 

Theoloaieche Tijdmchrifl, A ' ' 
Leyden, 1887 eqq. 

L. B. e> Nam de Titleioot 

. . . eecleeiaefiauee dee til premier* 
necUe, 10 vole.. Pari*. 1S93-1712 

Fint Epietle to Timothy 

Second Kpietie to Timothy 

i!887, Freiburg, 1888. Brunewick, 18SS- 
1897, BerUn. 1898 eqq. 

iTneoiDQieche C}uarlaieenri/t, Tubingen. 
1819 eqq. 
J, A. Robineon, Textt and Sludiee, 
Cambridge. 1891 eqq. 

m —■'-' -* ") Soditv of Biblical 

on, 1872 eqq. 

i und KrilAen, 

ArckoMotooil. Lon 
™-'oiecne fliudi. 
{, 1828 aqq. 


Gebhardt i 
B. Ugdfn'ue. 

I vole.. Venice. 1744-69 
. . Velue reetamenlutn, Vitux Tettament, "Old 
TeeUment " 

I W, Wattenbich, Dcultchlandt Gceehichte- 

1 oueUen, Sth ed., 2 vole.. Berlin. 18SS; 

I Sth ed.. 1393-94; 7th ed.. 1904 eqq. 

I J. Wellfaaueen, Rate arnbiichmn Heiden- 
. 1 turn*, Berlin. 1887 

(J. Wellhaueen. Proleoomena ear GcechichU 

i Israeli. 6th ed., Berlin, 1905, Eng. 
' I truul.. Edinburen, ISSfi 

! Zeitichrift for Am/rioloaie. Leipelc, 

) ecAe LtfeTutur. Berlin, 1_ ._ ... 

iZeUtcbrift der deucecnen moracnltirtdiichen 
OaeUichaft. Leipsio, 1847 eqq. 
iZeiUehnft for deuUthe Philohoit, Halle, 
1B69 eqq. 
ZtiUchrift dee dcuUchen PolOitina-Ver- 
eine, Leipeio, 1878 eqq. 

. Zephaniah 

ZetlecWl far die niitoriecAe Tneolooie, 
published successively at Leipaic, 
Hamburg, and Gotha, 1832-75 

ZeUtdirift ftir Kiidungeechiehle, Gotha, 
1878 sqq. 

Zatichrift JUr Kirchenreehl Berlin, To- 

kirchlichei Lehen. Leipaic, li__ __ 
Zatichrift fur die neuleelamenaicbe Wie- 

imnrhalt. (iiessen, 190" 
Zeitichrift fur Proteitanh 


The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew 

K = • or omitted at the 

T = z 

beginning of a word. 

n = t 

3 = b 

B = t 

3 = bh or b 

i = y 

B = g 

3 = k 

J = gh or g 

3 = kh or k 

1 = d 


T = dh or d 

D = m 

H = h 

J = n 

1 = w 

D = s 

P : 







thor t 

The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic 
and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek IB 
written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used. 


When the pronunciation is self-evident the titles are not respelled ; when by mere division and accen- 
tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, and the accented 
syllables indicated. 

iu as in duration 

c = k " " cat 

ch " " cfoirch 

cw = qu as in gueen 

dh (th) " " the 

f " " /ancy 


as in 



n i< 



it It 



tt tt 



II tt 

pen 1 


It tt 




It tt 



tt tt 



tt tt 



tt tt 










































g (hard) " " go 


" loch (Scotch) 

hw (u*) " " u*y 

j " " jaw 

1 In accented syllables only ; In unaccented syllables It approximates the sound of e in over. The letter n, with a dot 
beneath It, Indicates the sound of n as in ink. Nasal n (as in French words) is rendered n. 
* In German and French names a approximates the sound of u in dune. 



SON OF MAN: An expression occurring in the 
four Gospels as referring to Jesus no less than eighty- 
one times, elsewhere in the New Testament in this 
sense only once (Acts vii. 56). In addition to these 
instances, it is found in Dan. vii. 13 and Enoch 
xxxvii.-bnri (cf. Job xxv. 6; Ps. viii. 4; Num. 
xxiii. 19; Ezek. ii. 1 et passim; Rev. xiv. 14). In 
the Gospels this title is associated with Jesus in 
three relations: his earthly life (Mark ii. 10; Luke 
xix. 10), his sufferings (Mark viii. 31), and his sec- 
ond advent (Matt. xxv. 31, xxvi. 64). The obscur- 
ity which veils the origin of the term whether traced 
to the book of Enoch, or to Daniel, or to both, as 
well as the various and contrasting uses of it, has 
given rise to wide diversity of interpretations. 
Among these are: (1) he was man and nothing hu- 
man was foreign to him (F. C. Baur, ZWT, 1860, 
pp. 274 sqq.) ; (2) he is the heavenly ideal man (W. 
Beyschlag, Die Christologie des Neuen Testaments, 
pp. 9 sqq., Berlin, 1866); (3) he is head of the race 
in which type and ideal are realized (V. H. Stanton, 
J with and Christian Messiah, p. 246, New York, 
1886); (4) it indicates a Messiah to whom suffering 
and sympathy are natural, destined to glory through 
suffering (A. B. Bruce, Kingdom of God, p. 176, 
New York, 1889); (5) it calls attention first of all 
to the lowliness of his appearance (H. H. Wendt, 
DieLehreJesu,p. 440, Gflttingen, 1890; Eng. transl., 
Teaching of Jesus, ii. 139, Edinburgh, 1892); (6) as 
man, his glory lies through suffering, as the servant 
of Yahweh (V. Bartlett, Expositor, Dec., 1892, pp. 
427-443), or as in the book of Daniel (R. H. Charles, 
Book of Enoch, Appendix B, Oxford, 1893); (7) a 
contrast is set up between his lowliness and his 
greatness (G. Dalman, Die Worts Jesu, Leipsic, 
1898; Eng. transl., The Words of Jesus, pp. 255 
sqq., Edinburgh, 1902); (8) it contains a veiled 
designation of messiahship (G. B. Stevens, Theol- 
ogy of the New Testament, p. 53, New York, 1899; 
cf. Otto Holtzmann, Life of Jesus, p. 168, London, 
1904); (9) it signifies Jesus' human nature, i.e., 
" man " in general (N. Schmidt, Prophet of Nazareth, 
p. 120, New York, 1905). The expression " son of 
man " means that the kingdom of God, although 
originating in a supersensible world (Dan. vii. 13- 
14), is established among men by one who is ex- 
empted from no position or lot which belongs essen- 
tially to his fellow-men in the purpose of God. If 
by virtue of inner ethical unity with the Father 
Jesus has become aware of his unique vocation as 

XI.— 1 

Messiah, yet he will interpret this consciousness by 
a term which, instead of dissolving the tie between 
him and other men, only discloses the deeper iden- 
tity of ideal aim which belongs to him and them 
alike. C. A. Beckwith. 

Bibliography: The subject is discussed in the principal 
treatises in the life of Jesus Christ, e.g., Keim, and Weiss; 
of course in the commentaries on Daniel and on the Gos- 
pels, some of which contain excursuses on the subject; in 
the works on messianic prophecy (see under Mbssiah, 
Msssianxsm) ; in the commentaries on Enoch (see under 
Psbudepiorapha) ; and in the discussions of Biblical the- 
ology, especially H. J. Holtsmann's, i. 246-264, Freiburg, 
1896. Consult further: C. H. Weisse, Die Evangelienfrage, 
pp. 22 sqq., Leipsio, 1866; F. C. Baur, in ZWT, I860, 
pp. 277 sqq. ; T. Colani, Jesus Christ et lea eroyaneee messian- 
iques, pp. 74 sqq., Strasburg, 1864; W. C. Van Manen, 
in ThT, 1890, p. 544, 1894, pp. 177 sqq.; H. H. Wendt, 
Die LehreJesu, pp. 441 sqq., Gdttingen, 1890; W. Balden- 
sperger, Selbstbewusstsein Jesu, pp. 169 sqq., Strasburg, 
1892; R. H. Charles, Book of Enoch, pp. 312-317, 
Oxford, 1893; J. Wellhausen, JsradiHsche und jQdieche 
Qeschichte, pp. 346 sqq., Berlin, 1895; idem, Skizzen und 
Vorarbeiten, vi. 187 sqq., ib. 1899; H. Lietsmann, Der 
Menschensohn, Tubingen, 1896; idem, in Theologische 
Arbeiten aus dem rheinischen Predigerverein, 1898, part 2, 
pp. 1-14; N. Schmidt, JBL, 1896, pp. 36-53; A. Reville, 
Jesus de Nazareth, ii. 190 sqq., Paris, 1897; G. Dalman, 
Die Worte Jesu, pp. 191 sqq., Leipsic, 1898, Eng. transl.. 
The Words of Jesus, Edinburgh, 1902; Schmiedel, in 
Protestantisehe Monatshefte, 1898, pp. 252-267, 291-308, 
1901, pp. 333 sqq.; J. F. H. Gunkel, in ZWT, 1899, pp. 
581 sqq.; P. Fiebig, Der Menscheneohn, Tubingen, 1901; 
J. Drummond, in JTS, Apr. and July, 1901; G. B. 
Stevens, Teaching of Jesus, pp. 91 sqq.. New York, 1901; 
W. Bouaset, Jesus, New York, 1906; F. Bard, Der Sohn 
des Menschen. Eine Untersuchung uber Begriff und In- 
halt und Absicht solcher Jesubeteichnung, Wismar, 1908; 
E. A. Abbott, The Message of the Son of Man, New York, 
1909; DB, iv. 579-589; EB, iv. 4705-40; DCQ, ii. 659-665. 

SONER, ERNST. See Socinus, Faustus, So- 
cinians, I., § 3. 


The Interpretation; Dramatic Theory (f 1). 
Narrative of the Drama (f 2). 
Objections to this Theory (f 3). 
Syrian Marriage-week Theory (f 4). 
Objections to this Theory (f 5). 
Authorship and Date (f 6). 

The Song of Solomon (Song of Songs, Canticles) 
is the book which follows Ecclesiastes in the arrange- 
ment of the English Bible. The title in Hebrew, 
" Song of Songs which is Solomon's/' conveys the 
idea that it is the noblest of songs, the author 
of which is Solomon. It is clearly a love song, but 
whether to be understood of earthly or spiritual love 

Son? of Solomon 


is the question. Its date is long after Solomon's time. 
Since the time of Herder its unity has been denied 

by many, and it has been regarded as 

x. The In- a collection of love songs. But com- 

terpretation;mentators agree on the principal 

Dramatic characters as being King Solomon, his 

Theory, beloved (a peasant maiden), and 

the daughters [i.e., female residents] 
of Jerusalem. Peculiarities of speech abound from 
beginning to end. And there are characteristic ex- 
pressions which repeat themselves with slight varia- 
tions throughout (cf. ii. 7, iii. 5, viii. 4, and v. 8; 
iii. 6, vi. 10, and viii. 5; ii. 17, iv. 6, and viiii. 14; 
ii. 6, and viiii. 3; i. 2 and iv. 10; ii. 5 and v. 8). 
Many parts are parallels (cf. ii. 8 sqq., iii. 1 sqq., 
and v. 2 sqq.). In view of the many unmistakable 
interrelationships and indications of unity which 
bind the poem together (cf. i. 6 with viii. 12), it 
may be regarded as proved that the parts of the 
poem are well welded together. But since different 
voices are heard in the song and since the scenes 
change, the piece can not be taken as purely lyric; 
it is dramatic poetry, examples of which are found 
also in the Psalms (ii. and xxiv.). But it is neces- 
sary for the understanding of the whole to mark 
off the scenes, to determine the dramatis persona, 
and to apportion the text among them although the 
text contains no express directions for doing this. 
Near to King Solomon stands a celebrated beauty 
who in vi. 13 is called the Shulamite (from the 
village of Shulam, modern Sulam, formerly Shu- 
nem; cf. I Kings i. 3), a maiden from the country 
characterized by a noble grace and unaffected hu- 
mility. According to the older view not only is this 
one honored by the king, but his enraptured pref- 
erence is prized and his affection tenderly returned; 
the newer and till recently dominant conception 
was that she affirms her love for a third person and 
over against the homage of the king sets the praise 
of a simple shepherd of her native heath until finally 
the king yields the field and fidelity conquers. Into 
the mouth of this rival of Solomon's certain parts 
are put, or at least the maiden speaks them as 
though they were the words which he would speak 
were he present. It is evident how differently the 
poem will be construed whether the viewpoint is 
that of a pouring-out of confession of love by two 
united spirits or the contest of two rivals in which 
the simple shepherd gains the victory over the king. 
The last view is held by so weighty authorities 
that it is in the main points to be followed. Ac- 
cording to Ewald and others the following story is 

gained from indications in the poem. 

2. Narrative In one of his journeys to the north of 

of the his kingdom the king had come to the 

Drama, neighborhood of Shulam when some 

in his train found in a nut-garden (vi. 
11-12) an attractive maiden in a condition of de- 
lighted ecstasy. Although somewhat hardly treated 
by her own people and put to guard a vineyard 
near, she displays so rare a grace that the king de- 
sires her for his harem. With this encounter the 
first scene begins (i. 1 sqq.), in which she states that 
she has given her heart to a shepherd of her own 
home to whom she will be true in spite of all the 
allurements of the king and of his surroundings. 

The conflict intensifies in the course of the poem 
as the suit of the king becomes more eager and 
pressing. While he praises her, she answers with 
the eulogies of her beloved. In this elevated state 
of feeling she hopes to see him and to hear his voice 
(ii. 8 sqq., iii. 5, cf . viii. 4) ; in her dreams she seeks 
him in the streets of Jerusalem until she finds him. 
The contest reaches its climax when Solomon makes 
her the offer of his throne. As his queen in due 
right he carries her to his capital, but even this fails 
of its purpose, since her vision returns to her be- 
loved. The king then makes a final attempt to win 
her by the influence of magical words (vi. 4 sqq.). 
But as her longing for home becomes still more irre- 
sistible he renounces her and dismisses her in peace 
to her own possessions. In the last act she arrives 
home with her friends where the bonds of love 
are sealed. The moral of the piece is in vii. 6; love 
is unconquerable, inextinguishable, unpurchasable. 
True love wins the victory. 

It can not be denied that this hypothesis is very 

attractive and avoids many difficulties, putting as 

it does at the close a moral which is drawn from an 

incident portrayed in dramatic colors, 

3. Objec- but perhaps not altogether fictitious, 
tions to in the life of the splendor-loving king. 

this Theory. The moral verity harmoniously ex- 
pressed at the close becomes not un- 
worthy of the higher tone of the canonical books 
generally, even though allegory have almost nothing 
to do with the poem. The firmly-true betrothed 
may as well have her memorial in the Scriptures as 
the virtuous wife. Still on a closer examination 
this understanding of the poem is not altogether un- 
assailable. Decidedly against it is the following cir- 
cumstance: iii. 6 to v. 1 describes precisely the royal 
wedding-day, ending in the royal bridegroom's grat- 
ification in the assured obtaining of all his desires. 
If this wedding, according to the conception of the 
rivalry of the shepherd, must become tragic, while 
not once in this passage does the required impotence 
of love appear, through the last words cf the Shu- 
lamite (iv. 16) the whole finely conceived theory of 
the unwillingness of the shepherd-betrothed to yield 
to the king falls apart. In this section, where the re- 
lations of love find their most concrete form, the 
sponsors for the shepherd theory find no support. 
Decisive appears vii. 11 sqq., where the Shulamite, 
in words impossible to misunderstand, promises 
herself, her person (her own vineyard), fully and 
wholly to Solomon, but only a moderate reward to 
her guardians, her brothers, in which she refers to 
the general custom followed by Solomon. 

Other reflections against the shepherd hypothe- 
sis have only recently been appreciated. The hy- 
pothesis set forth by Herder and others of an un- 
connected anthology of marriage songs 

4. Syrian has been accepted, for example by 
Marriage- Budde and others who find in Wets- 
week stein's communications about the cele- 

Theory. bration of marriage in modern Syria 
the solution of the puzzle. The latter 
published in Bastian's Zeitschri/t far Ethnologie, 
1873, an article on the " Syrian Threshing Floor " 
in which the threshing-floor in the " king's week " 
comes in for discussion. The primitive threshing- 



Song* of Solomon 

implement, consisting of two plain planks bent out- 
ward, is used in the marriage week to make the 
throne upon which bride and groom take their seat 
of honor, as they play for the week the part of king 
and queen, watching the games produced in their 
honor and listening to the songs sung in competition. 
Among these songs is always one which commends 
the beauty of bride and groom, for the composition 
of which they summon the best poet obtainable. 
An especial part is the sword-dance song which the 
bride sings on the evening before the wedding (while 
with a sword she keeps at a distance the groom), 
the rin ging of which gives the company an occasion 
to extol her charms; on the second day the praise 
of the wedded queen is sung with more of reserve. 
On this interpretation it follows that the poem has 
to do with a marriage among peasants in town or 
country in which the bridegroom plays the part of 
king. Just so the Shulamite appears only once, is 
so called with reference to Abigail of Shunem, the 
most beautiful woman in Israel, and is herself the 
most beautiful of women. The sword dance of 
the bride, and particularly the song in praise of the 
betrothed, is discerned in vii. 2 sqq., though it 
should stand at the beginning of the poem; the 
more moderate song to the wedded bride is seen in 
iv. 1-6, that to the spouse in chap. v. The entire 
poem is a collection of songs which have no other 
bond than that they sing of wedded love; more- 
over, they are not arranged in the order in which 
they are employed. Budde discovers not less than 
twenty-three such songs or fragments, while Siegfried 
discovers only ten. 

But not even with this explanation has the last 
word been spoken. That the unity of the whole is 
strongly evident was remarked at the first. The 
form is throughout delicate and refined 
5. Objec- and leaves the productions of the 
tions to threshing-floor poet far in the rear, 
mis Theory. With this delicacy is contrasted the 
simple rusticity of scene in many of 
the parts. The contrast between the court dames 
and the shepherdess appears in chap. i. Different 
is the fact that the Shulamite extols her beloved 
as white and ruddy (v. 10; cf. 14), which, accord- 
ing to Lam. iv. 7, describes his noble rank while she 
herself, according to i. 5-6, can not disavow the 
evidences of her country origin. She nowhere ap- 
pears as queen, a position which is demanded on 
the Budde hypothesis. That the Wetzstein data of 
the marriage-week usages and songs are very serv- 
iceable in the explanation of the Song, Franz De- 
litzsch long ago perceived. He saw in vii. 2 sqq. 
the description of the dancer (but of the sword 
there is here no word) ; while the Hebrew marriage 
festival continued seven days, varied performances 
of a festal character found place without necessita- 
ting a very complete unity, such as the playing of the 
maiden lover, her search on all sides, and her finding of 
happy companionship. Budde's remark may also be 
noticed, to the effect that the Song is a text-book of 
the Paie€ftinian-Israelitic wedding ceremony. But 
this text-book is not a collection of shepherd- and 
peasant-songs, though the most beautiful popular 
*ngs are found therein; it is an art-poem, perhaps 
composed for the celebration of some definite mar- 

riage, the composer of which represented the groom 
as Solomon and the bride as the Shulamite. The 
union of these two were, according to our hypothe- 
sis, set forth, as Delitzsch and Zockler rightly per- 
ceived. So she loves in him not the king, nor does 
she require sensual pleasure nor riches; she seeks 
only to find in him real companionship as though he 
were her brother and friend and of the rank of shep- 
herd as she is herself. Such love is strong as death 
and unpurchasable. If the rural environment is 
looked on rather as poetic adornment than as trust- 
worthy narrative, let iv. 8 have its weight and one 
need not have recourse to Budde's theory of a gloss. 

How the Song is to be understood the last act 
teaches. It is the love of a bride with its longings 
and hopes, its search and discovery, its disillusion- 
ing and surprises, the pure love which as a divine 
spark suffers nothing impure and through its might 
overcomes all earthly obstacles, set forth here in 
rare completeness in the two noblest exemplars the 
author could find. This object is in itself not un- 
worthy of the Bible, all the more that the opposi- 
tion to a simply sensual or sham affection works out 
in the poem. Were there not something lofty and 
mysterious in the love of a bride for her husband, 
it could not elsewhere be used as the picture of the 
holiest relations. The value of the canonical Song 
of Songs becomes noticeable first when one remarks 
the singular worth of the king whom it mentions. 
Solomon was to the consciousness of his times like 
David the anointed of the Lord, the Messiah, who 
stood to the people for the invisible King of kings. 
If now such a king, in the way the poet describes 
as he follows some tradition, seeking a purer and 
holier love than he found in the capital, determined 
to elevate a simple daughter of the people to the 
highest honor, the while she offered him wifely love 
in complete purity, such a marriage would be like 
that of the Messiah sung in Ps. xlv., an achieve- 
ment in the visible kingdom of God, which would 
find itself repeated the oftener among posterity 
the more they learned from the prophets. 

Without difficulty the notion might spring up 

that Solomon was himself the author of this poem 

which deals with himself. Anew in favor of this 

has been adduced the imagery of the 

6. Author- Song, built up out of the plant-world, 

ship and the geographical relations with the 
Date. whole Solomonic kingdom from Leba- 
non to Engedi, the connection with Ps. 
lxxii., attributed to Solomon, the poet of 1,005 songs 
(I Kings v. 12). But the person pictured in the 
poem with the brilliancy of Solomon is evidently a 
matter of poetic interest in one who is removed from 
the poet in time. The vocabulary of the poem is 
individual, the little piece having between fifty and 
sixty hapaxlegomena; if it is pre-exilic, it must be- 
long to the north. Gratz has found little sympathy 
with his idea that the poem displays a knowledge 
of Greek custom and is dependent upon the Idyls of 
Theocritus. Oettli argues for a pre-exilic date, K5nig 
and Strack place it about 500 b.c. Under the shep- 
herd hypothesis the piece would have been lost; 
into the Judaic canon this anti-Solomonic tendency- 
writing could not have come nor Solomonic author- 
ship been attributed to it. Also on the threshing- 



floor hypothesis the lofty designation of the Song 
and the alleeiiriral inl-rprctation are hard to ex- 
plain. How comes it that the scribes did not recog- 
nize this song which on the hypothesis una sung at 
every Palestinian wedding, and that the playing at 
luing king wi* so gro-sly misunderstood, a custom 
which has lasted until modern times? On the ex- 
planation given here the Song has higher claims on 
regard, and the time of its composition is entirely a 
subordinate question. (C. von Orelli.) 

Bibuikiiupbi: On matlem of introduction commit the 
works named in and umln I.vj-iuuiuctioii, espe- 
cially Driver, pp. «fl-453; 1.0. Herder, Lieder der Liebe, 
die aUerlen and ach'msten ana dcirt Morgrntande, Leipaic, 
17TB; E. Cuiuti. Hitt. critique de r interpretation rfu con- 
tujut dri canliifurt. Stniahurg, 18-H; A. L. Newton, TA« 
Song of Solomon Comparttt urith other Parti of Scripture, 
New York, 1807; E. Reran, Li Cantique ''" eamttjtm, 
. . . ovge ttne etude aur le plan, Cage at U ecraetere du 
•pokme, 4th «d„ Paris, 1870; 3. SaHeld, Dai Hoht Lied 
Salomon* bri dm judixhen ErkUrer de* Mittclaltere, Ber- 
lin, 1870; G. Bickell. Comma Vetrrit Tcttomenli, Inns- 
bruck, 1883; J. G. Stickf-I. Raj Hohelied in seiner Einheit 
und dramalitcJim Gliedervna, Berlin, 1888; R. Mnrtineou, 
in American Journal of Philology, 1W0J, pp. WIT-Xl*; \V. 
Riedel. Dit Auelegung dm Hohen Liedt in der jaditchtn 
Gemeinde un/1 der grieehi*elien Kirehe, Leipsic, 1808; DB, 
iv. 680-597; EB. i. 881-005; JE, li. 468-487. 

Commentaries arc: H. Ewald, Gottingcn, 1830; J. C. 
Dopke, Lcipalc, 1839; B. Hind, Zurich. 1810; E. J. 
Magnus. Halle, 1842; F. BotWber, Loipsie, 1850: F. 
DeliUsco, Leipaic, 1851; H. A. Htthn, Brealau. 185Z; 
G. Burrowes. Philadelphia. 1853: E. VI. Hengatenberg. 
Berlin, ls.',:t: 1. (lill. Lfinduu. 1S54; F. Hitiiit, Uipsio, 
1855; C. D. Ginsburg. London, 1857; L. Withington, 
Boston, 1861; J. F. Thrupp, London. 1802; R. F. Little- 
dnle. London. 1809: A. M. Stuart, Philadelphia, IHB9; 
H. Cowlos. New York. 1870; H. Grtta, Vienna. 1871; 
F, C. Cook, in Bible Commmlarg, London, 1874; O. 
Z.VkJiir, in Lunge's ('(iiuincntnry, New York, 1875; B. 
Bchttfor. Mllnator, 1S70; T. Cesser. IJ'.nkrnl.ri.nk, 1S.S1; 
B. J. Kttmpf, 3d od., Prague. 1884; P. Schegg. Munich, 
1885; W. C. Dalnnd, Leonards villo, N. Y., 1888; J. G. 
Btickel, Berlin, 1888: W. E. Griffin. The Litgamong Thorni. 
Boston. 1889; 8. Oetili, Nonlliiir-n. 1889: Le Hir, Paris, 
1890; D. CaatelU, Florence. 1892; M. Rainaford, London, 
1892; R. A. Redford. in Pulpit Commtntarg. New York, 
1893; J. W. Rothatein, Halle. 1893; M. S. Trirv. Cincm- 
nati, 1803: C. Bruaton. 3d ed.. Paris, 1804; E. Reveil- 
laud. Paris, 1895; K. Buddc, Freiburg. 1808; C. Siegfried, 
Gotlingen, 1898; P. Baarta. Nuremberg, 1901; A.Harper, 
In Cambridge BihU. ':™bri-l«c. KMli; V. Zaptetal, Frei- 
burg. 1907; G. C. Martin, in Century Bible. London, IKBi 
P. Haupt, Leipsic. 1008; J. Hontbeim, Freiburg, 1908: 
P. JoQon. Paris, 1909. 

SOHG OF SONGS. See Song or Solomon. 

SOPHROHIDS, so-fr5'ni-us: The name of two 
men of note in the early Church. 

1. A contemporary of Jerome, whom the latter 
describes (De vir. ill., exxxiv., NPNF, 2 set., iii. 
384) as " a man of superlative learning " who wrote 
while a lad a Laudes Bethlehem, and later a book on 
" The Overthrow of Serapis " (i.e., the destruction 
nf the Serapcum in Alexandria in 392). But per- 
haps, his l"'-t title 1 i.i distinction in Jerome's eyes 
was his translation into Greek of certain works by 
the latter, viz., De mrginilate, Vila Hilarion, and of 
Jerome's rendering of [In- Psalter and the Prophets. 
The translation of the Vita was published by A. 
Papailopulos-Kerameusin Anakkta IfirrrnnJiiniiUh'n 

tttttehiakgw, v. 8*2-136 (St. Petersburg, 1898). 
Recently Sophromuis has been held to be (he author 
of the fJreek translation of Jerome's De vir. ill., this 
upon the authority of Erasmus, for which further 
authority fails. The translation in question be- 

longs perhaps to the period between the sixth or 
seventh and the ninth century. 

2. The sophist and patriarch of Jerusalem; b. at 
Damascus; d. in 638, his day in the Greek Church 
being March 11. He tolls at the close of his pane- 
gyric of St. Cyrus and St. John of his origin at 
Damascus of parents known as Plynthas and Myro. 
He was a monk. His birth year has been guessed 
as 650, in which case he must have been eighty or 
eighty-five when he became patriarch — not impoast- 
bl>\ indeed, but unlikely, considering Ma activity. 
His learning must have been noteworthy, his title 
of " sophist " referring to bis lectures on rhetoric. 
He was in Egypt in 579, but was not then a monk, 
entering the cloister on his return in 580, making 
that his home for thirty years, though leaving it for 
journeys through Palestine in company with John 
Moschus. During the lifetime of the Patriarch 
Eulogiua (d. 607) the two friends visited Alexandria 
again, coming into close relations with Eulogiua and 
with his successor, Johannes Elcemon (q.v.). There 
Sophronius was attacked with a disease of the eyes, 
the cure of which be attributed to the saints Cyrus 
and John. During the stay there, lasting ten yearn, 
news came of the capture of Jerusalem by the Per- 
sians in 614, which led Soplironiua to compose an 
ode of lamentation. Soon after the friends went to 
Rome, where Moschus wrote the Pralum vpiritunU, 
which he dedicated to his companion. There Mos- 
chus died, and Sophronius carried his body back 
to Palestine probably in 619 (not 634), after which 
he reentered the monastery. In 633 he was again 
in Alexandria to treat with the Patriarch Cyrus 
against union with the Apollinarians (see Mono- 
theutes); failing in his mission there he went to 
Constantinople, where he fared no belter; in fi34 he 
was made patriarch of Jerusalem, a reward for his 
activities against monothelitism and monergism 
In his inaugural, he dealt with the doctrinal con- 
tost, and called attention to the danger from the 
Saracens. He lived to see the assault on Jerusalem 
and fell into the hands of Omar, probably at the 
In L^riiiim: of 638, and soon after died, probably an 
exceedingly aged man. 

The uncertainty whether Sophronius the sophist 
and Sophroniua the patriarch are the same person 
appears also in considering his writings, though they 
furnish s! rung urs'i'iU'nts for the identity, c.-pi-eially 
in the rhythmic law of the double dactylic close 
which appears in the writings. Yet this was a com- 
mon practise and the argument is not conclusive. 
So the Anacreontic odes appear to belong to the 
sophist, and one from the time of the patriarchate 
is not yet known. Of the prose works may be named 
such hagiographic writings as (1) the Laudet in SS. 
Cyrum el Johannem (MPG, lxjcxvii. 3, cols. 3379- 
:tfi"fO, the saints to whom Sophronius attributed 
relief from the trouble with his eyes; it falls into 
two parts, the encomium and a narrative of seventy 
miracles by the saints, and was written before 615. 
(2) The life of Johannes Eleemon, prabahly a joint 
composition of Sophronius and Moschus, completed 
by the former after the death nf the latter; it is no 
longer extant, but probably Sime.m Me! aphrastes 
copied it in the first chapters of his Vita, (3) Vita 
Maria Mgypisx (MPG, ut sup,, cole. 3697-3726) 


Ron* of & 

is attributed to him on account of a notice in the 
Munich manuscript, but John of Damascus does 
not name the author and its authorship is disputed 
also on internal grounds. (4) Acta martyrii Anaa- 
taria Persia is ascribed in a Florentine manuscript 
to George of Pisidia and printed in his works {MPQ, 
xcii. 1680-1829), but by Usener is attributed to 
Soplironiua on the basis of the Berlin manuscript 
Phill. 1458. (5) According to Papodopulos-Kcr- 
ameus (Hierosolymtiikl Bibliothlke, iv. 162-163, St. 
Petersburg, 1899) a life of the Four Evangelists is to 
be ascribed to Sophronius. (6) The Pratum Spir- 
itual of Moschus was possibly revised or edited by 
Sophronius, to whom tradition ascribed it. In 
MPG (ut sup.), cols. 3201-3364, appear eight (or 
nine) orations, to which A. Papadopulos-Kcrameus 
(in AnaUeta, ut sup., v. 151-168) adds a tenth. Of 
dogmatic works may be noted the Epistola synodica 
{MPG, ut sup., cols. 3147-3200), two fragments on 
confession of sins and the baptism of the apostles 
(cols. 3365-72) and one on a decision of Basil of 
Cxsarea (cols. 4011-12); and possibly a collection 
of about 600 sayings of the Fathers; a " Dogmatic 
Discourse on Faith" (cf. Papadopulos-Kerameus, 
BibtiothUd, ii. 403, ut sup.). The prayer still re- 
cited on Epiphany in the Greek Church (MPG, ut 
sup., 4001-04) is carried back to Sophronius. 

In the history of Greek church poetry the Ana- 
creontic odes ascribed to Sophronius are very cele- 
brated; many critics, indeed, compare them with 
the products of the golden age of Greek literature. 
With this valuation Krumbacher totally disagrees, 
but his harshly unfavorable decision (Getchichte, p. 
672) is not well supported. Many of the poems have 
a warm, appealing, and personal note, together with 
a certain independence in the choice of poetic 
figures. Twenty-two odes are to be found in MPG 
(ut sup., cols. 3725-3838), and some of them appear 
in various reprints and anthologies. The first thir- 
teen arose in the period of his first stay in the mon- 
astery, the rest either during his wanderings or dur- 
ing his second monastic period. Sophronius also 
wrote occasional poems. 

The foregoing discussion assumes the identity of 
Sophronius the patriarch and Sophronius the soph- 
ist. This identity has been disputed. The problems 
are better settled by assuming the identity than by 
assuming two personalities, and tradition supports 
this, especially as represented by John of Damascus 
[MPG, jeoiv. 1280, 1316, 1336) and Johannes Zonaras 
(" Life of Sophronius," in Papadopulos-Kerameus, 
Analeeta, ut sup., v. 137-151). A final decision 
must be awaited until a final critical edition of the 
works appears. (G. KnttcEH.) 

Buuajurn: On 1: O. WesiUd. ia TV, liii. 3 (1B05I 
0. von Gebbnrdt, la TV, xiv. 1 (1898); M. Sohnni. G«- 
•Mditt dtr rvmuchm l.iiitralur. iv. 407-108, 448-440, 
Munich, 1904; DCS. iv. 718; Ceillier, Autevrt i 
vl 278-270. vii. 553. 595; KL, jo*. 519-520. 

On 2 consult: John of Dunmcus, MPQ, miv. 
!3I6. 1338; Photius. in MPQ, ciii. 068; EusUthi 
Hud. Concilia, xiii. 60; KnimWher, OmJiicAt 
1.1* «jq. et pawim; Fabrieiiu-Hnriea. BMioOuca < 
it 102-149. Hamburg, 1804; A. Mil, Spicilwiut 

— 'Ii E. Boovy, 

Gelier, in Bittoritent Ztifchrifl, In (1883), 4; Man, 
Lconiioi' von Nwpelia Ltbcn det haligcn Johanna da 
Barmhrrtioca. pp. 117-120, Freiburg, 1803; W. M.v. r. lln 
akzeniuierte Satetchlu** in der QTitthiit:.hrn ProMi Tom 4- bit 

Vita Sopkromi, in A. PapBdopulos-Kernmnu, Analtrta, 
v. 137-151. St. Peterahuns. 18S1K; rf. VailhiS in Siw dt 
CorUnl chrtlien, vii (10IWJ, 3HH-3S5. viii H'.m.n. .ij-iw. 
350-387 CuivM list of earlier literature); DCU, iv. 719- 
721; KL, xi. 510-619. 

S0RB0HBE, sor'ben: A school at Paris, founded 
in 1254 by Robert do Sorbon (1201-70), canou of 
Notre Daiuo and confessor and counselor of Louis; 
IX., for poor theological students, am! later domi- 
nating not only the theological faculty, but also 
the entire University of Paris. Primarily designed 
for those who were unable to pay the high prices 

demanded for board and lodging, and 

Foundation to instruct those who were not in sym- 

and pathy with the scholastic subtleties 

Organiza- propounded in the other schools, as 

tion, well as with the added design of having 

the teachers reside in the same house 
as their pupils, the ^"Hniiine w;u established in I ho. 
Rue Coupe-Gorge, opposite the baths of the Em- 
peror Julian. Robert himself made a small endow- 
ment for his foundation, winch later received many 
augmentations, although he earnestly desired that 
thy institution might never become rich. The mem- 
bers of the Sorbonne were not bound by t ntltjfl 

rules, and its regulations, formulated by Robert 
after eighteen years of testing, remained almost un- 
changed until the Revolution. According to these 
IWtlllMliMM, published at Paris in 1740 under the 
title Discipline Sorbona damns, there were three 
classes of members of the Sorbonne: MM (" fel- 
lows "), who were not bound to residence within 
it.-; precincts; Im-ititrx (" guests "), chiefly priest? liv- 
ing in the house; and benefirtarii (" beneficiaries"), 
who were either poor French aspirants for the min- 
istry receiving free maintenance while preparing for 
the priesthood, or well-to-do foreign students who, 
on payment, might reside there for several months. 
The socii and hospitca formed the majority. The 
I utter m ere admitted (inly after a rigid examination 
in character and theology, and no one could liecoiue 
a sortus unless he had l«en a hunpes for several 
years, the new tortus likewise pledging himself in 
the chapel of the Sorbonne to obey all the regula- 
tions and never to enter a monastic order. The 
hoapitea and sorti, both those who enjoyed free resi- 
dence and those who paid (the charge originally 
being three sous weekly, later increased to six), ate 
at the same table and liar! I lie .same rights, the house 
providing bread and wine, although other food had 
to be purchased. When a hoapet received his licen- 
tiate in theology, he gave place to another. No one 
was permitted to remain longer than ten years, al- 
though the title of socius Sorbonic was inalienalrlc. 
The oIlicrT.s were elected by the ruemlicrs. the term 
being for one year, except in the case of the presi- 
dent (provisor), who had control of discipline. The 
prior kept the keys and directed the studies and 
^animations, the librarian hail charge of the books, 
and the censor drew up the reports of the council. 
There was also a standing committee, composed of 
the oldest sorti elected from each " nation " (cf. 


Sorcery and Soothsaying 



Universities) which supervised the moral condi- 
tions of the Sorbonne, as well as a finance commit- 
tee and a committee to supervise the clergy. The 
tocii met in general assembly four times annually. 

Robert de Sorbon sought not only to furnish 
shelter for poor clerks, but also to provide thorough 
theological instruction for them, the mornings being 
devoted to Old-Testament exegesis and the after- 
noons to the interpretation of the New Testament. 
For two centuries the teachers were chosen from 
the former socii or hospites, nor was it 
Courses of until 1532 that a legacy rendered pos- 
Study. sible the foundation of a paid lecture- 
ship. Between 1577 and 1625 six other 
chairs were established, and later still teachers were 
drawn from other colleges of the university, while 
as early as 1270 Robert de Sorbon, recognizing that 
students of divinity should first have a good liter- 
ary and philosophical training, established, as an 
annex to the Sorbonne, the College de Calvi for this 
purpose. In the Sorbonne itself the course was 
threefold: reading and interpretation of the Bible 
and of the maxims of the Church Fathers, disputa- 
tions, and preaching. The exegetical exercises were 
held twice daily, each student being required to write 
a summary of the main points presented; the dis- 
putations, upon some theme previously announced, 
took place between two students each Sunday, a 
80cius being the presiding officer; but preaching 
seems to have received little attention. A most im- 
portant part of the Sorbonne was its library, founded 
by Robert and enriched with manuscripts by Guiard 
d* Abbeville, while in 1469 the prior of the Sorbonne, 
acting in harmony with the rector of the university, 
established the first printing-press in France, whence 
the Bible of 1478 was issued. 

The Sorbonne furnished the leaders of the Uni- 
versity of Paris who, in the fifteenth century, de- 
manded the reform of the Church by a general coun- 
cil; but in the following century the institution 
became hostile to the new spirit, cen- 
History. suring the writings of Erasmus and 
Faber Stapulensis, and condemning the 
works of Luther and Melanchthon. In the seven- 
teenth century it was the leader of Roman Cathol- 
icism in France, and such prelates as Richelieu, 
Mazarin, De Retz, and De Noailles considered it a 
distinction to be elected provisor of the Sorbonne. 
Richelieu in particular manifested affection for the 
institution, taking one of its hospites for his confes- 
sor, completely rebuilding it, and desiring to be 
buried in its chapel. A century later the Sorbonne 
defended the new spirit of the times, but in 1791 
the Convention decreed the suppression of the 
" priests of the Sorbonne," although the 160 socii 
were unmolested, and even Revolutionary vandal- 
ism spared the chapel with its tomb of Richelieu. 
When, after the concordat, Napoleon organized the 
University of France (1808), he established at the 
Sorbonne a faculty of Roman Catholic theology, to 
which the Bourbons added the faculties of letters 
and sciences, the whole organization bearing the 
name of Sorbonne. Since, however, Leo XIII. re- 
fused the institution canonical recognition, it be- 
came useless for the education of the higher clergy, 
and it was accordingly suppressed by the Chamber 

of Deputies in 1885. Since that year the Sorbonne 
has been entirely rebuilt (1889), and by reorganisa- 
tion it now forms part of the University of Paris. 

(G. Bonet-Maubt.) 

Bibliography: C. E. Bulsus, Hist. UniversitaUs Parisensis, 
6 vols., Paris, 1665-73, Continuation (by C. Jourdam), 
ib. 1862-64; T. I. Duvemet, Hist, de la Sorbonne, Park, 
1790; A. MoreUet, Memoir es, 2d ed., Paris, 1822; C. 
Jourdain, Index chariarum pertinenHum ad hist. Untver* 
sitatis Parisensis, Paris, 1862; A. Franklin, La Sorbonne, 
See origines et ea bibliotheque, 2d ed., Paris, 1875; M. 
Jadart, Robert de Sorbon, Reims, 1880; H. Denifle, Docu- 
ments retatifs a la fondation et aux premiere temps de Tuni- 
versiU, Paris, 1883; G. Bonet- Maury, in Vie ehrUienne, 
Ntmes, 1884; E. Menc, La Sorbonne et eon fondateur, 
Reims, 1888; O. Greard, Nos adieux a la vieiUe Sorbonne, 
Paris, 1893; P. Feret, La FaeulU de thSologie de Paris, 
8 vols., Paris, 1894-1905; H. Rashdall, The Universities 
of Europe in the Middle Ages, 2 vols., Oxford, 1895; H. 
Calhiat, Lee Grandee Figures chretiennes de la Sorbonne em 
xix. sieele, Paris, 1896; L. Delisle, in Journal dee savants, 
Paris, 1898; Claudin, in Bulletin dee bibliophiles, 1898; 
P. Alary, L'Imprimerie au xvi. sieele, fitienne Dolet et see 
luttee centre la Sorbonne, Paris, 1898; Q. CSompayre, Abe- 
lard and the Origin and Early Hist, of Universities, pp. 156, 
205, 300, Now York, 1899; H. P. Nenot, Monographie de 
la nouveUe Sorbonne, Paris, 1903; Schaff, Christian Chunk, 
v. 1, p. 572. 


Description and Extent (f 1). 
Among Primitive Races (f 2). 
Among Civilised Peoples (f 3). 
Among Hebrews (f 4). 
In the Christian Church (f 5). 

By sorcery as viewed by Christians is meant an 
employment of demonic power in the service of men, 
and it is therefore regarded as a gross sin against 
God because the Christian should trust in God alone. 
Christian conceptions thus square with 
x. Descrip- those of the Old and the New Testa- 
tion and ment. Among polytheistic religions the 
Extent phases of sorcery are many and varied, 
and a definition sufficiently comprehen- 
sive is difficult to give. Its operations neither depend 
upon competent physical experiences nor do they 
rest upon ethical mediation ; it is arbitrary meddling 
of men with supernatural or at least secret powers. 
As a rule sorcery deals with spirits — personal powers 
of the unseen world, whence is the connection with 
religion. The sorcerer works through word, look, 
gesture, and varied operations such as the tying of 
knots, the giving of drinks and concoctions, behind 
which a profounder meaning and connection lie 
hidden. One precondition for the rise of belief in 
sorcery is the existence of a realm of unexplained 
and inexplicable phenomena; the larger this is, the 
more room there is for sorcery, so that the latter 
reigns in the lowest culture. Moreover, there must 
be a trust in man's ability to accomplish such works 
in unison with higher powers. Animism and poly- 
demonism are the native homes of sorcery, mono- 
theism and ethics make against it. The relation to 
religion depends upon the conception of religion; 
some regard sorcery as an evidence of religion and 
a tendency of religious life, others as a conscious 
alienation from deity. Some members of the an- 
thropological school regard it as the first stage in 
religious development, deriving prayer from sorcery 
or avertive exercises. The lowest races show, how- 
ever, a sense of dependence upon the unseen; their 
attitude is not one of command entirely. Sorcery 



Sorcery and Soothsaying 

is a later phenomenon in development, is allied to 
Magic (q.v.), is found alongside of religion, but in it 
religion itself is not to be found. Indeed, sorcery 
tends to drown out religion or to drive it into the 
background; the more meager religion is, the more 
luxuriant are the parasitic growths of sorcery. Yet 
it is a fact that the sorcerer or Shaman (q.v.) often 
seeks power through a loftily conceived divinity re- 
garded as good, aiming to subject lower and ill-dis- 
posed spirits. Magic is sorcery technically developed. 
Among races of the lower order there is often a 
science of secrets to which only the consecrated are 
admitted. Sorcery also has relations with Divination 
(q.v.), and the professions of sorcerer and diviner 
are often plied by the same person, who claims to 
have insight into the unseen and to be able to con- 
trol more or less the course of events. 

Among primitive peoples, then, sorcery is espe- 
cially at home. Ignorance of nature leads to the 
belief in the possibility of supernatural operations 
in the sphere of man. The sorcerer covers himself 
with a veil of secrecy, speaks in dark figures, per- 
forms acts that are outre 1 , thus giving 
2. Among the impression of secret power and in- 
Primitive scrutable doings. The results expected 
Races. from the exercise of these activities 
cover the field of man's needs and de- 
sires; moreover, evil spirits are warded off or con- 
ciliated, the cooj>3ration of good spirits is gained. 
There are sorcerers and counter-sorcerers; the dan- 
gerous exerciser of these powers must be mastered 
by a more powerful one. The method is not to sub- 
ject oneself to the will of God, as in true religion, 
but magic works as a concurrent with religion, and 
is thus irreligious and irrational. It is regarded in 
two ways — as a serious crime, when it produces 
damage; and as a high art when it averts injury and 
brings a blessing. To the user it seems not at all 
wrong to injure an enemy by sorcery, though it is 
a crime to use it against a friend or blood brother. 
Among the vicious means of sorcery, as regarded by 
the most varied peoples, is the evil eye, which is be- 
lieved by many to be able to affect with illness and 
death those on whom it is cast, while the possessors 
are supposed, as in Africa, to meet in the desert to 
counsel how they shall effect their purposes. So the 
suspicion regarding vampires as the cause of death 
and illness is a concomitant of sorcery. From this 
" illegitimate " use of these means is distinguished 
a " legitimate " method, which takes especially the 
form of protecting from evil powers and the increase 
of the natural good of man in life — well-being, fruit- 
fulness, and possessions — having the ability to ward 
off evil spirits. Charms and potions are employed, 
which, however, require for their proper use the ad- 
vice of the expert. In pestilences and epidemics 
the counsel of these experts is needed to define the 
causes, and in case of guilt to determine the blame. 
Thus a connection is made with soothsaying and 
the deliverance of oracles, while the Ordeal (q.v.) 
is under the guardianship of this branch in the 
preparation of potions. Through these means the 
sorcerers in some regions, as in Africa, wield enor- 
mous power and influence, especially as sickness is 
regarded as the work of demons, whose work must 
be undone through the counter-sorcerer or the medi- 

cine man. One of the means employed by this class 
is the word of power, which binds to or looses from 
evil, and this word only the sorcerer knows and can 
turn to a hundred uses. The formula is usually an 
unintelligible or irrational expression, the names 
of divine and demonic powers being included and 
their assistance invoked. At times the effigy of the 
person to whom evil is to be done is treated as the 
person himself is expected to suffer [after the man- 
ner of sympathetic magic; see Comparative Re- 
ligion, VI., 1, a, § 5; other methods of using magic 
are described in that place]. The formula used has 
often a similarity to prayer, but it is utterly with- 
out ethical relations and has in mind the arbitrary 
will of the sorcerer, not submission to deity. A sim- 
ilar difference exists between prophecy and sooth- 
saying; prophecy depends upon the will of God, 
soothsaying contemplates man's self-chosen pur- 
poses and employs not inspiration but certain means 
of attaining its ends, such as the Lot (q.v.), the in- 
terpretation of various natural phenomena, and the 
like, a set of rules being formulated to this purpose. 
The spirits of the dead are also evoked. See also 

Sorcery appears also as a custom of the civilized 
peoples of antiquity, and shows a great tenacity of 
persistence even in connection with a grade of cul- 
ture with which it is not in harmony. In course of 
time sorcery becomes a complicated art, and its 
bonds are dissolved only by the ad- 
3. Among vance of thought, as when magic in 
Civilized illness gives way to medicine, astrol- 
Peoples. ogy to astronomy, and the like, though 
superstitious practises persist with real 
advance in knowledge (see Superstition). There 
seems to remain a feeling that external and cor- 
poreal affairs are governed by the unseen, and irra- 
tional elements and practises abide, even in partial 
connection with religion. This is especially true of 
peoples like the Chinese, among whom a certain 
stage of civilization has been reached with a result- 
ing stagnation. The religion of early people had 
magical elements and therein showed their heathen 
character. The relation to deity is not purely re- 
ligious, but is influenced by external factors. Thus, 
in Babylonia (q.v.) while such literature as the 
" penitential psalms " shows high ethical conscious- 
ness and a realization of sin and of repentance, the 
usages reveal magic practises, burning of spices, and 
the like. So in Egypt (q.v.), the " Book of the 
Dead " contains a chapter dealing with purity of 
heart and conscience as the essential condition of 
happiness after death, yet the most of the book is 
taken up with directions of magical character di- 
recting the soul in its course. Similarly Zoroas- 
trianism (see Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism) is full 
of ethical truths, yet magical conceptions abound 
and Ahura Mazda comes to earth to act as priest of 
sorcery. Similar facts meet one in India. As among 
primitive peoples, so among the more advanced 
exists the idea of an illegitimate sorcery, which is a 
crime. Thus the Twelve Tables of the Roman law 
contained enactments against these practises, as 
did the Cornelian law against assassins and poison- 
ers; the possession of books on magic was a crime 
[cf. for a strong passage the sixth satire of Juvenal]. 

Sorcery and Soothsaying 




Apuleius stood trial for witchcraft about 150 a.d., 
and Constantinian and Justinian legislation dealt 
with it. 

The Hebrew religion took strong ground against 

sorcery from the beginning, though residuary traces 

from the former heathenism or reintroduction from 

surrounding sources occurred and had 

4. Among to be combated. The Hebrew word 

Hebrews, keseph, which forms the basis of the 
common terms for sorcery, etc., in 
Hebrew has its Assyrian cognate, and its occurrence 
in the feminine indicates that women were the chief 
practisers ef the art. Death was the penalty for 
the crime (Lev. zx. 27; I Sam. xxviii. 9, cf. xv. 
23), it being a sin which ranks with idolatry. Pas- 
sages like Isa. ii. 6 show the reimportation of the 
practise from the East and from Philistia; but the 
prophets inveigh against the degradation of the 
worship of Yahweh into a spirit cult. The height 
of prophetic religion was not maintained among the 
people, especially under Assyrian influence sorcery 
resumed an unwonted sway; and after monothe- 
ism had come to its own, magical remainders and 
superstition furnished a background of demonic 
powers among which the imagination worked. 
Especially was belief in demons rife in the post- 
exilic period, though their place was that of sub- 
jection, not of equality with God, and did not affect 
the doctrine of his unity; the name of God was in- 
voked as an avertive power. Yet this very fact 
was employed magically, the name of God and of 
the archangels, particularly the tetragrammaton, 
being used both orally and written and regarded 
as a powerful charm. So people fell into sorcery 
almost unconsciously, these means being used as a 
sort of holy magic to oppose the unholy magic of 
other kinds of sorcery. The Talmud treats often of 
the sorcerers referred to in the Old Testament, in- 
terpreting their names generally arbitrarily; its 
general spirit is that of condemnation; though the 
methods of sorcery were to be studied, the better 
to combat them. Some of the great rabbis received 
instruction in the art, while men generally accepted 
sorcery as a fact; still the true Israelite was re- 
garded as so under the protection of God that the 
art was powerless against him. The Cabala (q.v.) 
contributed to the degradation of religion from this 
source, as is so often the case with mystic Supersti- 
tion (q.v.). The Haggada and Midrashic references 
to the superstition of the people are numerous, and 
around the person of Solomon stories gathered with 
reference to his mastery of the demons, whose help 
in building, e.g., he compelled. These legends were 
taken over by Islam, where the same general posi- 
tion with regard to sorcery obtained as in Judaism. 
Mohammedan missionaries often sell sentences from 
the Koran as amulets, and indeed the entire book 
serves such a purpose to those who can not read it, 
being regarded as an avertive of evil and a means 
to insure good fortune. 

Christianity from its beginning has been no less 
uncompromisingly opposed to sorcery than Juda- 
ism; it has regarded these practises as a turning 
away from God and as dealing with ungodly powers. 
Jesus was himself suspected of using sorcery (Mark 
iii. 22; Luke xi. 15, etc.), to which aspersion he re- 1 

plied by showing that this would be dividing the 
kingdom of evil against itself. The exorcists of 
Ephesus used the name of Jesus in their 
5. In the work. The episode of Simon (Acts 
Christian viii. 9 sqq.) is instructive, while not 
Church, less illustrative of the common estima- 
tion is the episode of Elymas in Cyprus 
(Acts xiii.), who received the rebuke of Paul and 
severe punishment. A center of heathen sorcery 
at that time was Ephesus, where amulets with an 
ambiguous inscription and a representation of 
Diana were sold, and one of the triumphs of Chris- 
tianity was the burning of costly books dealing with 
the art (Acts xix. 19). Distinction was made then 
between the wonder-working of the apostles and or- 
dinary magic (II Cor. xii. 12), though- that might be 
misunderstood as simple magic (Acts v. 15, xix. 12) 
and the real connection lost, the conception passing 
to the shadow and the napkins, etc., from the per- 
sons of the apostles. So on the confines of Chris- 
tianity belief in magic showed itself in the material- 
izing of the means of grace after heathen-magical 
methods of thought, in the magical use of " the 
word of power " and like ceremonies. Of course, a 
more spiritual and more nearly religious conception 
inheres in Christian surroundings, the divine powers 
being supposed to work under ethical conditions. 
The Christian ritual and cultus were affected by the 
magical remains which inhered in the life of the 
peoples converted to this faith or which came in 
through contact with heathen peoples, though such 
ideas were always attacked by the Church. In the 
early Church, Gnosticism was a breeding-point for 
these conceptions and practises. In the Middle Ages 
the belief in witches had its rise in the old German 
faith in spirits. Even those who combated the 
effects of this heathen heritage showed themselves 
under the spell of surviving superstitions, and the 
inquisitors manifested more of gruesome zeal than 
of wisdom in their measures. These errors were 
due, however, rather to the condition of the natural, 
mental, and juristic sciences than to theology. New 
forms constantly arise, an example of which is Spirit- 
ism (q.v.), in which direct opposition to Biblical 
commands is discernible. Another example of this 
same class of novelties is the so-called crystal-ga- 
zing, while the various phenomena of spiritualism, 
hypnotism, somnambulism, and the like illustrate 
the older sorcery in its connection with soothsaying 
(see Magic). Hardly less dangerous are the phe- 
nomena of suggestion, even in its relation to the 
medical profession, though it is brought into con- 
nection with the Bible and prayer. These illustra- 
tions show that danger of lapse into sorcery is not 
altogether a thing of the past. See Superstition. 

(C. von Orelli.) 

Bibliography: Much of the literature under Comparative 
Religion; Magic; Shamanism; .Superstition; and 
Witchcraft will be found pertinent. Consult further: 
W. Mannhart, Zauberglaube und Oeheimwi**en im Spiegel 
der Jahrhunderte, Leipaic, 1890; J. Diesenbach, Be*e**en- 
heit, Zauberei und Hexenfabeln, Frankfort, 1893; F. Dela- 
croix, Lee Prod* de eorcellerie au xviii. tiecle, Paris, 1894; 
J. Regnault. La Sorcellerie, Paris, 1897; T. Witton Da vies, 
Magic, Divination, and Demonology among the Hebrew* 
and their Neighbour*, Edinburgh, 1898; E. Pauls, Zau- 
berweeen und Hexenwahn am Niederrhein, Dusseldorf, 
1898; I. Bertrand, La Sorcellerie, Paris, 1899; E. Gilbert, 

RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA §St28oi<£? Sooth " yln « 

La Plant— maainuet et la wtiM, Moulin*. 1890; J. N. 
Sepp. Orient vnd Occident: Kapitet «i*r der Nacheeite der 
Xalur Zauberaerk and Hatiucatn in alter und neurr Zeil, 
Berlin. 1903; E. Crawley, Tho Tree of Life, pp. M. 70, 
263-254, London, 1306; L. R. Fundi, Evolution of Re- 
ligion, Loudon, 1005; H. A. Junod, The Theory of Wucn- 
emft among* South African Nation, Cape Town, 1007; 
A. Abt. Die Apologie da Aputcjut von Madaura und die 
antike ZoiArrti, Owiaen, 1908; A. Bertholet, Religione- 
fachiehtlicha LeicLuch, pp. 150 aqq.. Tubingen, 1008; 
W. Catnnd, Altinditche Zauberei. Darittltung der altindi- 
tchm Wnntchopfer, Amsterdam, 1908: K, Frank, Paby- 
lonWhe Brtthvt/rungfrtlirfi. Leipeie. 1008; J. E. Harriaon, 
Prolegomena la the Study of Greek Religion, 2d ed., Com- 
bridce, 1008 (contain* much on avertive procedural; T. 
Schrrmnnn, Griechieche Zaubcrpapyri und doe Grmeinde- 
und Dankgebnt im /. Ktrmenebriefe, Lcipuic. 1900; I. King, 
The Development of Religion. A Study in Anthropology 
and Social Peytnolagy, New York, 1910. 

(Lat., "Lota of the apostles" or "saints"): A 
means of foretelling the future by opening tin liilile 
at random, the passage on which the eye first lights 
being taken as an admonition of the deity in regard 
to the problem prompting such means of divination. 
The term is probably derived from tho Vulgate of 
Acts i. 26 and Col. i. 12, and the usage is wide- 
spread, pagan Rome thus consulting Vergil, Islam 
the Koran, and China the sayings of Confucius. 
While rejecting divination with pagan writings, the 
Christians employed the Bible for this purpose (cf. 
Augustine's account of his conversion. Coji/essiones, 
MIL, Jrii. 29-30, Eng. transl. in NPNF, 1 ser., i. 
127-128). despite the disapproval of Church Fathers 
(cf. Augustine, Eptil., Iv. 37, Eng. transl. in NPNF, 
1 ser., i. 315; Jerome on Jonah i.}. It became espe- 
cially prevalent in tho days of Gregory of Tours 
(Hilt. FraniXTum, iv. 16, v. 14, 49), although it was 
forbidden by the synods of Vannea(4fio), Agde (506), 
Orleans (511), and Auxerre (between 570 and 590), 
as well as by Gregory the Great {Eptil., ix. 204, xi. 
33). The Carnlingian legislation against the iortet 
apotlclontm (cf. MGH, Leg., sectio iii., part I, p. 
64) was reenforced, partly on the basis of Lev. six. 
26, by the prohibitions of the Church, yet the sys- 
tem had official sanction in determining the charac- 
ter of bishops elect (cf. e.g., William of Miilmesbury, 
Gala pontifieum Anglorum,}. 214, 219, etc.). Greek 
monks made a similar use of " The Sayings of the 
Fathers " while the humanists returned to Vergil. 

There were a number of minor ways of consulting 
the Bortes apostohrrum, and in the later Middle Ages 
lot-books circulated throughout Christendom. In 
more recent times Pietism especially affected di- 
vination by the Bible; and it is still practised in 
many places. (Cf. also Divination, III.; Lots, 
Hebrew Use of.) <E. von DobschOtx.) 

uibucxibsjb"t: Beaidea the literature under Diyinxtiox. 
consult. H. Winnefeld. Sorta Sangallenta, Bonn, 1887; 
P. Camel. Wiihnachtat; Ureprungr, Brouchr, und Alter- 
ohuben. Berlin, 1882: F, Rorquain. La Sara Aa aainii ou 
da apotra, pp. 457 oaq., Paris. 1SB0; R, Heim, Incanta- 
menta magiea Grava-Latina. Leipaic. 1803: 3. ft. Harria, 
m AnuriamJovrnato/ I'hilalvji,. iv. ,W; idem, in Journal 
of Theological Studiee. ii. 1 , 
of Coda Baa. pp. 45 aqq. 

SOTER, so'ter: Pope c. 166-174. According to 
Hegesippus (in Eusebius, Hist, ecd., IV., xxii.) and 
Irenteus (Ha*., III., in. 3) Soter was successor of 
Anieetus, but the papal lists make him follow Pius. 
Euscbius (Hist, ecd., IV., xix.) makes his episcc- 

a. 7-8; idem, The t 

pate reach from the ninth to the seventeenth year 
of Marcus Aurelius; the " Liberian Catalogue " 
gives him a pontificate of nine years, three months, 
and two days; Li psi us assigns as his dates 166 (167) - 
174 (175). A fragment of a letter from the Corin- 
thian Dionysius (in Eusebius, Hut. eccl., IV., xxiii ) 
makes Soter revive an old custom and send a 
hortatory letter to the < lorinihiaiis which Harnack 
identifies with the so-called II Clement. A late 
tradition makes Soter one of the earliest writing 
opponents of Montanism. (A. Hadcjc.) 

Bihuoorafht: Liber pontijlcalii. ed. Monunsen in MGH, 
Oeet. pant. Rom., i (1898). 10; Jaffc, Regeeta, i. 9; R. A. 
Lipsius, Chronologic der rt'tninchen Biech'-ft, p. Mi. Kiel, 
1889; J. Lang™, GetrMehte der rtnittium Kirchc. i. 17,2 
aqq.; T. Zahn, in Foriehungen inr Getchichte da neutee- 
lamentlichen Xanana, v. fil aqq„ Lcipeic, 1802; Hamaclc, 
Lilteratur, i. 589, Ii, 1, pp. 440 aqq.: idem, in TV, xiii 
(1805). 48-40: Bower, Popte, i. 14: Platina. Popa. i. 31- 
32; DCS, iv. 721-722. 



:i. Mt .ii 


:.-, I'hris 

e Prophetical 

r7ork (f 

onement (i 4 

™ti,.„ (i 51. 


j. Chris 

» Kingly Offic 

i (1 8). 



Soteriology is that branch of Christian theology 
which treats of the work of the Savior; it is the doc- 
trine of salvation, so far as such salvation has been 
wrought out by the second person in the Trinity. 
It is to be carefully distinguished from Chri-iiiln^v 

(q.v.), which treats solely of the per- 

i. Definl- Bon of the Redeemer — his incarnation. 

tion. his divinity, and his humanity, and 

tho combination of I ht"-c two elements 
in hie single and perfect personality. Yet il ihcnjld 
be borne in mind always, that any adequate con- 
ception of his soteriological work must be baaed on 
right views, antecedently obtained and oMilHIlilWll. 
respecting the Christ as he is in himself— the ap- 
pointed and qualified savior of men. Soteriology 
does not include the concurrent work of the Son of 
God in other spheres, such aa creation, or providence, 

nr moral admiuistrul inti. Nur dues it include those 
aspects of salvation which involve, on the one side, 
tfae ili'itivc purpose and love of the Father, or, on 
the other, the interior ministry of the Spirit in the 
application of saving grace. While tho Son is con- 
cerned with the lather in the original plan of re- 
demption and in the selection of those in whom that 
plan becomes effectual (see Phkpksti nation), his 
specific work lies rather in the execution of that 
plan, and in the actual securing "f redemption to 
all who believe. While, again, the Sim is concerned 
with the Holy Spirit in the conviction of sinners, 
and in bringing them, through regeneration and 
-aricnliration, into the full enjoyment of the salva- 
tion provided (see Holy Si'ikit), his primary work 
is rather the provision itself on which, as a divine 
foundation, this subsequent work of spiritual resto- 
ration must be based. The Father creates, pre- 
serves, governs, plans, elects, as introductory; the 
Spirit i.-:ilii;liU-n.-, ciiueiit'.-.-. sanr/tilies, ami completes 
the saving process in the individual soul; the Son, 
acting as intermediate, represents, reveals, instructs, 
atones for sin, placates law, and lays a foundation 




in justice, whereby, under an economy of grace, 
every one who believes in him, the Father and the 
Spirit concurring, may be saved. 

The most general conception of this specific work 
of the Son of God is expressed in the term media- 
tion (see Mediator). His peculiar mission is to 

interpose, in the temper of grace and 

a. Relation for the purpose of both forensic and 

to Media- spiritual reconciliation, between man 

tion. as a sinner, and the Deity against whom 

man has offended, with whom he is 
morally at variance. As a mediator, the Son of 
God, who was also the Son of Man (qq.v.), was amply 
qualified, both by inherent endowment and through 
official appointment; and in his work of mediation, 
he is actually successful in removing alienation, 
in restoring the lost harmony between God and the 
sinner, and in securing to man a complete and blessed 
and eternal at-one-ment with his heavenly Father. 
This generic work of mediation is generally de- 
scribed by Calvinistic theologians under the three 
specific forms indicated in the terms prophet, priest, 
and king (see Jesus Christ, Threefold Office of). 
It has been questioned whether this distribution is 
in all respects desirable; whether, by the division 
of the one work into these three parts or offices, 
our sense of the essential unity of that work is not 
impaired; and whether the underlying idea of me- 
diation is not weakened by such multiplicity of 
particular functions and relations (J. J. van Oos- 
terzee, Christian Dogmatics, § cviii., New York, 1874). 
Is this central idea adequately expressed in these 
three forms? Do they contain neither more nor less 
than the underlying conception? And, where the 
distribution is made, are these three offices always 
kept in their proportionate place, and severally in- 
vested with their proper dignity and value in the 
one mediatorial work? Whatever answer may be 
given to these questions on exegetical or specula- 
tive grounds, there is no adequate reason for reject- 
ing an analytic presentation which has gained such 
definite expression in current evangelical creeds 
(Heidelberg Catechism, Ans. 31 ; Westminister Con- 
fession, chap, viii.) and has been so extensively 
adopted as a regulative guide in modern theology. 

Studying soteriology in this triple aspect, there 
appears first the prophetic function of the Savior, 
as including that entire revelation of saving truth 

which he, as the divine Logos, came 

3. Relation among men to make. All religious, 

to Christ's and especially all inspired, teachers 

Prophetical who were prior to him as revealers of 

Work. sacred doctrine or duty, were only 

messengers to prepare the way before 
him; and all who followed after had it as their mis- 
sion simply to elucidate and expand what he taught. 
Christ was the one perfect Logos, in virtue both of 
his eternal relationship within the Trinity (see Trin- 
ity) and of his specific appointment as the Word 
of the Godhead to man. In him resided all the qual- 
ifications requisite to the complete fulfilment of this 
prophetical work, and from him came in highest 
form, and with most commanding power, all the 
truth which man needs to know in order to his sal- 
vation. This prophetical function may be subdi- 
vided into direct and indirect — direct teaching 

through the formal enunciation of saving truths, 
and indirect teaching through the superadded power 
of example and personality. Christ, as teacher and 
prophet, becomes an enduring pattern also. In 
himself, as well as in his message, was light; and 
the light was the life of men. It may be queried, 
whether, in consequence of the strong inclination 
of Evangelical Protestantism to exalt the priestly 
work of our Lord as central, this prophetical mis- 
sion has not been relatively too much ignored, and, 
more specifically, whether the Biblical view of him 
as the true norm and example of our humanity has 
not been surrendered too much to the uses of those 
who altogether reject his priestly character and 

Concerning this priestly function, it is needless 
to repeat what has been said elsewhere (see Atone- 
ment; Calvinism, § 5; Jesus Christ, Threefold 
Office of; Priest, Priesthood; Sacrifice). 
The essential fact in the case is the voluntary and 
vicarious surrender of himself by our Lord as a sac- 
rifice before God for sinners, on account of their sin, 
and in order to expiate sin, and to secure the recon- 
ciliation and restoration of man as sinful to God. 
As a sacrifice, Christ was inherently and judicially 
perfect, a lamb without blemish and without spot; 
as a priest, he was in every way qualified for the 
sacrificial work in which he was thus engaged; and 
his administration of the priestly office was volun- 
tary, official, and acceptable. In him both the 
Aaronic priesthood and the peculiar priesthood of 
Melchi8edec were singularly blended. He was, in 
his own person, the absolute culmination of the 
priestly as well as the prophetic order and idea. As 
priest and as sacrifice he was perfect. 

That this vicarious intervention and offering of 
himself in behalf of sinners and for sin was an essen- 
tial part of the mediatorial work of the Savior, is 
too clearly revealed in Scripture to be 
4. Relation questioned by any who receive its tes- 
te the timony in the case as conclusive. The 
Atonement exigencies of that moral government 
against which the sinner had rebelled, 
the requisitions of justice as an eternal principle in 
the Deity, and the needs of the soul itself in order 
to its spiritual recovery, alike required — as the Bible 
in multiplied ways asserts — such a sacrifice of him- 
self, even unto death, on the part of the Redeemer. 
Without this, mediation would have been both in- 
admissible and ineffectual (see Satisfaction. For 
differing views on the nature and the extent of the 
atonement see Atonement). Whatever may be the 
views of believers as to either the nature or the 
extent and scope of this sacrificial work of Christ, 
all are agreed in regarding the fact itself as both 
unquestionable and vital. That the Lord suffered 
as well as taught, and that he suffered on account 
of sin and in order to save men from it, and that 
through his suffering men are actually saved from 
both the condemnation and the power of evil, and 
that this salvation is immediate and certain, and 
will be complete at last — these are the great facts 
of grace which lie at the basis of the Evangelical 
system, and which constitute the foundation of all 
Evangelical hope. 

Justification (q.v.) is the divine act of pardoning 




sin, and accepting sinners as if they were righteous, 

on the ground generically of all that Christ has done 

in the munus triplex of mediation, and 

5. Relation specifically on the ground of what he 
to Justifi- has suffered as well as done in our be- 

cation, half as our great high priest and sacri- 
fice. To accept the sinner as if he were 
righteous, and to adopt him (see Adoption) into 
the family of God, and make him an heir of spiritual 
privileges and blessings, without requiring from 
him repentance, and return to loyalty, as conditions, 
and with no provision for his deliverance from the 
legal penalties incurred by his sin, would be an un- 
worthy transaction. The only adequate warrant 
for such acceptance and adoption must be found, 
not in any worthiness inherent in the nature of 
man or any merit seen in his life, nor even in his 
faith and repentance viewed as concomitants or 
consequences, but in the mediatorial, and especially 
in the sacrificial, work of Christ. 

The kingly office of the Savior is a necessary ele- 
ment in his broad work of mediation. He is king 
because he has been prophet and priest; he is also 
king inherently, as divine. His king- 

6. Relation dom commences in the believing heart, 
to Christ's and is essentially spiritual: it is an 

Kingly authority exercised in love, and for 
Office, the purpose of salvation. His church, 

as composed of those who have thus 
submitted to him personally, is his gracious empire; 
and over that empire he is the supreme head, every- 
where and always. This kingdom was founded by 
him before his earthly advent; it has been extended 
through many lands and centuries by his grace and 
power; it will continue to increase, through the 
agency of the forces now incorporated in it, until it 
has filled the earth. The notion, that, as a kingdom 
of love, it will ere long be supplanted by a kingdom 
of power, in which Christ will visibly appear as an 
earthly monarch, subduing his enemies by irresisti- 
ble strength, and exalting his saints with him to a 
species of temporal domination (see Millennium, 
Millenarianism), is at variance with the truth. 
Beyond this earthly empire of the Lord as already 
defined, may be discerned his princely exaltation 
even now, at the right hand of the Father, to be ad- 
vocate and intercessor for his people. This advo- 
cacy and intercession are to continue until all who 
are his are finally brought together with him into 
what is literally the kingdom of heaven. 

Returning from this survey of the specific func- 
tions or offices of Christ to the underlying idea of 

mediation, in one view may be com- 

7. Summary, prehended the full doctrine of salva- 

tion as wrought out by him in behalf 
of man. There is indeed a subjective soteriology, 
which includes especially the work wrought within 
the soul of man by the Savior through his spirit, and 
which is expressed in the terms regeneration and 
sanctification. But objective soteriology, which is 
here under consideration, is summed up rather in the 
triple phrase of Aquinas— Chriatus legislator, eacerdos, 
rex. To the Protestant mind it is pictured forth es- 
sentially in the term justification, which, equally with 
regeneration and sanctification, shows wherein the 
divine salvation consists. E. D. Morris. 

Bibliography: The place of the topic in systematic theo'- 
ogy is discussed in G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hunt, Theo- 
logical Encyclopedia and Methodology, pp. 455-457, New 
York, 1894; and in A. Cave, Introduction to Theology* con- 
sult Index under " Salvation, Doctrine of," Edinburgh, 
1896. The subject hardly needs a separate bibliography, 
being a topic treated in practically all works on systematic 
theology (see Dogma, Dogmatics; e.g., Shedd, ii. 353- 
587. iii. 400-470; Hodge, ii. 455-608), which usually pro- 
vide abundant references to literature. Moreover, relevant 
literature is noted under the articles to which reference 
is made in the text, especially under Atonkmxnt, and 

SOTO, sfi'tG, DOMINGO DE : Spanish Dominican ; 
b. at Segovia (45 m. n.w. of Madrid) 1494; d. at 
Salamanca Nov. 15, 1560. Educated, after a youth 
of poverty which obliged him to begin as a sacristan 
in the village of Ochando, at Alcala and Paris, he 
became, in 1520, professor of philosophy at the 
former university, gaining a reputation as an op- 
ponent of nominalism. At this same period he also 
began his commentaries on Aristotle's " Dialectics " 
(Salamanca, 1544), " Physics " (1545), and " Cate- 
gories " (Venice, 1583), as well as the preparation 
of his own SummulcB (Salamanca, 152J, abridged ed., 
1539 and often). Determining to embrace the mo- 
nastic life, he entered the Dominican order at Burgos 
in 1524, being professed in the following year and 
taking the name Domingo instead of his baptismal 
Francisco. He now taught philosophy and theology 
at Burgos until 1532, when he returned to Sala- 
manca as professor of scholastic philosophy. He 
was an important figure at the Council of Trent, 
where he maintained that the Roman Catholic 
Church did not teach assurance of grace, likewise 
defending Thomistic teachings regarding the doc- 
trines of original sin, justification, predestination, 
good works, etc., these controversies also bearing 
fruit in his -De natura et gratia libri tree (Venice, 
1547) and Apologia . . . de certitudine gratia (1547). 
When, in 1547, the council was transferred to Bo- 
logna, de Soto returned to the court of Charles V., 
who made him his confessor, and in 1549 appointed 
him to the bishopric of Segovia. Not only was the 
latter honor declined, but in 1550 de Soto resigned 
his post of confessor and retired to the monastery 
at Salamanca, where he became prior. About this 
time he wrote his anti-Protestant Commentarii in 
epistolam Pauli ad Romanos (Antwerp, 1550), and 
he also sought to allay the controversy between 
Sepulveda and Las Casas regarding the treatment 
of the American aborigines. In 1552 he resumed 
teaching at Salamanca, but in 1556 he returned to 
his monastery and was again chosen prior. His 
chief works, besides those already mentioned, were 
De ratione tegendi et detegendi secretum (Salamanca, 
1551); De juetitia et jure libri septem (1556); In 
quartum librum Sententiarum commentaria, sive de 
8acramenti8 (2 vols., 1557-60) ; and the still unedited 
De ratione promtdgandi Evangelium and In primam 
partem Sancti Thome* et in utramque secundam com- 
mentarii. (O. ZoCKLERf.) 

Bibliography: N. Antraius, Btbliotheca Hirpania, i. 255- 
258, Rome, 1672; J. Quetif and J. fichard, Scriptores or* 
dinia pradicatorum, ii. 171 sqq., Paris, 1721; N. Paulus, 
D. Soto und die Beichte in NUrnberg, in Der Katholik, 
1899, i. 282-288; G. Hoffmann. Die Lehre von der Fide* 
implicita innerhaJb der katholiechen Kirche, pp. 227-230, 
Leipsic, 1903; KL, zi. 530-531. 


Soul and Spirit 



SOTO, PETRUS DE: Spanish Dominican; b. 
at Cordova about 1500; d. at Trent Apr. 20, 1563. 
He entered the Dominican order at Salamanca in 
1518 and quickly attained a reputation as a rigid 
and learned Thomist. Charles V. made him his 
confessor, but his order appointed him vicar for the 
Netherlands, and later he became professor of the- 
ology at the newly founded seminary of Dillingen, 
where he wrote his catechetical InsHtutiones Chris- 
tiana (Augsburg, 1548), Methodus confessionis, sive 
doctrines pietatisque Christiana epitome (Dillingen, 
1553), Compendium doctrine* Catholica (Antwerp, 
1556), and Tractatus de institutions sacerdotum qui 
sub episcopis animarum curam gerunt, sive manuals 
dericorum (Dillingen, 1558), the latter his chief 
work. His AsserUo Catholicw fidei circa articulos 
confessionis (Antwerp, 1552) involved him in a con- 
troversy with Johann Brens (q.v.), thus occasion- 
ing his Defensio CathoHccs confessionia et scholiorum 
circa confessionem (1557). De Soto later accom- 
panied Philip II. to England, where Mary appointed 
him professor of theology at Oxford, but on the 
queen's death in 1558 he returned to Dillingen. In 
1561 Pius IV. summoned him to Trent, where he 
bravely defended the sacramental nature of the 
priesthood and episcopal rights, but died before the 
council adjourned. (O. ZOcKLERf.) 

Bibliography: J. Quetif and J. fechard, Scriptore* ordini* 
pradicatorum, ii. 183 sqq., Paris, 1721; KL, xi. 631-632. 


Biblical Terms (| 1). 

Distinction Between Soul and Spirit (I 2). 

Pauline Doctrine (i 3). 

Spirit, Divine and Human (f 4). 

Origin of Soul and Spirit (I 6). 

Consequences of Sin (| 6). 

on Personality of Jesus (| 7). 

" Spirit " — in classical Greek, pneuma, like the 
Hebr. ruah— denotes not merely the breath as sym- 
bol of life but also life itself in distinction from 
sOma. The soul (Goth, saiwala, Hebr. nephesh, Gk. 
psychl, Lat. anima) signifies in general the life as it 

animates the individual material or- 

z. Biblical ganism which is the medium of its 

Terms, action. Both spirit and soul are applied 

to man (Job x. 12; Ps. xxxii. 2; 
Ecek. xxxvii. 8; cf. with Gen. xlvi. 15, Ex. i. 5), 
and also to animals (Eccl. iii. 19 sqq.; Gen. vi. 17, 
vii. 15, 22; Ps. civ. 30; Gen. i. 20, 30; Job. xii. 10; 
Rev. viii. 9). The animal nephesh is identical with 
the animal body. " Spirit " indicates that the crea- 
ture originates in and is bound to God (Ps. civ. 29; 
Job. xxxiv. 14 sqq.; Ezek. xxxvii. 5, 9, 10; Rev. 
xi. 1 1) . The Old but not the New Testament speaks 
of the nephesh of God (Lev. xxvi. 11; Judges x. 16; 
Isa. xlii. 1). Soul and spirit are sometimes used 
synonymously (cf. Gen. xlv. 27 with Ps. cxix. 175; 
I Sam. xxx. 12 with I Kings xvii. 21, 22; Ps. cxlvi. 
4 with Gen. xxx v. 18). The Septuagint never trans- 
lates nephesh by pneuma, ruah very rarely by psychi 
(cf. Gen. xli. 8; Ex. xxxv. 21). Soma and pneuma 
(cf . I Cor. vii. 34) are opposed to each other as are 
sarx and pneuma; not sarx but sOma is opposed to 
psychi, hence sarx and pneuma, soma and psychi 
are the proper opposites; pneuma and psyche' are 
interrelated as are sarx and soma. Soul and spirit 

are not seldom sharply distinguished — not merely 
in point of view (Wendt). (1) Dying is a giving 
up of the pneuma and of the psychs, but it is never 
said that the spirit, but only that the soul, dies or 
is killed (Judges xvi. 16; Matt. x. 28; Mark xiv. 
34). (2) Pneuma and psychi are often used inter- 
changeably with reference to sensation and impulse, 
knowledge and self-consciousness (Matt. xi. 29; 
I Cor. xvi. 18; Luke i. 46, 47), but only the soul is 
the subject of willing and desire, inclination and 
aversion (Deut. xii. 20; I Sam. ii. 16; Job xxiii. 
13; Prov. xxi. 10; Isa. xxvi. 8; Micah vii. 1), and 
of redemption (Isa. xxx viii. 17; Matt. xvi. 26; cf., 
however, I Cor. v. 5; I Pet. iv. 6). Consciousness, 
perception, and willing are indeed ordinarily re- 
ferred to the heart, but when the emphasis is to be 
laid on the hidden state to which these feelings be- 
long, soul and spirit are used (see Heabt, Biblical 
Usage). (3) The dead are designated as spirits 
(Luke xxiv. 37, 39; Acts xxiii. 8-9; Heb. xii. 23; 
I Pet. iii. 19; cf. : however, Rev. vi. 9). (4) Most 
important of all, nephesh and psychi refer to the in- 
dividual, the subject of life, while ruah and pneuma 
are never used of the subject as individual. 

As an independent subject, pneuma is always 
something other than the human spirit. The dis- 
tinction depends on the original difference in terms: 
spirit is the condition, soul the mani- 
2. Distinc- festation, of life. Whatever belongs 
tion Between to the spirit belongs to the soul also, 

Soul and but not everything that belongs to the 
Spirit soul belongs to the spirit. It does not 
suffice to speak of the inner being of 
man, now as spirit, now as soul; one must regard 
the spirit .as the principle of the soul, the divine 
principle of life, included in but not identical with 
the individual. Spirit may be distinguished but 
not separated from the soul. Body and spirit are 
not two poles between which is the soul. Since the 
soul includes the spirit as part of itself, it may be 
called spirit. The soul may sin and die, but the 
spirit, as a divine principle having its source in God, 
can neither sin nor die. The human soul is indeed 
bound to corporeality, yet it survives death because 
it possesses the Spirit of God as its immanent prin- 
ciple of life. The loss of the body caused by death 
will in those who share in the consummation give 
place to a redeemed corporeality (I Cor. xv. 42 sqq.; 
Rev. vi. 9). The occasion for a distinction between 
soul and spirit lies in the religious consciousness of 
the difference between the actual man and his di- 
vine destination (cf . Plato's distinction between a 
rational and an irrational, a mortal and an immor- 
tal division (E. Zeller, Plato and the Older Academy, 
pp. 413 sqq., London, 1888). To understand this 
one has but to see the meaning of the spirit for man, 
and the relation of the human spirit to the Spirit of 
God. The Spirit of God is indeed wherever life is, 
but man possesses this in a unique degree (Gen. i. 
26-27, ii. 19-20; cf. Eccles. iii. 19-21), since he 
alone is conscious of dependence upon God. And 
it is the Spirit of God in him — the principle of his 
true life — which gives him his special relation to 
other creatures and to God and provides the foun- 
dation for his consciousness and will. 

Here then arises the question whether the Spirit 




Soul and Spirit 

of God is an immanence of God (cf. John xiv. 23; 
Rom. viii. 9 sqq.; J. C. K. Hofmann, Weissagung 
und ErfaUung, i. 17 sqq., Nordlingen, 1841), or a 
created spirit (cf. Job xxxii. 8, xxxiii. 
3. Pauline 4). According to the New Testament, 
Doctrine, the Holy Spirit which dwells in be- 
lievers is always distinguished from the 
spirit of the believer (cf. Rom. viii. 16). Two views 
of the Pauline psychology are: (1) That Paul knows 
no pneuma of the natural man (Holsten, Weiss, 
Holtzmann) ; (2) that he knows such a pneuma, but 
not as divine or related to God (Ludermann, Pflei- 
derer). The Scriptures, however, leave the question 
of the relation of the human spirit to the Spirit of 
God unanswered. Holsten's view rests on a dual- 
istic conception of the opposition of the flesh and 
spirit (see Flesh), as the opposition of the finite 
and infinite, where spirit is identical with the in- 
finite. But the Pauline doctrine of pneuma is that 
of a divine principle of life, related to the human 
spirit. Ludermann and Pfleiderer abandon Hol- 
sten's position and recognize a Pauline pneuma tou 
anihrdpou, but their theory is neither clearer nor 
more acceptable. Ludermann conceives of the 
pneuma as a substantial subject for the nous, not 
to be interchanged with the psychi; no substance 
is, however, supposable which is not identical with 
some human power. Pfleiderer admits that Paul 
knows of a pneuma alongside of the sarx (Paulinis- 
mue, 3d ed., p. 215). He appears to regard the 
pneuma as the general divine spirit of life — the Old 
Testament nephesh, identical with the psychi. But 
when he conceives it as the indifferent substratum 
both of the nous and of the sarx, without relation to 
God, he is at odds with the apostle. According to 
Weiss, God recognises no pneuma which belongs to 
man by nature, for he always thinks of the psychi 
as in immediate unity with the sarx, hence the psychi 
can not be the bearer of a bodily life independent of 
the higher spiritual life. H. J. Holtzmann (Lehr- 
buch der neuiestmaendichen Theologie, ii. 15 sqq., 
Leipeic, 1897) maintains that according to Paul 
there is no natural pneuma in man; if Paul appears 
to teach the contrary, this is due to use of popular 
instead of exact language. It may, however, be de- 
dared that Paul knew of a pneuma tou anihrdpou, 
that the pneuma hagion never takes the place of our 
spirit, or fills in a cleft caused by sin. The psychi- 
kos of Jude 10 is not in contradiction to the human 
pneuma, but to the Holy Spirit of redemption (cf . 
Rom. viii. 9, 11, 14, 16; I Cor. ii. 3-4). Regenera- 
tion, due to the " outpouring of the Spirit " (Isa. 
xliv. 3-4; Joel ii. 28-29; John iii. 5-£; Titus iii. 
6), is the self-appropriation of God's grace through 
the Holy Spirit in relation to our spirits. Moreover, 
the Spirit assures our spirit that we are children of 

The spirit of man is God's Spirit — spirit of God's 

Spirit— only so far as it is of like nature with this; 

it is not then strictly created " out 

4. Spirit, of nothing," nor an emanation, nor an 

Divine and indusa in corpore Spiritus divini, ut 

Human, ita dicam, particula (Oehler), yet 

this last is nearest the truth. The 

Spirit of God entering the human organism begets 

the soul which therefore bears and propagates the 

imperishable because divine power of life. The con- 
nection of the human spirit, which is thus the ground 
of the human soul, with the Spirit of God is one of 
essential fellowship of spirit with spirit. The dis- 
tinction between soul and spirit is the peculiar char- 
acteristic of the Biblical idea of the nature of man. 
The Scriptures do indeed contain trichotomy (not 
that of Plato, however), resting on the experience 
of sin and salvation (I Thess. v. 23; Heb. iv. 12), 
but this does not exclude a decisive dichotomy, as 
I Pet. ii. 11 where the soul or spirit is regarded sim- 
ply with reference to its spiritual destination as the 
bearer of the divine principle of life (cf. Phil. i. 27). 
On the basis of the foregoing discussion one finds 
a solution of various debated questions. First, as 
to creationism and traducianism. If the soul bears 
the spirit, not as an indwelling of the 

5. Origin Spirit of God, but as spirit of God's 
of Soul Spirit, and is so connected with cor- 

and Spirit poreality that this can only become 
the body of the soul, then the trans- 
mission of the bodily life is at the same time the 
transmission of the soul, and with the soul the spirit. 
Life is from life, soul from soul. There is thus no 
room for a creative act in which spirit originates 
(cf. Ps. cxxxix. 13, 7; Isa. lvii. 16; Zech. xii. 1; 
Job xxxiii. 4), all life is from the Spirit of God (Ps. 
civ. 30; Acts xvii. 28). Traducianism and not gen- 
erationism is right. The preference of Scholasticism 
and Roman Catholic theology for creationism de- 
pends on their theory of sin, especially original sin 
and sensuousness; on the other hand, Lutheranism, 
on account of its deeper knowledge of sin, especially 
of original sin, declared for traducianism. Although 
this view is without explicit Scriptural proof, yet it 
is recommended by the doctrine of the world, by the 
relation of God to the world and to creative po- 
tencies, as well as by the conception of soul and 
spirit (cf. F. H. R. Frank, System der ehristlichen 
Wahrheit, i. 382 sqq., Erlangen, 1878). 

The task of man lies in willing and determining 
his soul in accordance with the inner divine prin- 
ciple of life. He has, however, through sin turned 
from his spiritual divine destination, 

6. Conse- so that now his own will strives against 
quences the impulse of the spirit, and the latter 
of Sin. makes itself felt only in the conscience. 

The divine nature appears only as a 
demand, a law awaking the consciousness to the 
sense of its inner discord (cf. Rom. ii. 15) between 
the divine principle of life and the nous Us sarkos 
(see Flesh). The side of man's nature turned from 
God and to the world apart from God gets the upper 
hand and he becomes flesh — sarkikos and sarkinos, 
i.e., kata sarka, and sarx. Thus the soul, in spite of 
its immanent spirit, becomes sinful, and the entire 
life of the spirit suffers. Hence the divided ego, 
pictured by the apostle in Rom. vii., the half- 
hearted man, constantly wavering between God and 
himself, is a divided soul (Jas. i. 8, iv. 8; cf. Matt.' 
xx vi. 41). So far as the divine principle of life is 
not renewed by the Holy Spirit, the sinner is psy- 
chikos in opposition to pneumatikos. As a conse- 
quence of sin he no longer controls his life, but has 
become a victim of phthora, i.e., of death as the op- 
position of eternal life. In the loss of his corporeal- 

Soul and Spirit 
South Sea Islands 



ity his soul suffers; but since it bears the Spirit of 
God, it can not die; in this connection of death and 
immortality lies the sharpest conceivable torment 
(see Hades; Immortality). Had the natural and 
just consequences of sin followed directly upon the 
first sin, history would have ended where it began 
and the creative thought of God would have been 
annulled. But now the redemptive purpose has 
become the principle of conservation, and the pa- 
tience of God has postponed the judgment and the 
end, in order that man may once more by trustful 
acceptance of the promise share a renewing of his 
spirit (Jer. xxxi. 31 sqq.; John vii. 39; Acts i. 4-5; 
Rom. viii. 4). Yet the changed condition of his 
life caused by sin has not ceased. A constitution is 
transmitted which renders sin a natural necessity 
without its ceasing to be sin and subjecting to those 
conditions which are involved in a wrong relation 
to God and our divine destination. Psychikos des- 
ignates man not simply as sarkikoa or harmatdJos 
as interchangeable with these (cf. I Cor. iii. 1), but 
according to his natural condition and because he 
is at present sarkinos and hamartdlos, he does not 
share the divine principle of life. 

The true knowledge of the relation of the soul and 
the spirit is of great significance in relation to the 
person of Christ. The preexistence and incarna- 
tion of Christ do not imply the union of two per- 
sons in him, but the subject of the 
7. Bearing incarnation is identical with the man 
on Person- Jesus, and accordingly the spirit of the 
ality of Son of God is the personal principle in 
Jesus. him. But this does not justify Apol- 
linaris' conception of a divine principle 
of life, with body and soul as the human aspect of 
Christ, resting on the distinction between spirit, 
soul, and body. On the contrary, the Spirit of God, 
as this belonged to the eternal Son, was the prin- 
ciple of growth of the God-man in the womb of the 
Virgin; the child of the mother along with his life 
from her received his human soul. The soul is the 
bearer of the spirit, hence Jesus is man according to 
spirit, soul, and body — human spirit, human soul, 
and human body, and* yet divine-human; in the 
soul of Christ God's Spirit and man's spirit are so 
united that there is no duality of personal life. There 
would be no person of Christ without the incarna- 
tion. He who is eternal God has in spirit, soul, and 
body become perfectly member of our race. But one 
must hold that this fact is not dependent on our 
capacity to think it, and the limits of its conceiva- 
biHty are not the limits of its truth, or of the neces- 
sary expressions of faith. See Heart, Biblical 
Usage. C. A. Beckwtth. 

Bibliography: F. Delitasoh, Biblical Psychology, Edin- 
burgh, 1867; J. T. Beck, OuHinee of Biblical Psychology, 
&. 1877; H. H. Wendt, Die Begriffe Fleisch und Oeist im 
bibUechen Sprachgebrauch, Goths, 1878; C. I. Ives, The 
Bible Doctrine of the Soul, Philadelphia, 1878; E. White, 
Life in Christ, London, 1878; 0. M. Mead, The Soul Here 
and Hereafter, Boston, 1870; J. B. Heard, Tripartite Na- 
ture of Man, Edinburgh, 1882; B. Weiss, Biblical Theol- 
ogy oftke N. T., 2 vols., lb. 1882; W. P. Dickson, 8t. PauTe 
Uee of the Terms Flesh and Spirit, Glasgow, 1883; O. F. 
Oehler, Theology of the O. 7\, New York, 1868; A. West- 
phal, Chair et esprit, Toulouse, 1886; E. Warner, Biblieehe 
Anthropologie, pp. 77 sqq., Stuttgart; 1887; H. Schults, 
Theology of the O. 7\, London, 1892; J. Laidlaw, Bible 
Doctrine of Man, Edinburgh, 1895; W. Beyschlag, The- 

ology of the N. T„ 2 vols., ib. 1896; O. Pfleiderer, Paulinis- 
mus, pp. 60 sqq., Leipsic, 1890, Eng. transl., London, 1897; 
T. Simon, Die Psychologic des A post els Paulue, G6ttingen« 
1897; F. E. Brightman, in /TS, ii (1900), 273 sqq.; W. H. 
Schoemaker, in JBL, xziii (1894), 13 sqq.; E. W. Win- 
stanley, -Spirt/ in the New Testament, London, 1908; P. 
Torge, Seelenglaube und Unsterblichkeitshoffnung im Alien 
Testament, Leipsic, 1909; DB, ii. 14-15, iv. 163-169; EB, 
ii. 1534-36. iv. 4751-54; DCO, ii. 668-670, 671-673. 

For the archeology and symbolism of the subject in 
early art the reader should consult F. Cabrol, Dietionnaire 
(TarchSologie chrttienne et de liturgie, i. 1470 sqq. (fasc. v.). 
Paris, 1904 (exceedingly rich, and with a wealth of 

SOULS, sal, JOSHUA: Methodist Episcopal 
South; b. at Bristol, Me., Aug. 1, 1781; d. at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Mar. 6, 1867. He was converted 1797, 
licensed to preach 1798, and admitted into the New 
England Conference, 1799; was presiding elder, 
with the exception of one year, 1804-16, when he 
was appointed book-agent in New York. He was 
the author of the plan for a delegated general con- 
ference of the church, which was accepted at Bal- 
timore in 1808; and was editor of the Methodist 
Magazine, 1816-19. He preached in New York 
1820-22, and in Baltimore, 1822-24; was elected 
bishop, 1824; and at the division of the church in 
1844, he adhered to the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, and thereupon moved to Nashville, Tenn. 
He was a presiding officer of great executive ability, 
and in the graver and more important councils of 
the church had no superior for discreet judgment, 
and prudence in counsel. As a preacher he was slow 
and deliberate, but always sound in doctrine, strong 
in argument, and vigorous in style. He was a man 
of remarkable strength, both of character and of 

Bibliography: The subject is treated in the works on the 
Methodist Episcopal Church North and South under 
Methodists, such as those of A. Stevens, C. Elliott, N. 
Bangs, Q. Alexander, and J. M. Buckley (for bibliograph- 
ical data see vii. 356 of this work). 

SOULS, SLEEP OF. See Intermediate State. 

SOUTER, sau'ter, ALEXANDER: Scotch-English 
Presbyterian layman; b. at Perth, Scotland, Aug. 
14, 1873. He was educated at the University of 
Aberdeen (M.A., 1893) and Gonville and Caius Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A., 1896). From 1897 to 1903 
he was assistant in humanity and lecturer in Latin 
and in classical paleography in the University of 
Aberdeen, and since 1903 has been Yates professor 
of New-Testament Greek and exegesis in Mansfield 
College, Oxford. He was an examiner in the Uni- 
versity of London in 1906 and in the University of 
Aberdeen in 1906-10, and a representative of the 
Joint Board of the Scottish Universities for 1906- 
1907. He has edited R. Ogilvie's Horce Latinm (Lon- 
don, 1901) and the twenty-eighth book of Livy (in 
collaboration with G. Middleton; Edinburgh, 1902), 
and has written De codicibus manuscript Augu&- 
tini quaferuntur Qucestionum Veteris et Novi Testa- 
menti (Vienna, 1905) and A Study of Atribrosiaster 
(Cambridge, 1905). 

der this term are included the various groups of 
islands lying between the continent of America 
on the east and Australia, the East Indies, and 
the Philippines on the west, and south of 20? 



Soul and Spirit 
South Sea Islands 

north latitude, with the exception of Fiji and the 
Hawaiian Islands, to which separate articles are 

Austral or Tubuai Islands: A small group ex- 
tending from about 149° to 151° 50' west longitude 
in about 22° south latitude, under French control, 
with a steadily decreasing population (1,400 in 1880, 
1,000 in 1900). The principal islands are Rurutu, 
Tubuai, and Rapa Iti. A terrible epidemic having 
appeared in Rurutu in 1821, two of the chiefs re- 
solved to sail to a happier land. One of them, Auura, 
after long exposure reached the Society Islands and 
eventually landed at Raiatea, where he met the 
Rev. John Williams (q.v.) of the London Mission- 
ary Society. In three months he and his companions 
had learned to read and went back to Rurutu 
accompanied by some Christians from Raiatea. 
These were the first of a large company of South Sea 
Islanders who have been foreign missionaries. The 
idols were soon given up, and Christianity was firmly 
established. John Williams visited some of the 
islands in 1823. In 1887 two of the members of 
the native church in Rurutu volunteered for mis- 
sion work in New Guinea. As the islands passed to 
French rule the Paris Missionary Society took over 
the work in 1890, and now has 8 stations, 10 native 
pastors, 477 church-members, and 624 scholars. 

Bismarck Archipelago : A large group lying north 
of eastern New Guinea, in 145°-155° east longitude, 
and about 6° south latitude, part of which was for- 
merly known as the New Britain Archipelago, since 
1884 under the German flag. The native population 
(1906) is about 188,000 with 299 non-native colored, 
and 463 whites. The principal islands are Neu Pom- 
mem, Neu Mecklenburg, Neu Lauenburg, Neu Han- 
nover, Admiralty, Anchorite, Commerson, and 
Hermit. The Methodist Missionary Society of 
Australasia under Rev. George Brown, with teachers 
from Fiji and Samoa, began work in 1875 in New 
Britain and New Ireland — now Neu Pommern and 
Neu Mecklenburg. It has 186 churches, 18 preaching- 
stations, 8 missionaries, 5 missionary sisters, 7 
native ministers, 12 catechists, 168 native teachers, 
249 class leaders, 4,608 church-members, one col- 
lege, named after Rev. George Brown, 6 training- 
institutions with 169 students, 189 Sunday-schools 
with 5,481 scholars, 196 day schools with 5,463 
scholars, and 21,017 hearers. In Neu Pommern 
the Roman Catholics number 15,045, with 24 
mission priests, 37 lay brothers, 28 sisters, 82 native 
catechists, 75 head- and sub-stations, 85 schools, 
4,123 scholars, and 479 children in 13 orphan 

Caroline Islands: Lying north of the Bismarck 
Archipelago, these islands cover about 140°-163° 
east longitude, in north latitude 5°-10°. Since 1899 
they have been in possession of Germany by pur- 
chase from Spain. The native population is about 
55,000, with about 140 whites. The Spanish dis- 
coveries in these seas in 1686 were followed by a 
series of religious expeditions. The American 
Board of CfimmiBWoners for Foreign Missions 
began work on Kusaie and Ponape under Revs. B. 
G. Soow and Luther Halsey Guliok (q.v.) in 1852, 
tod with valuable help from the Hawaiian Evan- 
gelical Association the work prospered. In 1857 | 

the Rev. Hiram Bingham (q.v.) of the American 
Board arrived, and work was soon begun in the 
Marshall and Gilbert Islands (see below). In 1865 
the mission was extended to the Truk Archipelago. 
The Protestant missionaries were expelled by the 
Spanish government in 1887, but returned in 1900, 
and before long there were 135 native workers, 57 
outstations, 99 schools, 2 printing-houses, 2 dis- 
pensaries and 5,500 communicants. The American 
Board is handing over its work in the Caroline 
Islands to the Liebenzeller Mission, and has now 
only five missionaries in these islands. The Roman 
Catholic mission was established in 1887, and now 
has 1,880 adherents, 12 priests, 12 lay brothers, 6 
sisters, 18 head- and sub-stations, 7 schools, and 200 

Cook or Hervey Islands: These islands, belonging 
to Great Britain, lie between 157° and 170° west 
longitude and about 20° south latitude. The prin- 
cipal islands are Rarotonga, Mangaia, Aitutaki, and 
Atiu (Vatiu). The group was annexed to New 
Zealand in 1901. In 1821 Papeiha and Vahopa- 
ta, Christians connected with the London Mis- 
sionary Society from Raiatea in the Society Islands, 
landed in Aitutaki where Christianity was soon ac- 
cepted. Papeiha passed on to Mangaia, but it was 
not till 1825 that the mission was established there. 
Papeiha was also the apostle of Rarotonga, which 
was discovered by the Rev. John Williams in 1821, 
who frequently visited the island between 1823 and 
1834. When he landed the people were ignorant of 
Christian worship, when he left he did not know of a 
house in the island where family prayer was not 
offered morning and evening. Over 500 men and 
women have passed through the Training Institu- 
tion begun in 1839, many of whom have gone to 
evangelize other islands. The London Missionary 
Society now has 3 missionaries, 21 ordained natives, 
23 day schools with 1,283 scholars and 22 Sunday- 
schools with 1,152 scholars, and 4,885 adherents. 
The Roman Catholics arrived in 1894, and now 
have 6 priests and six sisters and about 100 converts. 
The Seventh Day Adventists began work in 1890, 
and have one missionary and 50 adherents. 

Ellice Islands: These islands, under British con- 
trol, are situated 176°- 180° east longitude and 5° 
to 11° south latitude. The area is about fifteen 
square miles, and the population about 2,400. The 
principal islands are Sophia, Ellice, Nukufetan, and 
Vaitupu. In 1861 Elikana and other Christians 
from Manihiki in the Penrhyn Group were carried 
by stress of weather some 1,200 miles to Nakulaelae 
in the Ellice Islands. Elikana, who was a deacon, 
began preaching Christianity. Rev. Archibald 
Wright Murray, of the London Missionary Society, 
from Samoa visited the islands and settled Samoan 
teachers there in 1865. Some years previously a 
knowledge of the true God had been brought by a 
man named Stuart, who was the master of a trading- 
vessel from Sydney. The group is now worked with 
the Tokalau Islands as part of the Samoan mission. 
In the two groups there are 13 ordained natives, 
1,488 church-members, 2,411 adherents, 13 day 
schools with 1,428 scholars, and 13 Sunday-schools 
with 1,543 scholars. 

Gilbert Islands : These islands, belonging to Great 

South Sea Islands 



Britain and consisting of atolls, lie on both sides of 
the equator between 172° and 177° east longitude. 
They have an area of 166 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about 30,000 natives and 100 whites. The 
principal islands are Tarawa, Apamana, Aranaka, 
Tamana, Marakei, and Nonouti. After a brief 
visit in 1855 the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions began work in 1857 under the 
Rev. Hiram Bingham, with the help of Hawaiian 
teachers, and he after seven years' labor retired be- 
cause of ill-health to Honolulu, where he devoted 
himself to literary labor for the Gilbert Islanders, 
and took charge of a Gilbert Island colony. The 
American Board now works in the nine northern 
islands, two southern islands, and Ocean Island. 
There are training-institutions at Kusaie in the 
Carolines, and in Ocean Island. Three mission- 
aries work for the group, and much progress is 
made. The London Missionary Society began work 
in 1870 and for thirty years the islands were served 
by native teachers from Samoa. In 1900 a resident 
missionary was placed in the island of Bern. The 
London Missionary Society now has 2 missionaries 
with 5 stations in the Southern Islands, 13 ordained 
natives, 19 preachers, 576 church-members, 5,281 
adherents, 28 Sunday-schools with 1,568 scholars, 
29 day schools with 1,462 scholars, and a training- 
institution. The Roman Catholics started work in 
1892, and there are 12,965 Roman Catholics, 1,800 
catechumens, 19 priests, 13 lay brothers, 20 sisters, 
87 catechists, 15 head- and sub-stations, 98 schools, 
and 3,310 scholars. 

Loyalty Islands: This French group, consisting of 
the three large islands of Uvea, Lif u, and Mare 1 , and 
a number of very small ones, lies in 166°-168° east 
longitude and about 20°-22° south latitude. They 
have an area of about 800 square miles and a popu- 
lation of over 15,000. The Rev. Archibald Wright 
Murray of the London Missionary Society, from 
Samoa, visited Mare' in 1841, and found that a 
Christian from Tonga had been working there for 
seven years. Two teachers from Samoa were settled 
in Mare 1 and the work prospered. In 1854 two 
missionaries began their residence there. In 1841 
Pao from Rarotonga began his apostolic service. 
The Rev. Samuel Macfarlane arrived in 1859. Two 
years later a training-institution was started. Na- 
tive Christians from Mare 1 carried the Gospel to 
Uvea in 1856. The London Missionary Society has 
now one missionary in Lifu, and in Lifu and Uvea 
there are 37 ordained natives, 101 preachers, 37 
Sunday-echools with 2,243 scholars, 2,348 church- 
members, and 6,173 adherents. The Paris Mis- 
sionary Society has one missionary in Mare 1 . The 
Roman Catholics came in 1864, but were not firmly 
established till 1875. 

Marianne or Ladrone Islands: The Ladrone group, 
bought from Spain by Germany in 1899 (with the 
exception of Guam, which is held by the United 
States), consists of about twenty islands in 142°- 
148° east longitude and 13°-21° north latitude, with 
a population of about 2,700 natives. Guam has an 
area of about 200 square miles and a population of 
11,490, of whom 331 are foreigners. The Jesuits 
settled in these islands in 1667. In 1907 the mission 
became an apostolic prefecture, and now has 12,216 

adherents and 6 priests. The American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions opened a sta- 
tion in Guam in 1900, and is represented by one 
married missionary and 50 church-members. 

Marquesas Islands: These islands, under the 
French flag, are closely grouped on both sides of 140° 
west longitude and in 9°-ll° south latitude. They 
have an area of about 480 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about 4,000. The largest islands are Nuka- 
hiva and Hivaoa. In 1797 William Pascoe Crook 
of the London Missionary Society landed from the 
ship " Duff " and stayed two years. Other abor- 
tive attempts were made by the same society in 
1826, 1829, and 1834, and by the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions in 1833. In 
1853 a Marquesan chief whose daughter had mar- 
ried a Hawaiian asked for missionaries from Hawaii, 
and in response Kanwealoha and others went. 
There are now 600 Christians under the care of 
Hawaiian teachers. The Paris Missionary Society has 
5 stations, one missionary, and 2 native pastors. The 
Roman Catholics number 2,800 with 8 priests, 7 lay 
brothers, 12 sisters, and 29 head- and sub-stations. 

Marshall Islands: This group, belonging to Ger- 
many and situated northeast of the Carolines (ut 
sup.) in about 161°-171° east longitude and 4°-13° 
north latitude, has an area of about 1,400 square 
miles and an estimated population of about 10,000. 
The principal islands are Majeru, Jaluit, Mulgrave, 
Ralick, and Mentschikoff . The American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions paid these 
islands a brief visit in 1855, and opened a mission 
in 1857 under Dr. G. Pierson and Rev. E. T. Douane 
with the help of Hawaiian native teachers. In 1880 
the headquarters were removed to Kusaie in the 
Caroline Islands, and a training-college was opened 
there. Some Gilbert Islanders trained at Kusaie 
opened work in Nauru or Pleasant Island, where the 
Pacific Phosphate Co. employs about 1,500 Marshall 
and other islanders. In 1899 a resident missionary 
was placed there, and substantial progress ensued. 
The American Board has now 4 missionaries for the 
group, two residing at Kusaie, 20 churches, 83 places 
of worship, 3,371 church-members, 4,163 Christian 
Endeavorers, 87 schools, and 1,417 scholars. The 
Roman Catholic mission has 7 priests, 8 lay brothers, 
15 sisters, 4 head- and sub-stations, 6 schools, 170 
scholars, 323 Roman Catholics, and 523 catechumens. 

New Caledonia: This island is united under 
French control with the Loyalty Islands (ut sup.) 
and the Isle of Pines. It is a long, narrow island 
lying northwest and southeast in 164°-166° east 
longitude and 20°-23° south latitude. Its area is 
7,650 square miles, and the native population of the 
group is about 28,000; the white and other popula- 
tion, including convicts, numbers about 26,000. The 
London Missionary Society settled native teachers 
from Samoa in the Isle of Pines and New Caledonia 
in 1840. Four years later three of them were mur- 
dered in the Isle of Pines, and the rest were removed 
in 1845. The French, who took possession in 1853, 
would not allow the mission to be recommenced in 
1861 and subsequently, but some native evangelists 
from Uvea in the Loyalty Islands have worked 
there occasionally. New Caledonia is now a French 
penal colony, with over 7,000 convicts. The Roman 



South Baa Islands 

Catholics began work in 1847, and have a bishop, 
49 priests, 33 lay brothers, 109 sisters, 32 head- and 
sub-stations, 59 churches, 45 schools, 1,933 scholars, 
and 32,500 adherents. The Paris Missionary So- 
ciety maintains two missionaries. 

Dutch New Guinea: The part of the island of 
New Guinea (lying north of Australia) belonging to 
Holland extends from the western coast to 171° 
east longitude; the area is 151,789 square miles, and 
the population is estimated to be 200,000. The first 
missionaries to New Guinea were C. W. Ottow 
and J. G. Geissler who were sent to Dutch New 
Guinea by Pastor Gossner of Berlin in 1855. The 
Utrecht Missionary Society, which sent mission- 
aries thither in 1862, has now 4 missionaries, 1,200 
Christians, 3,000 attendants at worship, 30 native 
helpers, and many schools. There are 1,200 Roman 
Catholics, 210 catechumens, 7 priests, 8 lay brothers, 
5 sisters, 4 stations, 13 schools, and 404 scholars. 

British New Guinea or Papua: To the British 
belong, under the name of the Territory of Papua 
(since 1906), the southeastern part of New Guinea 
from 171° east longitude eastwards and the islands 
between 141° and 155° east longitude and 8° and 
12° south latitude. The area is about 90,540 square 
miles, with a population estimated at half a million 
natives with about 1,200 others. The London 
Missionary Society began work in 1871 under the 
Revs. Archibald Wright Murray and Samuel Mo- 
Farlane, with teachers from Mare' and Lifu. They 
settled at first in the Torres Straits Islands and 
established a training-institution in Murray Island; 
in 1872 some teachers were settled on the mainland. 
The Rev. William George Lawes, from Nive, arrived 
1874, and the Rev. James Chalmers from Rarotonga 
in 1877. Chalmers, with Rev. Oliver Tomkins, was 
killed and eaten by cannibals at Goaribari in 1901, 
Native teachers from the South Seas have rendered 
conspicuous service, especially Tepeso of Marl, in 
the Loyalty Islands, and Ruatoka of Mangaia, in 
the Cook Islands. The training-institution is now 
at Vatorata. There are now 15 head stations, 188 
out-stations and schools, 38 Sunday-schools with 
1,900 scholars, 15 missionaries, 2,514 church-mem- 
bere in New Guinea and the Torres Straits Islands, 
188 South Sea and Papuan native teachers, and 
14,000 adherents. The society's sphere extends over 
1,000 miles of coast line from the Dutch frontier to 
Milne Bay. The Methodist Missionary Society 
of Australasia began work in 1891 under the Rev. 
George Brown, with South Sea teachers. Its sphere 
is from Milne Bay to Cape Vogel. It has 62 churches, 
209 other preaching-places, 10 missionaries, 120 
native teachers, 127 class leaders, 1,497 church- 
members, 2,150 catechumens, 4 training-institu- 
tions, 83 Sunday-schools with 4,166 scholars, 77 
day schools with 3,995 scholars, and 22,065 at- 
tendants at worship. The Anglican Mission con- 
nected with the Australian Board of Missions, whose 
sphere is from Cape Vogel to Mitre Rock, began 
work in 1891 under the Rev. A. A. Maclaren. It 
now has a bishop, 8 clergy, 5 laymen, 10 ladies, 30 
South Sea teachers, 16 Papuan teachers and evan- 
gelists, 540 members, 432 catechumens. The Roman 
Catholics, with headquarters at Yule Island, number 
4,597, with 25 priests, 20 lay brothers, 37 sisters, 15 

XI.— 2 

catechists, 29 stations, 28 schools, and 1,596 scholars. 

German New Guinea (Kaiser Wilhelm's Land): 
The northeastern section of New Guinea, together 
with some adjacent islands, has been in German 
possession since 1884. The area is estimated at 
70,000 square miles, and the native population at 
110,000, with 184 whites and 207 others (mostly 
Chinese). The Neuendettelsau Mission began work 
in 1886. It has 13 stations, 45 churches, 2,180 
church-members, 1,414 communicants, 1,359 cate- 
chumens, 3,395 adherents, 35 missionaries and 
assistants, 18 native preachers, and 25 schools. The 
Rhenish Missionary Society began work in 1887. 
It has 4 stations, 12 missionaries, 3 native teachers, 
94 baptized natives, 75 communicants, and 7 
schools with 296 scholars. The Roman Catholics 
number 1,000 with 24 priests, 20 assistants, 29 
sisters, 10 stations, and 10 schools with 495 scholars. 

New Hebrides: A group of islands in 166 9 - 
171° east longitude and 15°-21° south latitude, under 
the joint supervision and protectorate of France and 
Great Britain. The population is estimated at 
80,000. The principal islands are Espiritu Santo, 
Mallicolo, Aurora, Pentecost, Tanna, Sandwich, and 
Efate or Vate. The mission history of the New 
Hebrides falls into three periods: (1) From 1839 
to 1848, when it was under the care of the London 
Missionary Society. (2) From 1848 to 1864, when 
the Presbyterian missionaries from Nova Scotia 
and Scotland had charge, assisted by the Marine 
Service of the London Missionary Society. (3) 
From 1864 onward, when the Presbyterian churches 
of Australasia undertook the responsible control. 

The Rev. John Williams (q.v.) of the London 
Missionary Society left Samoa in 1839 with a party 
of Samoan teachers for the New Hebrides. He 
placed three of them at Tanna and proceeded to 
Erromanga, where with James Harris, who was on a 
visit from Sydney, he was murdered and eaten by 
cannibals. Visits to various islands in the group 
were soon afterward paid by the Revs. Thomas 
Heath and Archibald Wright Murray from the 
same mission, and teachers were settled. In 
1842 the Rev. George Turner and Henry Nesbit 
of the same mission made a few months' stay in 
Tanna, but had to withdraw through the hostility of 
the natives. Three years later native teachers 
from Samoa and Rarotonga were settled in Tanna. 
In the early days of the New Hebrides Mission, 
Christian teachers from other islands did splendid 
service, of whom at least 100 came from the London 
Missionary Society's training-institutions. During 
the second period, native agents from the same 
institutions were placed at nine or ten of the islands. 
In 1848 the Rev. John Geddie was sent out by 
the Presbyterians of Nova Scotia and settled in 
Aneiteum. Four years later he was joined there 
by the Rev. John Inglis of the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church of Scotland. Geddie retired in 1872. 
The following memorial is put up in his memory: — 
" When he landed here in 1848 there were no Chris- 
tians, when he left in 1872 there were no heathen." 
In 1854 another futile attempt was made on Tanna, 
but in 1858 Rev. John G. Paton (q.v.) with two 
other missionaries from Scotland settled there. 
Now after more than sixty years' toil there are three 

South Baa Islands 



well-established mission stations in Tanna with 
scores of out-stations and some thousands of con- 
verts. Paton spent afterwards fifteen years at 
Aniwa. In 1857 the Rev. George N. Gordon, a 
Presbyterian from Nova Scotia, settled on Erro- 
manga. Three years later he was killed there with 
his wife, and some twelve years later his brother, 
James D. Gordon, was also murdered there. In 
1864 the Australian Presbyterians took the respon- 
sible control of this mission, now called the New 
Hebrides Mission. It works in the southern islands 
of the group, and is supported by the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and 
Scotland, with the help of the special John G. 
Paton Mission Fund. It has now 27 missionaries, 
5 hospitals, 300 native teachers, 20,000 professing 
Christians, and 20,000 other adherents. The work 
in the northern Hebrides is carried on by the Melane- 
sian Mission. When George Augustus Selwyn (q.v.) 
was consecrated bishop of New Zealand in 1841, it 
was suggested that he should carry on a mission 
among the Melanesian Islands. From 1847 to 1849 
he made many missionary voyages among these 
islands. In 1850 that part of the island world was 
adopted at a meeting of bishops of Australasia as 
their special sphere under the Australian Board of 
Missions. The Rev. John Coleridge Patteson (q.v.) 
joined the mission in 1855 and was consecrated 
bishop of Melanesia in 1861; he made many mis- 
sionary voyages and established teachers in many is- 
lands. He was murdered in 1871 at Nakupu in the 
Solomon Islands (see below). The work was ef- 
fectively carried on by Rev. H. Codrington and 
George Sarawia, the native deacon. In 1877 Rev. 
John Richard Selwyn was made bishop and carried 
on the work successfully. The headquarters are now 
in Norfolk Island. The language of Mota in the 
Banks Islands has been made the lingua franca of 
the mission, and every scholar is trained in it at 
Norfolk Island also, and teaches it on his return 
home. The work is carried on in three of the north 
islands of the New Hebrides, and also in the Banks 
Islands and Torres Islands, with 9 clergy, 344 
teachers, 1,181 communicants, and 2,202 hearers. 
It has a hospital and training-school in Norfolk 
Island, with central schools in several of the groups. 
Samoa: The Samoan group, extending over ap- 
proximately 167°-174° west longitude and 13°-16° 
south latitude, is (since 1900) partitioned between 
the United States and Germany, the latter possess- 
ing all west of longitude 171°. The largest islands 
under German rule are Upolu, Manono, Apolinia, 
and Savaii; and under American, Tutuila and Ma- 
nila, in the former is the commodious harbor of Pago 
Pago. The Rev. John Williams visited the islands 
of this group in 1830, and found that a mission had 
been started by some Christians from the Mar- 
quesas Islands, who after drifting about for three 
months had been carried to Manua. The first 
resident white missionary settled in 1836, the 
printing-press was established in 1839, the Manua 
Training Institution was founded in 1844. Under 
the Revs. George Turner and Charles Hardie, a 
central school for girls at Papauta was opened in 
1891. There are now 11 missionaries, 174 ordained 
natives, 326 preachers, about 200 churches, 8,861 

church-members, 232 Sunday-schools with 9,263 
scholars, 211 day schools with 7,975 scholars, and 
24,912 adherents. The Wesleyan Missionary Society 
began work in 1835, and that mission is now under 
the charge of the Methodist Missionary Society of 
Australasia. It has 47 churches, 29 preaching- 
stations, 3 missionaries, 5 native ministers, 35 
catechists, 96 teachers, 487 class leaders, 255 local 
preachers, 76 Sunday-schools with 1,783 scholars, 
and about the same number of day schools and 
scholars, 2,683 church-members, and 6,778 attend- 
ants at public worship. The Roman Catholics be- 
gan work in 1845, and have a bishop, 22 priests, 12 
lay brothers, 13 sisters, 15 stations, 25 schools, and 
6,315 adherents. The Mormon Mission has 17 
elders and 303 adherents. The Seventh Day Ad- 
ventists arrived in 1890, and have 2 missionaries, 
10 adherents, and one school. 

Santa Cruz: This group, under British control, 
lies north of the New Hebrides between 165° and 
170° east longitude and 8°-12° south latitude; is 
sometimes reckoned with the New Hebrides. The 
largest islands are Santa Cruz, Tupua, and Vani- 
koro. Alvaro de Mendana of Peru made a disastrous 
attempt in 1567 to found a colony in the island 
which he named Santa Cruz. After his death his 
widow returned home with the colonists. In 1856 
the Rev. John Coleridge Patteson (q.v.) visited the 
island, but did not land till 1862. Two years later 
he spent two days in the island, but the mission 
boat was attacked by the natives and two Norfolk 
Islanders named Edwin Nobbs and Fisher Young 
lost their lives. In the next year or two Patteson 
paid more visits, but was not able to make much 
advance. In 1871 he attempted to land at Nukapu, 
one of the islands in the group, and entered a native 
canoe and went ashore. He was soon killed. 
Joseph Atkin and Stephen, a native of Bauro, died 
from wounds they had received. Bishop John 
Richard Selwyn visited Santa Cruz three years 
later, and had some of the natives educated at 
Norfolk Island, the headquarters of the Melanesian 
Mission. The work is now well established through- 
out the islands of the group under that mission, 
with 22 native teachers, 11 schools, 77 baptized, 
16 communicants, 4 catechumens, and 221 hearers. 

The Society Islands or Tahiti Archipelago: This 
group, under French rule, extends over 148°-155° 
west longitude and 15°-18° south latitude. It is 
sometimes made to include the Austral Isles (see 
above). The principal island is Tahiti, with an area 
of 600 square miles, while Moorea has an area of 
about 50 square miles. The total population is 
about 15,000. Missions were begun by the London 
Missionary Society, whose ship " The Duff " under 
the command of Captain James Wilson reached 
Tahiti in 1797 with 30 missionaries. Severe hard- 
ships were endured and the missionary band was 
soon much reduced in numbers. The first Christian 
church in the Pacific was dedicated here in 1800, 
and the long night of toil ended in 1811, when the 
conversion of King Pomare and the burning of idols 
in several islands ushered in a brighter day; a 
printing-press was established in 1817, and a Tahi- 
tian Missionary Society started in the following year. 
The Rev. John Williams arrived in 1817, and for 



South Baa Islands 

fifteen years made Raiatea his home. A complete 
Bible was published in 1839, chiefly through the 
labors of Rev. Henry Nott, one of the first mission- 
aries, who rendered forty-eight years of valuable 
service. In 1836 two French Roman Catholic priests 
who attempted to settle in Tahiti were expelled by 
the queen, but shortly afterwards the Roman Catho- 
lics were established in the island by the French gov- 
ernment. The Paris Missionary Society has 18 sta- 
tions, 5 missionaries, 11 European teachers, 27 native 
pastors, 4,615 church-members, 253 catechumens, 
1,794 scholars. There are 7,008 Roman Catholics, 
23 mission priests, 10 lay brothers, 24 sisters, 80 
catechists, 85 stations, and 14 schools with 207 
scholars. The Seventh Day Adventists arrived in 
1892, and have 7 missionaries, 73 adherents, and 
one school with 30 scholars. 

Nine or Savage Island: See Vol. xii., supple- 

The Solomon Islands: These islands lie in 155°- 
163° east longitude and 5°-ll° south latitude. The 
large eastern island Bougainville and some smaller 
islands and islets belong to Germany; the western 
islands have since 1899 been in possession of Great 
Britain, and these include the important islands of 
Choiseul, Mahaga, Guadalcanal Malayta, and 
Christoval; area 8,357 square miles, population 
about 150,000. The Roman Catholic missions were 
begun in the South Solomon Islands by the Marist 
Fathers in 1845 under Bishop Epalle, who with 
three priests was killed and eaten by cannibals on 
Ys&bel Island. In 1895 a mission was begun in the 
North Solomon Islands. There are now in both 
groups 390 Roman Catholics, a bishop, a rector, 20 
priests, 12 stations, 1,180 catechumens, and 12 
schools with 357 scholars. The congregation of 
The Sacred Heart has also 12 priests at Issoudun. 
The Melanesian Mission began work in the Solomon 
Islands in 1857 under Bishop G. A. Selwyn and Rev. 
John Coleridge Patteson. It now has stations and 
schools on most of the group, with 11 clergy, 393 
teachers, 151 schools, 8,026 baptised, 1,822 com- 
municants, 1,163 catechumens, and 2,377 hearers. 
The Methodist Missionary Society of Australasia 
commenced work in 1902 under Rev. George Brown. 
It now has 27 churches, 13 preaching-stations, 4 
missionaries, 2 missionary sisters, 127 class leaders, 
68 church-members, 12 South Sea teachers, 6 Sun- 
day-schools with 1,050 scholars, 15 day schools 
with 857 scholars, and 8,800 hearers. The South 
Sea Evangelical Mission began work in these islands 
in 1904. It has on four of the islands 11 mission- 
aries, 4 stations, and 45 out-stations with native 
teachers, 1 boarding-school with 100 scholars; 
about 430 islanders have been baptized. 

Tonga or Friendly Islands: The Tonga Islands lie 
south of the Samoan group and east of the Fijian, 
in 173°-177° west longitude and 15°-23° 30 7 south 
latitude; area 390 square miles, population 22,000. 
Since 1899 they have been under British protection. 
Mission work was begun in 1797 by the London 
Missionary Society, whose ship " The Duff " 
settled ten missionaries there. Three of them, 
Daniel Bowell, Samuel Gaulton, and Samuel Harper, 
were killed by natives and the mission was aban- 
doned without Bucoess in 1800. The Wesleyan 

Methodist Missionary Society reopened the work in 
1822 under the Rev. W. M. Lawry, but he left in 
the following year so that the Wesleyan Methodist 
Mission practically dates from 1826 when the Rev. 
John Thomas landed . In the mean time some native 
missionaries, sent from Tahiti, in the Society Islands, 
.to open a station in Fiji, were detained through 
stress of weather in Tongatabu. Other workers 
were soon sent from Tahiti, and the adherence of a 
chief and 400 people was gained, and a church was 
built. After the Rev. John Thomas, who was the 
evangelist of Tonga, the Rev. Stephen Rabone and 
Thomas Adams and others consolidated the work. 
A most remarkable feature of the past thirty years 
has been the Tubou College, founded by Dr. Egan 
Moulton, where a number of young men have been 
trained for New Guinea and other mission fields. 
The whole group has been Christianized, and Tonga 
has taken its place among the civilized nations. 
In 1885 the Rev. Sidney Baker, who was afterwards 
premier, caused a disruption by founding the Tonga 
Free Church, which, though not connected with any 
conference, has remained loyal to Methodist doctrine 
and polity. It has 15,000 adherents. The original 
Wesleyan Church claims about 5,000, and there is 
a prospect of reunion in the near future. The 
Roman Catholics have a bishop, 22 priests, 
and 14 stations. The Seventh Day Adventists, 
who arrived in 1890, have 4 missionaries, 12 ad- 
herents, 2 schools with 69 scholars. 

Arthur N. Johnson. 

Bibliography: Consult the literature under the articles on 
the workers to which reference is made in the text, the 
Reports of the various societies operating in these islands, 
and the literature on the missionary societies given in vii. 
417 of this work. Also the following selected from a 
large range of books: A Missionary Voyage to the Southern 
Pacific Ocean, 1796-98, in the Ship " Duff" London, 1799; 
W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches, ib. 1829; J. Williams, A 
Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea 
Islands, late eds., ib. 1866, Philadelphia, 1889; W. Hoff- 
mann, Sieg dee Kreuzes auf Tahiti, Basel, 1844; M. Duby, 
Hist, de la distraction des missions evangiles a Taiti en 
1844, Paris, 1845; G. A. Lundie, Missionary Life in Samoa, 
1840-4L Edinburgh, 1845; H. Weginer, Oeschichte der 
christlichen Kirche auf dem Gesellschafts-Archipel, Berlin, 
1845; H. Melville, Types; or, Marquesas Island. Poly- 
nesian Life, New York, 1846; E. Michelis, Die Vdlker der 
Sudset und die Oeschichte der protestantischen und katholi- 
schen Missionen unter dersetben, Munster, 1847; H. T. 
Cheever, Island World of the Pacific, New York, 1851; 
W. F. Besser, Der Missionar und sein Lohn, oder die 
Fruchte des Evangeliums in der Sud-Sec, Halle, 1852; 
Abb6 Verguet, Hist, de la premiere mission catholique . . . 
de M&anesie, Paris, 1854; Sarah S. Farmer, Tonga and 
the Friendly Islands; with a Sketch of their Mission His- 
tory, London, 1855; Tahiti and its Missionaries, ib. 1858; 
O. Cusent, lies de la SocitU. Tahiti, Paris, 1860; T. West, 
Ten Years in South Central Polynesia; Reminiscences of 
a Mission to the Friendly Islands and their Dependencies, 
London, 1865; G. Pritchard, Missionary's Reward: Gos- 
pel in (he Pacific, ib. 1866; C. F. Angus, Polynesia, ib. 
1867; S. Macfarlane, Story of the Lifu Mission, ib. 1873; 
idem. Among the Cannibals of New Guinea, ib. 1888; Mrs. 
H. S. Thompson, Ponape, Philadelphia, 1874; A. W. 
Murray, Missions in Western Polynesia, London, 1862; 
idem, Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia and New 
Guinea, ib. 1876; idem, Martyrs of Polynesia, ib. 1885; 
A. Fornander, An Account of the Polynesian Race, 3 vols., 
ib. 1878-85; P. A. Lesson, Les Polyne'siens, leur origine, 
lew migrations, leur langage, Paris, 1880; R. Steele, The 
New Hebrides and Christian Missions, London, 1880; 
Mrs. M. V. Dahlgren, South Sea Sketches, Boston. 1881; 
R. W. Logan, The Work of God in Micronesia, 1853-83, 
ib. 1884; J. Mbulu, Joel Bulu ; native Minister in the South 

South Sea Islands 



Seaa, London, 1884; W. W. Gill, Jotting* from the Pacific* 
ib. 1885; idem, From Darkness to Light in Polynesia, ib. 
1894; G. S. Rowe, A Pioneer. J. Thomas, Missionary 
to the Friendly Ides, ib. 1885; A. Williamson, Missionary 
Heroes in the Pacific, Edinburgh, 1885; E. E. Crosby, Per- 
secutions in Tonga, 1886, London, 1886; H. Bingham, 
Story of the Morning Star, Boston, 1886; A. Busacot, Mis- 
sion Life in the Pacific, London, 1886; J. Inglis, In the 
New Hebrides, ib.- 1887; A. Penny, Ten Years in Melanesia, 
ib. 1887; J. Chalmers, Pioneer Life in New Guinea, ib. 
1888, new ed., 1895; idem. Work and Adventure in New 
Guinea, ib. 1902; J. B. F. Pompallier, Early History of 
the Catholic Church in Oceania, Auckland, 1888; R. H. 
Codrington, Mdancsian Studies in Anthropology and Folk- 
lore, London, 1891 ; A. Monfat, Dix annees en Melanesia, 
Lyon, 1891; O. Michelsen, Cannibals won for Christ, 
London, 1893; The New Hebrides South Sea Islands. 
Quarterly Jottings of the J. G. Paton Mission Fund, Wood- 
ford, 1893; O. Cousins, Story of the South Seas, London, 
1894; idem, From Island to Island in the South Seas, ib. 
1894; J. M. Alexander, The Islands of the Pacific, New 
York, 1895; C. S. Home, Story of the London Missionary 
Society, 1796-1896, London, 1895; Pere Margaret, Mgr. 
Batallion et les missions de VOctanie centrals, 2 vols., Lyon, 
1895; A. E. Keeling, What he did for Convicts and Canni- 
bals. Life and Work of S. Leigh, London, 1896; H. H. 
Montgomery, The Light of Melanesia. Record of thirty- 
five Years Mission Work in the South Seas, ib. 1896; A. C. 
P. Watt, Twenty-five Years* Mission Life on Tanna, New 
Hebrides, Paisley, 1896; J. King, Christianity and Poly- 
nesia, Sydney, 1899; idem, W. G. Lawes of Savage Island 
and New Guinea, London, 1909; R. Lovett, Hist, of the 
London Missionary Society, 1796-1896, vol. i., ib. 1899; 
idem, Tamate: Life of James Chalmers, ib. 1902; E. Nij- 
land, /. Williams, de Apostel van Polynesia, Nijkerk, 1899; 
E. S. Armstrong, History of the Melanesian Mission, Lon- 
don, 1900; R. W. Thompson, My Trip in the " John Will- 
iams " to the South Sea Islands, ib. 1900; J. Watsford, 
Glorious Gospel Triumphs as seen in my Life and Work in 
Australasia, ib. 1900; P. Delord, Sociiti des missions 
evangdiques. Voyage dTenquHe en NouveUe-CaUdonie, 
Paris, 1901; F. Awdry, In the Isles of the Sea: the Story 
of fifty Years in Melanesia, London, 1902; C. Lennox, 
/. Chalmers of New Guinea, ib. 1902; H. A. Robertson, 
Erromanga, the Martyr Isle, ib. 1902; F. H. L. Paton, 
Lomai of Lenakei: a Hero of the New Hebrides, ib. 1903; 
H. H. Montgomery, The Light of Melanesia, ib. 1904; 
R. Parkinson, 80 Jahre in der Sudsee. Land und Leute, 
Sitten und Gebrauche im Bismarckarchipel und . . . 
Salomoinseln, Stuttgart, 1907; Q. Brown, Autobiography, 
London, 1908; idem, Melanesians and Polynesians: their 
Life Histories described and compared, London, 1910; H. 
A. Krose, Katholische Missionstatistik, Freiburg, 1908; 
H. N. Allen, The Islands of the Pacific; from the old to the 
new. A Collection of Sketches missionary and diplomatic. 
New York and Chicago, 1908; F. W. Christian, Eastern 
Pacific Lands; Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands, London, 
1910; J. C. Lambert, Missionary Heroes in Oceania, Phila- 
delphia, 1910; P. G. Peekel, Religion und Zauberei auf 
dem mittleren Neu Mecklenburg, Bismarckarchipel, Sudsee, 
Munster, 1910; C. O. Seligmann, The Melanesians of Brit- 
ish New Guinea, Cambridge, 1910; W. D. Westervelt, 
Legends of Ma-ui, a Demigod of Polynesia, and of his 
Mother Hina, Honolulu, 1910. 

SOUTH, ROBERT: Church of England prelate 
and preacher of first rank ; b. at Hackney, Lon- 
don, Sept. 4, 1634; d. in London July 8, 1716. His 
father was a wealthy London merchant, who af- 
forded his son every advantage for a thorough edu- 
cation. His preparatory studies were pursued in 
the Westminster School, where he became a king's 
scholar, under the famous master, Dr. Richard 
Busby. In 1651 he was admitted as a student of 
Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1655; M.A., 1657, also 
1659 at Cambridge; B.D., and D.D., 1663; and D.D., 
at Cambridge, 1664). During this year he composed 
a Latin poem congratulating Oliver Cromwell on the 
peace which he had concluded between England 
and Holland. South was ordained in 1658 by one 

of the bishops who had been deprived of his bishop- 
ric during the protectorate. In 1660, the year of the 
restoration of the monarchy, he was elected orator 
to the University of Oxford, and preached before the 
royal commission a sermon entitled the Scribe In- 
structed, which immediately placed him in the front 
rank of English preachers. He delivered the uni- 
versity oration when Clarendon was installed chan- 
cellor of Oxford — a discourse which so impressed 
Clarendon that he appointed him his domestic chap- 
lain. This led to his installation, in 1663, as the 
prebendary of St. Peter's, Westminster. In the 
same year he took the degree of doctor in divinity; 
and in 1670 he was made a canon of Christ Church, 
Oxford. In 1678, he was presented to the rectory 
of Islip in Oxfordshire, the revenue of which, some 
£200, he applied, half to the payment of his curate, 
and half to educating and apprenticing the poorer 
children of the parish. He soon became one of the 
king's chaplains, and preached a sermon before 
Charles II., marked by invective against Cromwell, 
and, what is not very common with South, violation 
of good taste. This recommended him to the mon- 
arch, who suggested his appointment to the next 
vacant bishopric. But South declined all such 
offers. While he was a strenuous defender of the 
English church, he was a determined enemy of the 
Roman Catholics. The concealed popery of Charles 
and the open popery of James met with determined 
opposition from South. His stiff loyalty led him to 
refuse to sign the invitation, drawn up by the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and bishops, to the prince of 
Orange to assume the throne; but subsequently, 
when James had formally abdicated, and the crown 
was settled upon William and Mary, South gave in 
his allegiance to the new government. While he 
did not seek the honors of the Establishment, he 
was the determined enemy of dissent, and preached 
against it. He opposed the Act of Toleration (see 
Liberty, Religious) . When an attempt was made, 
through a royal commission, to unite the Dissenters 
with the Established Church, by modifying the lit- 
urgy, South entreated them to part with none of its 
ceremonial. In 1693, due to his Animadversions 
upon Dr. Sherlock's Booh, entitled: A Vindication of 
the Holy . . . Trinity (London, 1693; cf., Tritheism 
Charged upon Dr. Sherlock's New Notion of the Trin- 
ity, 1695), he had a controversy with William Sher- 
lock, a fellow churchman, and dean of St. Paul's, 
who, in his construction of the doctrine of the Trin- 
ity, fell into tritheism. South advocated the Nicene 
view. The last part of his life was clouded with 
sickness and debility which laid him aside from the 
active duties of his calling. 

South's distinction is that of a preacher, and he 
is second to none in any language. No one has 
combined and blended logic and rhetoric in more 
perfect proportions. He argues closely and rigor- 
ously; but the argument never interferes with the 
fluency and impetuosity of the discourse; even such 
subjects as predestination and the Trinity are made 
popular and interesting by his powerful grasp and 
handling, and all this is heightened by his remark- 
able style. The closeness and intimacy of the con- 
nection between thought and word is hardly excelled 
by Shakespeare, 



South Sea Island* 

South was a Calvinist at a time when the drift 
of the High-church episcopacy, which he favored, 
set strongly toward Arminianism. Though anti- 
Puritan, and bitterly so, in regard to polity, both 
civil and ecclesiastical, he was a Puritan in theology. 
John Owen was not a higher predestinarian than he, 
and Richard Baxter was a lower one. It must have 
been from an intense conviction of the truth of this 
type of doctrine, that South, in the face of all his 
prejudices and of his ecclesiastical and courtly con- 
nections, defended it with might and main. For this 
reason, the great anti-Puritan has continued to 
have warm admirers among Puritans and Non-con- 

There have been many editions of his Sermons 
(best ed., 12 vols., London, 1704-44, with a memoir 
of his life and writings in vol. xii., 1717; reissued, 
ed. W. G. T. Shedd, 5 vols., Boston, 1866-71). 

W. G. T. SHBDDf. 
BnuoaaAPHT: The standard memoir is that in the Ser- 
mon*, ut sup. Consult further John Barber's funeral ora- 
tion. The Character of the Rev. and Learned Dr. Robert 
South* London, 1716; A. a Wood, Athena Oxionenses, ed. 
P. Bliss, iv. 631-632, and Fasti, ii. 168, 182. 200, 276. 
281, 334, 4 vols., London, 1813-20; W. C. Lake, South 
the Rhetorician, in J. E. Kempe, Classic Preachers of the 
EnoUsh Church, 2 series, London, 1877-78; W. H. Hutton, 
The English Church (1626-1714). PP. 268, 208, London, 
1903; DNB, liii. 275-277. 

SOUTHCOTTIANS: The founder of a short-lived 
Kn gligh sect (b. at Gittisham, 14 m. n.e. of Ex- 
mouth, Devonshire, Apr., 1750; d. at London Dec. 
27, 1814) and her followers. Interpreting the text 
Rev. xii. 1 sqq. as signifying the speedy advent of 
the Messiah, she declared herself to be the bride of 
the Lamb, and, although sixty-four years old, an- 
nounced that she was about to give birth to the 
future Messiah, this belief being caused probably 
by tympanites. She required her followers to keep 
the Jewish laws regarding clean and unclean meat 
and the observance of the Sabbath. A magnificent 
cradle was made to receive the future prince, or 
" second Shiloh," and both Joanna and her ad- 
herents waited patiently for her delivery. She died, 
however, of the disease named above ; but her 
tracts, some sixty in number, and her works, of 
which the most important were The Strange Effects 
of Faith, with Remarkable Prophecies . . . of Things 
which are to come (2 parts, Exeter, 1801-02; contains 
autobiographical material); A Dispute between the 
Woman and the Power of Darkness (London, 1802) ; 
Divine and Spiritual Communications (1803) ; Warn- 
ing to the Whole World from the Sealed Prophecies of 
Joanna Southcott (2 parts, 1803); The Second Book of 
Visions (1803); Copies and Parts of Copies of Letters 
and Communications, written from Joanna South- 
eoU (1804); Second Book of the Sealed Prophecies 
(1805); A Caution and Instruction to the Sealed 
(1807); The True Explanation of the Bible (7 parts, 
1804-10) ; and The Book of Wonders (5 parts, 1813- 
1814), were still eagerly read by her followers, who 
did not abandon hope of the predicted Messiah. 
The gradually dwindling sect assembled for a time 
in London to hear the words of the prophetess Elisa- 
beth Peacock, and later met in the house of her son, 
in Trafalgar Street, but it is unlikely that it sur- 
vived the year 1880. (O. ZocKLERf.) 

Bibliography: A considerable literature, belonging to the 
period of her life and a very few years after her death, is 
indicated in the British Museum Catalogue, a. v. The 
sources are her own writings, which contain, in fragmen- 
tary form, considerable biographical detail. Consult: The 
Life and Death of Joanna Southcott, London, 1815; (J- 
Fairburn), The Life of Joanna Southcott, the Prophetess, 
ib. 1814; Memoirs of the I<ife and Mission of Joanna South- 
cott, ib. 1814; The Life and Prophecies of Joanna South- 
cott, ib. 1815; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, 
.... pp. 568-570. Philadelphia, 1874; DNB, liii. 277- 
279; Alice Seymour, The Express, Containing the Life and 
Divine Writings of Joanna Southcott, London, 1909. 

SOUTHGATE, HORATIO: Protestant Episcopal 
missionary bishop; b. in Portland, Me., July 5, 1812; 
d. in Astoria, L. I., Apr. 12, 1894. He was grad- 
uated from Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., 1832, 
and from Andover Theological Seminary, 1835, and 
was ordained deacon the same year; was engaged, 
under appointment by the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, in investigating the state of Mohammedan- 
ism in Turkey and Persia, 1836-38; ordained priest, 
1839; missionary in Constantinople, as delegate to 
the oriental churches, 1840-44; Episcopalian mis- 
sionary bishop for the dominions and dependencies 
of the Sultan of Turkey, Oct. 26, 1844-49; was rec- 
tor of St. Luke's Church, Portland, Me., 1851-52; 
of the Church of the Advent, Boston, Mass., 1852- 
1858; and of Zion Church, New York City, 1859- 
1872; and then took up his residence at Ravens- 
wood, L. I. He is the author of Narrative of a Tour 
through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia, and Mesopo- 
tamia (2 vols., New York, 1840); Narrative of a 
Visit to the Syrian (Jacobite) Church of Mesopotamia 
(1844); A Treatise on the Antiquity, Doctrine, Min- 
istry, and Worship of the Anglican Church (in Greek; 
Constantinople, 1849); Parochial Sermons (New 
York, 1860); and The Cross above the Crescent, a 
Romance of Constantinople (Philadelphia, 1877). 

Bibxjographt: W. S. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 
103, New York, 1896. 

tarian; b. at North Collins, N. Y., Oct. 15, 1863, 
He received his education at Harvard University 
(B.A., 1887; M.A., 1892; S.T.B., 1892); was a 
teacher in secondary schools, 1887-89; served the 
Unitarian church at Duluth, Minn., 1892-97, and 
the Third Unitarian Church, Chicago, 1897-99; was 
secretary of the Western Unitarian Conference, 
1899-1902; and became president of the Meadville 
Theological School, dean of the faculty, and pro- 
fessor of practical theology in 1902. 

SAUR): American printer and publisher; 
Laasphe (18 m. w.n.w. of Marburg), Germany, 1693; 
d. at Germantown, Pa., Sept. 25, 1758. He studied 
at the University of Halle; in 1724 he emigrated to 
America and settled as a farmer in Lancaster county, 
Pa., but removed to Germantown in 1731 and prac- 
tised medicine there. In 1738 he acquired, largely 
from philanthropic motives, a printing-press at 
Germantown, and began the publication of a Ger- 
man almanac, which was continued by his descend- 
ants for sixty years. In 1739 he issued the first 
number of the Hoch-Deutsch pensylvanische Ge- 
schichts-Schreiber, a religious and secular journal 
that exerted a large influence upon the Germans of 



Pennsylvania. In 1743 he brought out a large 
quarto edition of Luther's translation of the Bible. 
This was the first Bible in a European language 
printed in America. The type was brought from 
Frankfort. Thereafter he issued many other works, 
both in German and English. In the German books 
the German form of his name is used. In connection 
with his printing business he established a paper- 
mill, a small ink factory, and a type-foundry, the 
first in America. Sower wrote Ein abgenOtkigter 
Bericht (Germantown, 1739; Eng. transl. in The 
Pennsylvania Magazine, xii. 78-96, Philadelphia, 
1888), pertaining to his quarrel with Conrad Beissel, 
founder of Ephrata (see Communism, II., 5); and 
Verschiedene christliche Wahrheiten (1748), an an- 
swer to Franklin's Plain Truth (Philadelphia, 1747). 

Church historian; b. at Bethelia, a town near Gaza, 
Palestine, c. 400. He came of a Christian family, 
his grandfather having been converted to Christian- 
ity, together with his household, through a miracle 

reputed to have been wrought by Saint 
Life. Hilarion (q.v.) by casting out a demon 

from a neighbor Alaphrion. These were 
the beginnings of Christianity in the place, and 
Alaphrion is said to have built churches and clois- 
ters, while the grandfather of Sozomen was cele- 
brated as an exegete. Under Julian, on account of 
his faith, he was forced to seek safety in flight (Hist, 
ecd., V., xv.). Sozomen seems to have been brought 
up in the circle of Alaphrion and acknowledges a 
debt of gratitude to the monastic order (I., i. 19). 
He appears familiar with the region around Gaza, 
and mentions having seen Bishop Zeno of Majuma, 
the sea-port of Gaza (VII., xxviii. 6). It is probable 
that he visited Jerusalem (II., xxvi. 3). Later he 
adopted the vocation of advocate, in which capacity 
he was active in Constantinople at the time he com- 
posed his history. 

Sozomen wrote two works on church history; the 
first (cf. Hist, ecd., I., i. 12), which has entirely dis- 
appeared, comprised in twelve books the history of 
the Church from the ascension to Licinius. Euse- 

bius, the Clementine Homilies, Hege- 

Two sippus, and Sextus Julius Africanus 

Works; were used in this history. The second 

Editions, and longer work was a continuation of 

the first, and was dedicated to Em- 
peror Theodosius the Younger (editio princeps by 
R. Stephens, Paris, 1544, on the basis of Codex 
Regius, 1444). The text was first placed on a firm 
foundation by Valesius (Cambridge, 1720), who used, 
besides the text of Stephens, a Codex Fucetianus 
(now at Paris, 1445), " Readings " of Savilius, and 
the indirect traditions of Theodoras Lector and 
of Cassiodorus-Epiphanius. Reading reprinted the 
text of Valesius adding collations of a Codex CasteU 
lani episc. and a " Codex Jones." Hussey's pos- 
thumous edition (largely prepared for the press by 
John Barrow, who wrote the preface) is important, 
since in it the archetype of the Codex Regius, the 
Codex Baroccianus 142, is collated for the first time. 
But this manuscript was written by various hands 
and at various times and therefore is not equally 
authoritative in all its parts. [The ed. by R. Hus- 

sey, Oxford, 1800, ought to be mentioned.] The 
" Church History " of Sozomen has not been pre- 
served in its entirety, as is shown by the fact that 
IX., xvi. 4 promises matter which is not forth- 
coming. How much of the history is wanting can 
be estimated from the preface, where it is said that 
the work was to extend to the seventeenth consulat e 
of Theodosius, that is, to 439 a.d., while the extant 
history ends about 425, so about half a book may 
be wanting. Guldenpenning supposed that Sczo- 
men himself suppressed the end of his work because 
in it he mentioned the Empress Eudocia, who later 
fell into disgrace through her supposed adultery. 
But this assumption can scarcely be correct, since 
Nicephorus and Theodoras Lector appear to have 
read the end of Sosomen's work. 

From what has been said, the history must have 

been written between 439 and 450, the latter the 

year of the death of Theodosius. Soaomen certainly 

wrote after Socrates (cf . Socrates, HisL 

Sources ecd., I., xxxviii. 9 with Sozomen, HisL 

of the ecd., II., xxx. 6-7). The literary re- 

" Church lationship of these writers appears, 

History." everywhere. Valesius asserted that 
Sozomen read Socrates, and Hussey 
and Guldenpenning have proved this. For exam- 
ple, Socrates, in I., x., relates an anecdote which he 
had heard, and says that neither Eusebius nor any 
other author reports it, yet this anecdote is found 
in Sozomen, I., xxii., the similarity of diction show- 
ing that the text of Socrates was the source. Doubts 
have been expressed as to the truth of Sosomen's 
claim in his preface that he used in his history re- 
ports of the councils, imperial letters, and other doc- 
uments; but closer investigation shows this to be 
correct. He also seems to have consulted the laws 
(cf. XVI., i. 3, regarding the installation of patri- 
archs over the five dioceses of the Eastern Empire, 
where he cites more correctly than does Socrates). 
The ecclesiastical records used by Sozomen are 
principally taken from Sabinus, to whom he con- 
tinually refers. In this way he uses records of the 
synods from that of Tyre (335) to that of Antioch 
in Caria (367). As an example, in II., xxvii. 14, he 
treats of the council of Jerusalem and says: " When 
they had done this they wrote to the emperor and 
to the church of Alexandria and to the bishops and 
clergy in Egypt, the Thebald and Lybia." Socrates 
speaks of the letter to the emperor and to the Alex- 
andrians, but he knows nothing of the other letters. 
Sozomen appears also to have consulted the His* 
toria Athanasii and also the works of Athanasius; 
for he completes the statements of Socrates from 
the Apologia contra Arianos. lix. sqq., and copies 
Athanasius' Adv. episcopos JEgypti, xviii.-xix. He 
also consulted the writings of Eusebius and Ru- 
finus. The Vita Constantini of Eusebius is expressly 
cited in the description of the vision of Constantine, 
Rufinus is frequently used, and especially instruct- 
ive in this respect is a comparison of Sozomen, II., 
xvii. 6 sqq. with Socrates, I., xv. and Rufinus X., 
xiv. For the anecdote regarding the childhood 
of Athanasius, Rufinus is the original; Socrates 
expressly states that he follows Rufinus, while 
Sozomen knows Socrates' version, but is not satis- 
fied with it and follows Rufinus more, closely. Of 




secular historians Sozomen probably used only 
Olympiodorus. A comparison with Zosimus, who 
also made use of this writer, seems to show that the 
whole ninth book of Sozomen, excepting the re- 
flections of the author, is nothing more than an 
abridged extract from Olympiodorus. Oral tradition 
is occasionally utilized, also the Vita Antonii of 
Athanasius, lists of Persian martyrs (II., xiv. 5), 
logai of Eustathius of Antioch (II., xix. 7), the 
letter of Cyril of Jerusalem to Constantius concern- 
ing the miraculous vision of the cross (IV., v. 4), 
letters of Julian (V., iii. 4), and other sources. 

Hie spirit and interest of Sozomen's history is 
clearly apparent; he follows the thread of the nar- 
rative of Socrates but seeks to improve upon and 
to excel his original by elegance of diction, and by 
the use of excellent sources of which 
Character he makes skilful use. Generally he 
of the follows his authorities closely, some- 
History, times almost literally; when they dif- 
fer, he occasionally gives the various 
versions. The historical exposition is altogether 
impersonal; Sozomen assumes (III., xv.) that the 
task of history is to assemble facts without adding 
anything to them, hence he indulges in little criti- 
cism and usually adopts the views of his sources. 
This he does to such an extent that he has been 
charged with Arianism and Novatianism. In real- 
ity, in accord with his legal training, he has no opin- 
ion in theological questions; at the same time he 
was thoroughly pious and a great admirer of mo- 
nasticism. The attempt of Sozomen to compose a 
better church history than that of Socrates was only 
partially successful. He frequently offers additional 
material but rarely improves upon his prototype. 
The errors into which Socrates fell in his treatment 
of the Eastern Church, and especially touching the 
first phase of the Arian controversy, are quietly 
copied by Sozomen. But as to the Western Church 
he was better informed and has made several im- 
portant corrections. Still, those who would use his 
work should seek to disengage his citations from 
the context, and endeavor to reach his original 
sources. (G. Lobschcke.) 

Bxbuoorapht: The most convenient Eng. transl. is in 
NPNF, 2 ser. t vol. ii., where useful prolegomena are to be 
found. The editions named in the text are usually ac- 
companied by a Vila. Consult: Fabricius-Harles, Bib- 
Hotheca Graoa, vii. 427 sqq. ( Hamburg, 1801; F. A. Hols- 
hannen. De fonttbtu quibu* Socrates, Sozomentu . . . tm 
sunt, Gdttingen, 1825; Nolte, in TQS, 1861, pp. 417 sqq.; 
J. Rosenstein, in Forsehungen zttr deutschen Qeschichte, i. 
167-204, Gdttingen, 1862; A. Golden penning and I. 
Ifland, Der Kaiser Theodosius der Orosse t pp. 21 sqq., 
Halle. 1878; C. de Boor, in ZKG, vi (1883-84), 478-494; 
A. Gttldenpenning, Die Kirchengeschichte dee Theodoret 
pon Kyrrhos, pp. 12 sqq., Halle, 1889; P. Batiffol, in 
Byaontinische ZeiUchrift, vii (1898), 265-284. z (1901), 
128 sqq.; Bardenhewer, Patrologie, p. 333, Eng. transl., 
St. Louis, 1908; J. Bides. La Tradition manuscrite de Sozo- 
men* et la tripartite de Theodore le lecteur, in TU, xxxii. 
2b (1908); Ceillier, Avteurs sacres t viii. 525-34, xi. 102- 
KB. 220; DCB, iv. 722-723; KL, xi. 534-536; and the 
literature named under Socrates (the church historian). 

THEODOR: Lutheran; b. at Esslingen (7 m. s.e. 
of Stuttgart), Wurttemberg, Oct. 29, 1839; d. in 
Philadelphia June 26, 1910. He was educated at 
the University of Tubingen, where he completed 

nis studies in 1861, and, after 6eing a tutor in the 
family of the Duke of Argyle in 1863, was pastor of 
St. Michael's and Zion's Lutheran Church, Phila- 
delphia (1864-67). After 1867 he was pastor of St. 
Johannis' German Lutheran Church in the same 
city, and professor in the Lutheran Theological 
Seminary, Philadelphia, after 1873. From 1880 to 
1888 he was president of the General Council of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America. 
He edited the General Council's German Sunday- 
school book in 1875 and the same body's German 
church book in 1877, as well as the magazine Ju- 
gends/reund in 1877, being also joint editor of the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania's Documentary His- 
tory (Philadelphia, 1898). His independent works 
include Evangdien des Kirchenjahres (Philadel- 
phia, 1870) ; Brotsamen von des Herrn Tische (1871) ; 
General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
in North America (1885); Liederlust (Allentown, 
Pa., 1886); Saatkorner (Philadelphia, 1893); Dr. 
Wilhelm Julius Mann, ein deutsch-amerikanischer 
Theologe (Reading, Pa., 1895); Biography of Dr. 
Charles Porterfield Krauth (vol. i., New York, 1898); 
Annotations on the Gospel according to St. John 
(1896). His " Order of Lutheran Worship " has 
been translated into English by H. D. Spaeth (Bur- 
lington, la., 1906). 

SPAIN: A kingdom occupying the greater part 
of the most westerly peninsula in southwestern 
Europe; area (including the Canary Islands and 
the Balearic Isles) 196,173 square miles; popula- 
tion (1900) 18,618,086. The inhabitants nearly all 
belong to the Roman Catholic, which is the State 
Church. The constitution of 1875 declares (art. 
11, § 2) that no one shall be molested on account 
of his religious opinion or in the exercise of his wor- 
ship, provided the due observance of Christian 
morals is maintained; but declares again (§ 3) with 
apparent contradiction that ceremonies and public 
evidences other than of the state religion shall not 
be tolerated. By the term " public evidences " 
was implied not only the building of churches whose 
object is distinctly recognizable from without by 
such marks as portals, towers, or inscriptions, but 
also the singing of sacred music. On this account, 
for instance, the Evangelical Germans at Barcelona 
had to dispense with a tower in building a modest 
house of worship in 1903. This spirit of intolerance 
is explained by the fixed public estimate placed 
upon the unity of the Roman Catholic faith, which 
is a result of the early age of Christianity in Spain. 
After the rapid progress of Christianity from the 
first till the third century there followed a period 
of much stress; first through the Arian Visigoths 
and other Germanic races, but far more through 
the plundering and lawless violence of the Moorish 
conquerors. Yet the Church maintained at least 
three archbishoprics out of six, and twenty-nine 
bishoprics. But the religious ardor was especially 
revived and tenaciously developed in the persistent 
and bitter wars for the expulsion of the Moham- 

An invigorating reinforcement was constituted 
by the four orders of knights, which originated for 
the restoration of the sovereignty of the Roman 




Catholic faith in Spain. Hand in hand with this 
was the work of the new monastic orders, espe- 
cially the Dominicans, who spread rapidly and 
gained in influence from 1215, obtaining in 1233 the 
administration of the Inquisition (q.v.), introduced 
in 1215. This institution attained a more definite 
organisation in Spain than elsewhere. By agree- 
ment in 1483, the king was authorized to nominate 
to the pope the grand inquisitor, and the court of 
first instance of this institution was subordinated 
to the royal supreme court. The Inquisition op- 
erated first against the spiritual remnants of Moor- 
ish Islam; then against those of the Jews after the 
act of expulsion in the sixteenth century; and, 
finally, after a brief restraint, against the incom- 
ing Evangelical movement. The autos daft of such 
as were accused of heresy and executions by gar- 
roting occurred frequently, and at not a few places; 
for not only had a number of Evangelical congre- 
gations organized themselves, but also very reso- 
lute martyrs died for the cause. By the close of the 
century, the Roman Catholic Church had been com- 
pletely reestablished, not without bloodshed. Such 
ecclesiastical disturbances as arose until after 1850 
consisted in the occasional opposition of kings and 
governments to the popes' excessive claims of in- 
dependence and the power of the Jesuits: for ex- 
ample, the king's acquisition, from 1757, of the 
right to nominate bishops; the expulsion of the 
Jesuits, in 1767; retrenchments on ecclesiastical 
property, from 1789, after the number of the clergy 
had been fixed in 1768 at 149,800 in a given popula- 
tion of 9,307,000 souls. In 1808, under Napoleon's 
king, Joseph, many larger cloisters were abolished; 
and in 1835, the smaller ones were likewise closed. 
In 1859, the Church relinquished all its real posses- 
sions, and these were afterward awarded to the 
separate congregations. In the way of compensa- 
tion, the State guaranteed the maintenance of pub- 
lic worship and the clergy; and the pope obtained 
the right to nominate a spiritual dignitary in every 

By the concordat of 1881, the hierarchical ap- 
portionment of the country provided seven metro- 
politan districts and thirty-eight bishoprics as fol- 
lows: Burgos, with six suffragans; Santiago de 
Compostella, with five; Granada, with five; Sara- 
gossa, with seven; Toledo, with four (including 
Madrid); Valencia, with five; and Valladolid, with 
six episcopal sees. In addition, the abbot who has 
jurisdiction over the provinces of the orders of 
knighthood, who has residence at Ciudad Real, has 
episcopal rank. There are 2,200 parishes divided 
into two classes. A new Evangelical movement 
arose in Spain in 1855 through the Spaniard Fran- 
cisco de Paula Ruet (q.v.), who, returning from 
Italy, where the Waldensian preaching was being 
eagerly received, published the Evangelical faith in 
Barcelona. The cause was further promoted by a 
man of spiritual force, Matamoros. However, im- 
prisonment and exile were used against the move- 
ment until after the end of Bourbon rule in 1868. 
From that time, and after the return of the Bour- 
bons in 1874, not a little has been done through the 
efforts of Evangelical associations and circles in 
Great Britain, Switzerland, and the German states 

of the Rhine toward creating an Evangelical fellow- 
ship composed of native Spanish. Most successful 
was the Rhenish Pastor Fliedner, in Madrid. There 
is, however, no Spanish Evangelical Church as such, 
but there are four separate ones. What is known 
as the Iglesia Espafia Reformatoria was organized 
by the Anglican Spanish Church Aid Society; and 
is, accordingly, High-church in its order and wor- 
ship. It comprises eleven congregations and is di- 
rected by a bishop. The Methodists and the Bap- 
tists, together with the Plymouth Brethren, have a 
smaller scattering of congregations and members. 
The strongest Protestant body is the Iglesia Evan- 
gelica Espafia, as founded by Fliedner and continued 
by one of his sons. This has twenty-one distinct 
congregations, and thirty-six preaching-stations. 
The supreme government is vested in an annual 
synod. The total number of Spanish Protestants 
is estimated at 13,000 to 14,000. Also the Germans 
have two Evangelical congregations in Spain; one 
in Madrid, and a stronger one in Barcelona, with 
two associate congregations. There are a great 
many weekly church periodicals and other tracts 
in circulation, furnished from England, Scotland, 
North America, and Germany for the support of 
Spanish Protestantism. See the following article. 

W. GOT*. 

Bibliography: On the general and Roman Catholic hit- 
tory of Spain consult: D. J. Saens d'Aguirre, Collectie 
maxima concUiorum omnium Spania, 2d ed., 6 vols.. Home, 
1753; H. Flora, Espana sagrada (with continuation!), 
61 vols., Madrid, 1754-1879; F. W. Lembke, Geschichte 
von Spanien (continued by Schftfer and Schirnnacher), 
6 vols., Hamburg, 1831-03; P. B. Gams, Die Kirchenge- 
echichte von Spanien, 5 vols., Regensburg, 1862-79; P. 
Rousselot, Lee Mystiques espagnols, 2d ed., Paris, 1809; 
Q. Diercks, Dae moderne Qeieteeleben Spaniene, Leipsic, 
1883; idem, Dae moderne Spanien, Berlin, 1908; P. 
Fdrster, Der Einfluss der Inquisition auf doe geietige 
Leben der Spanier, Berlin, 1890; O. Werner, Orbis terrarum 
eatholicus, pp. 38-49, Freiburg, 1890; H. C. Lea, Chapter* 
from the Religious Hist, of Spain connected with the Inqui- 
sition, Philadelphia, 1890; idem, Hietory of the Inquisition 
of Spain, 4 vols.. New York, 1906-07; F. Meyrick. The 
Church in Spain, London, 1892; M. R. Burke, HisL ej 
Spain, 2 vols., London, 1900; M. A. S. Hume, The Spanish 
People, London, 1901 ; A. Astrian, Historia de la Compania 
de Jesus en laasistenciade Espafia, Madrid, 1902 sqq.; W. 
Webster, Gleanings in Church Hist, in Spain and France, 
London, 1903; H. Leclercq, UEspagne chrUienne, Para, 
1906; C. Rudy, The Cathedrals of Northern Spam. Their 
History and their Architecture, together with much of Interest 
concerning their Bishops, Rulers, etc., London, 1906; K. 
Habler, Geschichte Spaniene unter den Habeburgem, voL L, 
Gotha, 1907; M. Andujar, Spain of To-day from Within, 
New York, 1909; W. W. Collins, Cathedral Cities of Spain, 
ib. 1909; H. Giessen, Die chrisaich-arabische Literatur der 
Motaraber, Leipsic, 1909; C:C. Perkins, Builders of Spain, 
2 vols., London, 1909; R. Tyler, Spain: Study of her Life 
and Arts, New York, 1909; KL, xi. 539-551. 

On Protestantism in this country consult the li tera t ur e 
under the following articles, and: The Spanish Reformed 
Church. The Declaration set forth by the Central Consis- 
tory . . . with some Account of the Members and their 
Meetings at Gibraltar, . . . 1868, London, 1868; J. A. 
Wylie, Daybreak in Spain; Us new Reformation, I<ondnn, 
1870; F. G. J. Grape, Spanien und doe EvangeHum, Halle, 
1896; H. E. Noyes, Church Reform in Spain. A Short 
History of the Reformed Episcopal Churches of Spain and 
Portugal, London, 1897; E. Sch&fer, Beitrage sur Geschichte 
des spanischen ProtestanHsmus und der Inquisition im 18. 
Jahrhundert, 3 vols., Gutereloh, 1902; G. Borrow, The 
Bible in Spain, late ed., London, 1906; F. E. and H. A. 
Clark, The Gospel in Latin Lands, pp. 125-159, New York, 
1909; G. H. B. Ward, The Truth about Spain, 





I. The Reformation in Spain. 
The Early Movement (I 1). 
Protestant Movement (J 2). 
II. Anticlerical Movements. 
Political Opposition (ID. 
Dissent and Unbelief (ft 2). 
m. Evangelical Activities. 
Protestant Societies (ft 1). 
Schools and Other Agencies (ft 2). 
Summary of Conditions (ft 3). 
Opportunities (ft 4). 

L The Reformation in Spain: At the close of the 
Middle Ages the type of Christianity prevailing in 
Spain was more militant, more independent, more 

Evangelical, that is, more nearly Prot- 

x. The estant, than that to be found in any 

Early other nation of Christendom. More 

Movement militant, because the 700 years 1 war 

which the Christians of Spain had 
waged with the Mohammedans had given strength 
and tenacity to their religious sentiments; more in- 
dependent, because the unbroken spirit of the Span- 
ish rulers and people had secured the interposition 
of the secular authority to combat the deteriorating 
influence of the Roman Curia upon the local church; 
more Evangelical, because twenty years before 
Luther nailed his theses to the church door at Wit- 
tenberg the Spanish church had felt the purifying 
and regenerating influence of a reformation largely 
Protestant in spirit and aims. This reform was the 
outcome of a plan conceived by Queen Isabella, 
upon the union of the peninsular states to form the 
Spanish kingdom in 1492. Its execution was ac- 
complished under the leadership of Francisco 
Ximenes de Cisneros (see Ximenes de Cisnekos), 
a Franciscan monk and confessor to the queen. The 
concordat of 1482 had given the Spanish crown the 
right of visitation and of nomination to benefices. 
Cisneros was permitted to use these powers to re- 
store the strictest monastic discipline in the con- 
vents, and to purge the secular clergy of those 
abuses which were common to the time. Having 
improved the morals of the Spanish clergy he set 
himqolf to overcome their ignorance and lack of cul- 
ture. The reading and study of the Bible were made 
a special feature in their training, something previ- 
ously unknown; new schools of theology were es- 
tablished, with courses in Bible exegesis; and a 
band of scholars was collected at Alcala in 1502, 
who undertook at the expense of Cisneros the prep- 
aration of the celebrated Complutensian Polyglot 
(see Bibles, Polyglot, I.). About the same time 
he was instrumental in the establishment of uni- 
versities at Alcala, Seville, and Toledo, where the 
study of the classics was fostered and a large sym- 
pathy was shown with the labors of Erasmus and 
the Humanists. Unlike Luther, Cisneros made no 
direct attack on the abuses or authority of the 
papacy, yet when he encountered the opposition of 
the pope, in dealing with the abuses of the local 
church, he assumed an attitude of virtual inde- 
pendence, and was protected in it by the Spanish 
rulers. Hie immediate influences of this movement 
were largely confined to the clergy, but it gradually 
wrought a distinct change in the religious life of 
the whole nation and developed in Spain a unique 

type of Roman Catholicism. In its essential fea- 
tures it represents a partial and limited devel- 
opment of the Protestant thesis, and, with its 
Humanistic and Evangelical tendencies, it was fitted 
to serve as the natural forerunner of a truly Protes- 
tant Reformation. At the same time, catching up 
as it did the religious zeal and initiative of the 
Spanish people and fusing them into a relatively 
pure and intelligent form of Catholicism, it forged 
the very weapon that was destined to give the 
death stroke to Evangelical Christianity on Spanish 
soil, and trained the leaders who were to rally the 
forces of Roman Catholicism in the sixteenth century 
for the long and bitter struggle against Protestant 
principles throughout Western Christendom. 

The advancement of the Spanish monarch to the 
imperial throne in 1520, as Charles V., opened a wide 
channel for the introduction of Lutheran and Re- 
formed teachings into Spain. At first, 
2. Protes- Luther's doctrines were generally re- 
tant ceived among the educated classes with 
Movement interest and favor, and their spread 
was helped for a time by the liberal 
tendencies prevailing among the Spanish hierarchy, 
as well as by the temporizing policy of Charles V. 
in dealing with Luther and the Protestant princes 
of Germany. With respect to Charles 1 attitude, it 
was even asserted by the confessor of the emperor, 
who himself favored the Protestants, that Charles 
secretly sympathized with the movement and that 
he hoped to use Luther as a lever for forcing upon 
the German church a Reformation after the Spanish 
model. Subsequently a gradual reaction against 
reform among the Spanish clergy and a change in 
the policy of Charles made Protestantism a pro- 
scribed religion in Spain, narrowed the circle of its 
adherents to the more earnest and daring spirits, 
and, after the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, subjected 
the Protestants to a persecution constantly growing 
in severity. The principal features marking its 
growth were its almost exclusive confinement to 
the privileged and educated classes; the lack of 
organization, except small congregations at Seville 
and Valladolid; the large numbers from the Roman 
Catholic clergy and theologians who embraced it; 
and especially the large numbers of persons among 
its converts, illustrious either for their rank or 
learning. Notable among them are the follow- 
ing: Alphonso Valdes, secretary of Charles V.; 
Alphonso de Bernaldez, chaplain to the emperor, 
who suffered condemnation in 1537; Bartalome 
Carranza y Miranda, archbishop of Toledo, who 
was condemned for holding Protestant views; Rod- 
erigo de Valera, who laid the foundations of the 
church in Seville and was condemned by the In- 
quisition in 1541; Juan Gil, otherwise known as 
Doctor Egidius, a famous preacher of Seville who 
was nominated in 1550 to the bishopric of Tortosa, 
but before his installation was condemned for her- 
esy; Don Carlos de Seso, a distinguished nobleman 
who did much f«>r the Protestant cause throughout 
Spain; Jayme Enzinas and his brother Francesco 
de Enzinas (qq.v.), two young men of noble birth 
who were converted while students abroad, the 
former of whom suffered martyrdom in Rome in 
1546, and the latter translated the first Spanish ver- 




sion of the New Testament and had it printed at 
Antwerp in 1543 for distribution in Spain. Besides, 
many convents of monks and nuns, especially those 
in the neighborhood of Seville and Valladolid, were 
largely leavened with the Protestant heresy. In 
spite of this impetus, Protestantism was effectually 
suppressed in Spain after a brief career of scarcely 
half a century. The chief repressive agency was 
the Inquisition, which assumed in Spain, as the 
joint instrument of civil and religious absolutism, 
its sternest form, and made use of the most drastic 
and arbitrary methods. But it is to be remarked 
that the Protestant forces in Spain were paralysed 
and finally overcome, not so much by the violent 
persecution at home as by the unfavorable impres- 
sion made upon the Spanish people by the actions 
of Protestants abroad. The uprising of the German 
peasants in 1524 in behalf of social reform caused 
great alarm among the privileged classes in Spain 
and greatly prejudiced them against the introduc- 
tion of doctrines which seemed to foment revolu- 
tion elsewhere. Greater antagonism was aroused 
by the alliance of the Protestant princes of Germany 
with the king of France, Francis I., the bitter enemy 
of Spain, and later was increased by the revolt of 
the Protestants in the Netherlands against Span- 
ish rule, so that after a time Protestants came to 
be looked upon not only as heretics but as traitors 
and rebels, and it became increasingly difficult for 
any loyal Spaniard to embrace Protestantism. Prior 
to the abdication of Charles V. in 1546 the activities 
of the Inquisition against Protestants were some- 
what restricted, and though Philip II. on his acces- 
sion gave it a free hand, the work of extermination 
was not begun in deep earnest until 1557. The first 
" auto da U " was celebrated at Valladolid in 1559, 
and thereafter the work of executing Protestant 
victims in the principal cities of Spain was con- 
ducted under the joint auspices of Church and State, 
combining the features of a religious festival and 
a popular holiday. In 1559 it is estimated that 
there were 1,000 Protestants in each of the cities, 
Seville and Valladolid, and a relatively large num- 
ber in other sections of Spain. By the year 1570 
Protestantism in Spain was cut off, root and branch, 
practically all of its converts having suffered either 
banishment or martyrdom, and for the three cen- 
turies that followed the blood of its martyrs was 
as seed in barren soil. 

IL Anticlerical Movements: If it was fanatical 
patriotism allied with ecclesiasticism that crushed 
the Protestant movement in Spain in the sixteenth 

century, it has been an enlightened 
z. Political patriotism arrayed against ecclesias- 
Opposition. ticism that has afforded a shield for the 

Evangelical forces in Spain in modern 
times. The radical and revolutionary philosophy 
of the French skeptics of the eighteenth century 
early found an easy, though a restricted, ground in 
Spain. Under its tuition many Spaniards saw their 
country fastened on by a parasitic tribe of nearly 
140,000 priests, nuns, and sacristans, and they wel- 
comed the Voltairean estimate of their worth. The 
cataclysm of the French Revolution did still more 
to disseminate the seeds of popular freedom, and 
before the downfall of Napoleon, liberalism was fully 

born in Spain and prepared to enter, as in other Latin 
countries, into the long war against absolutism and 
clericalism. The first decisive step was taken in 
1812, during the exile of King Ferdinand VII. The 
Spanish cortes, assembled for the first time in many 
years, was largely composed of lawyers and literary 
men, and though they swore to tolerate no faith 
but Roman Catholicism in the land, they abolished 
the Inquisition, curtailed the power of the clergy, 
and framed a constitution. The restoration of Fer- 
dinand in 1814 resulted in the overturning of their 
work and a violent persecution in the vain attempt 
to exterminate the Liberal party. From the death 
of Ferdinand, in 1833, until 1873 occurred a series 
of heated revolutionary conflicts between the liberal 
and conservative elements, with alternating vic- 
tories, but with the anti-clerical cause steadily 
gaining ground. In 1851, by the concordat estab- 
lished with the pope (see Concordats and Deum- 
iting Bulls, VII.), the monastic orders were limited 
to three. In 1854 the Liberals, being then in power, 
after granting compensation, sold the church lands. 
In 1858 and again in 1868 religious liberty and free- 
dom of worship were proclaimed, but this meant 
only freedom to attack the Church of Rome, and 
full religious tolerance was by no means established. 
In 1873 the cortes proclaimed a republic, but this 
was overthrown by the army and Alphonso XII. 
was seated on the throne. I^rom that time onward 
the monarchy has continued, and political questions 
have usually been settled by an appeal to the elec- 
torate, rather than to force. Politics among the 
leaders has largely degenerated into a scramble for 
the spoils of office, accompanied by more or lees 
compromise with the church party, but there has 
come to Spain in these years, through the spread of 
liberal principles, an increasing measure of civil 
and religious liberty. The most significant event 
for Protestantism of late years was the returning 
to power, in the election of 1910, of Premier Jose 
Canalejas and his party, upon a platform pledging, 
among other reforms, absolute freedom of worship, 
civil supervision of conventual establishments, and 
the laicization of schools and colleges. The sig- 
nificance of this may be seen when it is understood 
that, previous to 1910, the Protestant denomi- 
nations and missions were prohibited from dis- 
playing any insignia of worship or of propagating 
their doctrines publicly; and that, according to a 
recent count, the number of monks and nuns and 
other ecclesiastical officials in Spain totalled 154,517, 
receiving about eight million dollars yearly directly 
from the national treasury, besides various exemp- 
tions and privileges. The first step in the execution 
of this program brought about a break with Rome, 
the papal nuncio was recalled, and at the close of 
the year he had not returned to the Spanish court. 
Another phase of this anticlerical movement is 
the constantly diminishing respect shown by lay- 
man and ecclesiastic for ecclesiastical 
2. Dissent authority even in the sphere of religion, 
and This tendency is noticeable in the in- 
Unbelief. dependent spirit animating the several 
orders in their relation to each other 
and to the local clergy. Indeed, so loose has 
grown the bond between them and so bitter has 




become the antagonism that the assertion is more 
than justified that the ecclesiastical unity existing 
within the Roman Catholic Church in Spain is 
scarcely more real than that existing between the 
principal Evangelical denominations of Protestant 
countries. Again, this spirit has manifested itself 
within the ranks of the secular clergy in their pro- 
tests against the tyranny and abuses of their supe- 
riors in the hierarchy, and they have usually been 
supported in their contentions by the common peo- 
ple. The most striking instance of this occurred in 
a movement originating in Sept., 1898, and led by 
an eminent Spanish priest, Seguismundo Pey Or- 
diex. This brilliant priest was born in Vich, in the 
north of Spain, educated in the University of Sala- 
manca, and was for many years a parish priest in 
Ifallorca and Barcelona. The despotism of the 
bishops became so offensive that he began to com- 
bat them in a weekly newspaper which he published 
and called El Urbion. This paper being suppressed 
by the bishop of Mallorca, Pey Ordiex went to Barce- 
lona and founded a second paper, and, when this 
was suppressed, still a third, El Cosmopolite, which 
was condemned by the church in Nov., 1900. The 
rupture finally came because of the refusal of Pey 
Ordiex to obey an arbitrary order of the bishop of 
Barcelona, whereupon he was publicly suspended 
by the bishop, and forbidden to enter a church. He 
began to speak to the people in the open air, in 
theaters, and in public halls, attacking clericalism 
and preaching the Gospel. He at once became the 
popular idol and quickly gathered a great company 
of followers estimated at 100,000 or more. Among 
the number were at least 1,000 of the most zealous 
priests and friars in the various provinces of Spain. 
The movement was not properly organized, and, 
after two years, when the enthusiasm had somewhat 
abated, Pey Ordiex fell into a trap skilfully laid by 
the Jesuits and was compromised in the eyes of his 
followers; his influence was destroyed, and the move- 
ment collapsed, but it had demonstrated the readi- 
ness of many people and priests to respond to a 
stirring appeal against ecclesiastical abuses in be- 
half of freedom and purity in religion. Still another 
manifestation of this spirit has been the gradual, 
silent revolt of the great body of intelligent laymen 
against the asserted authority of the Roman Catho- 
lic Church. This drift has been in progress for more 
than a century and it has moved apace with the 
spread of culture and republican principles. Joseph 
M'Cabe (Decay of the Church of Rome, p. 88, London, 
1909), writing in 1909, says: " Of the four or five 
million adult males in the country [Spain], only about 
one million are Roman Catholics, and these are for 
the most part illiterate." A distinguished visitor to 
Spain in 1910, speaking of the men of intelligence, 
says: " There are tens of thousands in the country 
whose only use for the Church is at marriage, chris- 
tening, and burial services. 1 ' And this must be the 
feeling that oppresses the visitor to Spain when he 
sees the few scattered worshipers in the magnifi- 
cent cathedrals in the cities, and hears the contemp- 
tuous and jesting manner in which the average in- 
telligent Spaniard refers to the liaisons of the priests, 
the worship of saints and images, the miracles 
wrought by relics, the pretentious ceremonies of the 

church, or the solemn assumptions of the Roman 

EH. Evangelical Activities: The memorable revo- 
lution of Sept., 1868, and the proclamation of liberty 
of conscience and worship by the new " provisional 
government " threw Spain open for the first time 
to all kinds of Evangelical work. The opportunity 

was speedily improved by the entrance 

z. Protes- of missionaries, representing various 

tant Protestant denominations of Great 

Societies. Britain, Ireland, the United States, 

Germany, Holland, Switzerland, and 
Sweden. In 1910 Protestant missions were con- 
ducted in forty-four large cities, with out-stations in 
149 villages and towns; the total number of build- 
ings regularly employed for Protestant worship 
being 116. The following societies were at work: 
(1) Iglesia Espafiola Reformada, or the Reformed 
Church of Spain. This church is the outgrowth of an 
independent movement initiated and conducted 
exclusively by native Spaniards, but fostered and 
supported by the Spanish and Portuguese Church 
Aid Society, organized in 1867 among English and 
Irish Episcopalians. Under its auspices The Church 
of the Redeemer was organized in Madrid in 1869, 
and subsequently ten other churches were founded 
and united to constitute The Reformed Church of 
Spain, under the leadership of Bishop Juan Bautista 
Cabrera, formerly a Roman Catholic friar who was 
consecrated to his office by the archbishop of Dublin, 
in 1887. The number of congregations has increased 
to more than a score, the most important of which 
are found at Madrid, Valladolid, Salamanca, 
Villaescusa, Monistrol, San Vicente, Malaga, and 
Seville. Schools are conducted at each of these 
places and at numerous others. (2) The American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions opened 
its first mission in Spain at Santander in 1871, in 
charge of Rev. William H. Gulick, a Congregational 
minister, and his wife, Alice Gordon Gulick. At 
Santander Mrs. Gulick first established her cele- 
brated school for girls. Later, in 1881, it was 
moved to San Sebastian, and after the Spanish- 
American War it was moved to Madrid and estab- 
lished in commodious quarters under the name of 
the " International Institute for Girls." An off- 
shoot of this same school is the International College, 
now under the charge of the (Congregational) 
Woman's Board of Missions of the United States. In 
these schools many girls have been fitted to become 
Protestant teachers, or the wives of Protestant 
workers throughout Spain. The first church was or- 
ganized in Santander in 1876 with seventeen mem- 
bers. Subsequently churches and day schools were 
established at San Sebastian and other points with 
a central station at Madrid. In 1899 these churches, 
seven in number, of the Congregational polity, were 
united with twelve of the Presbyterian order which 
had been founded by the several Presbyterian so- 
cieties named below. This is an organic union with 
a ministry of twenty-three ordained pastors and 
five evangelists, and is called The Spanish Evan- 
gelical Church. (3) The United Free Church of 
Scotland, through the agency of the Spanish Evan- 
gelization Society (founded in Edinburgh in 1885), 
has established missions and schools in Seville, 




Cadiz, Huelva, Granada, and various other places. 
(4) The Irish Presbyterian Church has opened 
missions and schools in Cordova and Puerta Santa 
Maria; and conducts a theological school in the 
latter place which has done not a little in training 
evangelists and pastors. (5) The Dutch Presbyte- 
rians are reported to have stations at Malaga, 
Almeria, and Cartagena. (6) The Reformed 
Churches of Lausanne, and Geneva, Switzerland, 
sustain missions at Barcelona, Reus, Tarragona, 
and Pontevedra. (7) The English Wesleyan Meth- 
odists undertook their first mission in Spain in 1816 
from Gibraltar. This was soon abandoned because 
of the Roman Catholic opposition. Other efforts 
were made from 1830 to 1840, with Cadiz as a 
center, but were also abandoned. The mission was 
revived in 1869, at Barcelona, and a growing work 
has been conducted in that vicinity and in the 
Balearic Isles, just off the coast. The work at Bar- 
celona has prospered greatly of late years under 
the leadership of Rev. Franklyn G. Smith. (8) The 
German Lutherans have an important work in 
Madrid, with several stations in the province, and 
a publication house which has done much to supply 
the country with evangelical literature. In Madrid 
also is located, in a fine building, the celebrated 
Lutheran " College of the Future " (Colegio de 
Porvenir). (9) The American Baptist Missionary 
Union has a station at Barcelona, with several 
preaching-points in the province. (10) The Swe- 
dish Baptists support one missionary in Valencia 
who has charge of several small churches. (11) The 
Plymouth Brethren (q.v.) have chapels and schools 
in La Corufia, Marin, San Tome 1 , Vigo, Figueras, 
Barcelona, Madrid, and various other places through- 
out the kingdom. (12) The Christian Endeavor 
Societies have been organized in connection with the 
Protestant churches throughout Spain and, to quote 
the words of a Protestant missionary on the field, 
" No other agency yet operating in Spain has [so 
vitally] produced the spirit of Christian fellowship 
and [so] helped toward vital union in Evangelical 
work as the Christian Endeavor." The number of 
societies is forty-eight, with a total membership of 
1,549. Conventions are frequently held in the 
principal cities and practically all the Protestant 
communions are represented. 

In 1910, statistics show that primary schools were 
conducted by Protestants in fifty-one of the principal 
cities and towns of Spain, with 167 teachers and 
6,462 pupils. Secondary schools were conducted 
in the larger Evangelical centers such 
2. Schools as Alicante, Huelva, Rio Tinto, Madrid, 
and Other Santander, and Seville. The higher 
Agencies, institutions of learning were the " Pres- 
byterian Theological Institute," at 
Puerta Santa Maria, the " International College," 
and the " International Institute for Girls," both at 
Madrid, and at Barcelona " The College of the 
Future." Two Protestant hospitals are located in 
Madrid, one in Barcelona, and a medical dispensary 
in Figueras. The Protestants have two orphanages 
in Madrid, and one at Escorial. The principal Evan- 
gelical periodicals are La Luz, Amigo de la Infanda, 
and Esfuerzo Chrisiiano, all published at Madrid; 
El Evangelista, at Barcelona; El Heraldo, at Figuer- 

as; El Correo, at Valencia, with others making eleven 
in all, most of which are issued monthly. The British 
and Foreign Bible Society, which entered Spain in 
1868, has a central depository in Madrid and sup- 
ports several colporteurs. Three other Protestant 
depositories and publishing-houses in Madrid, two 
in Barcelona, and one in Figueras, issue devotional, 
controversial, and educational literature at a low 
price. All of these agencies have been useful in the 
spread of Protestant culture and Evangelical Chris- 
tianity throughout Spain. 

The great hindrance to the propagation of 

Evangelical Christianity in Spain in modern times 

is the existing ecclesiastical corporation, with the 

ignorance, intolerance, and irreligion which it has 

fostered among the people. Thestrong- 

3. Sum- est ally of the Protestant forces is the 

mary of new national spirit which has gradu- 
Conditions. ally emerged in the course of a century 
and has come in large measure to domi- 
nate Spanish thought and feeling, especially since 
the loss of colonial possessions has centered the in- 
terests of the nation on internal enterprises. 

It is not surprising that the transition from the 
medieval to the modern point of view in the national 
consciousness of the Spanish people has been ac- 
companied by a general drift toward skepticism. 
To them the Roman Church has appeared as the 
opponent of progress in every sphere, religious, 
social, intellectual. Therefore they say, "away with 
the Church "; and as Rome has consistently claimed 
to be the only representative of Christianity, the 
only true religion, they say " religion is Roman- 
ism, and we will have none of it." At the same 
time it could hardly be expected that they should 
assume other than an indifferent, or even hostile, 
attitude toward Protestantism. Their knowledge 
of Protestantism has come exclusively from their 
priests, who have presented to the people only cari- 
catures of the Reformers and of Protestantism and 
have filled the minds of the people with preju- 
dice and contempt for any enterprise promoted by 
Protestants. More than this, the Roman Catholic 
Church, by its emphasis on forms, ceremonies, and 
non-essentials, and by its failure to give the people 
the Bible or adequate instruction in the fundamental 
principles of morality, has perverted the conscience 
and corrupted the morals of the great mass of the 
people to such an extent that there can be little to ap- 
peal to them in the high moral teachings of Evangel- 
ical Christianity; and this is notoriously true of the 
entire Roman Catholic body, notwithstanding the 
fact that within it there are now thousands of sincere 
and faithful Christians, especially in the convents. 

If the Protestant propaganda is to meet success- 
fully the present crisis in Spain, the Protestant 
leaders by taking a stronger grasp on the agencies 
already in use and those which lie ready at hand, 
and by a sympathetic approach, and 

4. Oppor- specific adaptation of their methods to 

tunities. the Spanish point of view, must speed- 
ily strive to attract the attention and 
win the respect of all classes. The opposition of the 
ecclesiastical corporation can best be offset by an 
intelligent and earnest effort to reach the individuals 
within the ranks of the clergy, to invite them to 




enter the Protestant ranks, and to provide means 
for their support and training until they can be 
fitted for active work. A converted Spanish friar, 
one who has the right to know, asserts that there are 
thousands of the purest and most zealous priests 
and friars in Spain, who are dissatisfied with their 
own religious status and inexpressibly grieved at the 
pitiable moral conditions which prevail among their 
brethren throughout Spain, and these would gladly 
welcome Protestantism, if their minds could be dis- 
abused of prejudice and they could be convinced 
that it was purer than Romanism. This is a point 
of strategic importance, which has hitherto been al- 
most entirely overlooked by Protestants. The 
ignorance of the great mass of the people can be 
overcome only through the public schools, and Prot- 
estants should not only prosecute with all vigor the 
work of their own schools but should show their 
sympathy in every way with the cause of liberal 
education. To meet the intolerance and preju- 
dice of the people the Protestant forces must be- 
come more aggressive. Through the secular press 
and on the platform they must challenge the asser- 
tions of Rome and show themselves willing and able 
to defend the doctrines and history of Protestantism 
before the bar of reason, and must show that Protes- 
tantism is at least entitled to the consideration of 
intelligent men. It must be demonstrated that 
Christianity is not necessarily compromised by the 
history and vicious practises of the Roman Catholic 
Church, and that true Christianity is not inconsist- 
ent with human freedom and progress in any sphere, 
scientific, social, or religious. In other words, they 
must provoke both the Romanists and infidels to 
public discussion of the issues involved, and must 
project the Protestant enterprise generally upon such 
a plane as will appeal to the intelligence, the imagi- 
nation, and the patriotism of the Spanish people. 
This was the method of Luther and the Reformers, 
and it is justified by its fruits. To meet the irreligion 
of the people the surest method, both of attack and 
defense, is to give them the Bible. This must be 
accompanied by an aggressive evangelism that will 
restore vital religion and quicken the conscience 6f 
all classes; while everywhere Protestant leaders 
must insist upon such standards of morality among 
the converts as will commend the teachings of Prot- 
estantism to the whole people and put to shame the 
licentious abuses tolerated under the present relig- 
ious regime. Juan Orts Gonzalez. 

The following is the text of an address (copied 
from Evangelical Christendom, Nov.-Dec., 1910, p. 
130), signed on behalf of the British organization of 
the Evangelical Alliance by the president, chairman, 
treasurer, and general secretary, which was for- 
warded to Sefior Canalejas, the president of the 
council of ministers, for transmission to H. M. the 
of Spain: — 


Sir, — On behalf of the Council and Members of the 
Evangelical Alliance (British Organization), repre- 
senting Evangelical Christians of various Churches 
throughout the British Empire, we humbly address 
to Your Majesty this expression of our heartfelt 

gratitude for the publication of the Royal Order of 
June 6th, 1910, which interprets in its natural 
sense Article XI. of the Spanish Constitution, and 
grants to Spanish Evangelicals the toleration which 
the framers of the Constitution desired to give them. 

We are convinced that this wise step has secured 
for Spain the good-will of all progressive peoples. 

We rejoice with all friends of Religious Liberty 
that those who are unable to accept the State religion 
are permitted to worship God in accordance with 
their conscience, free from the disabilities which 
compelled them to conceal their existence as mem- 
bers of the Evangelical Churches, and subjected 
them to many inconveniences. 

We earnestly trust that this enlightened policy 

will be continued until Spanish Evangelicals enjoy 

the Religious Liberty extended to Roman Catholics 

by Protestant nations. 

Bibliography: Besides the literature under the following 
article, consult: H. Dalton, Die evangelieche Bewegung in 
Spanien, Wiesbaden, 1872; W. Pressel, Dae Evangelium 
in Spanien, Freienwald, 1877; F. £. and H. A. Clark, The 
Gospel in Latin Lands, New York, 1900; J. M'Cabe, The 
Decay of the Church of Rome, \b. 1900. 

MOVEMENTS IN: The Evangelical movement 
in Spain was preceded by, and partly simultaneous 
with, the movements of the mystics and Humanists. 
The mystics, called alumbrados, " enlightened/' fol- 
lowed Pietism, and showed a certain independent 
attitude toward the external precepts of the Church. 
Francesco de Ossuna, 1527, in part three of his Aben- 
cedario (Toledo, 1527), laid stress on the worthless- 
ness of all good works, and on " faith alone." The 
Humanism of Erasmus found an enthusiastic ad- 
mirer in Alfonso de Valdes (q.v.), the imperial 
secretary. His brother Juan (q.v.) labored in be- 
half of the principle of justification by faith within 
the Roman Church, particularly in Italy, before 
attempts at reconciliation with the Protestants had 
been given up. Great persecution was encountered 
by the brothers Jaime and Francesco de Enzinas 
(q.v.) of Old Castile, from the now aroused Church. 
Francesco de San Roman, sent to Bremen, 1541, 
attended an Evangelical church service and was 
deeply stirred by the sermon of Jacobus Probst. 
He read Evangelical literature and drew up a Span- 
ish catechism. Upon his return to Antwerp, he was 
seized and imprisoned for eight months. At Louvain 
Enzinas discouraged him from preaching because of 
his meager training and experience, but, borne away 
by his zeal, he went to Regensburg, where the em- 
peror was presiding over the diet. Here his im- 
portunities caused his arrest and at the departure 
of the emperor, July 29, 1541, he was taken to Italy 
and Spain in chains and at Mallorca delivered to the 
Spanish Inquisition. He was brought to Valladolid, 
and, refusing to recant, was burned in 1542. Fran- 
cesco de Enzinas, after going to Wittenberg and 
translating the Greek New Testament into Spanish, 
was imprisoned in 1543, but escaped two years later. 
His brother Jaime translated a catechism into 
Spanish, but in 1545 was arrested in Rome and died 
at the stake, 1547. Juan Diaz of Cuenca, the native 
town of the brothers .Valdes, studied theology at 
Paris for thirteen years, and was made a convert 
by Jaime Enzinas. After sojourning several months. 




at Geneva with Calvin, 1545, and assisting Butzer at 
the colloquy at Regensburg, he retired to Neuburg- 
on-the-Danube and published his brief Summa 
(1546). At the instigation of his brother Alfonso, 
attached to the papal court at Rome, he was treach- 
erously assassinated Mar. 27, 1546. 

The first Evangelical groups as nuclei of a con- 
gregation were formed at Seville. Juan Perez de 
Pineda, prior of the church of Osma, and secretary 
of the imperial embassy at Rome, 1547, was there im- 
pressed by the papal abuses. After his return to 
Andalusia he became director of the Colegio de 
doctrina at Seville, and made an effort to promote 
true piety. Threatened by the Inquisition, he emi- 
grated in the fifties to Geneva. In the mean time, 
Rodrigo de Valera, a layman, who by diligent study 
of the Latin Bible had been led to depart from the 
Roman doctrine and who had preached his new faith 
in the streets, influenced Juan Egidio, who worked 
in unison with Constantino Ponce de la Fuente, 
from 1533 powerful preacher at the cathedral. 
The latter issued Con/essio hominis peccatoris 
published in the Serinium aniiquarum of Dr. 
Gerdes (Groningen, 1749-65) and Summa, in Es- 
pafioles Reformados (Madrid, 1847). Egidio, sus- 
pended by the Inquisition (1552) from preaching 
and lecturing for ten years, retracted, but died in 
repentance at Seville, 1556. In 1555 seven men and 
women from Seville fled to Geneva, and likewise 
twelve monks from the Isidore monastery at Seville. 
Perez who had been at Frankfort, 1556-58, secured 
permission at Geneva to be preacher of a Spanish 
congregation. He had published a Spanish transla- 
tion of the New Testament (Geneva, 1556) ; Sumario 
breve de doctrina Christiana (1556); the Commen- 
tary by Juan de Valdes on Romans (q.v. ; 1557), and 
on I Corinthians (1557). In 1557 some of his publica- 
tions were brought to Seville. Their discovery led to 
the arrest of a great number of people who were sus- 
pected of heresy ; others fled from the country. Con- 
stantino was placed under arrest. Similarly there 
arose an Evangelical movement in the capital, Valla- 
dolid, and vicinity, on the initiative of Carlos de 
Seso, of Verona, who in Italy had become acquainted 
with the doctrine of the Reformation. He cautiously 
gathered adherents, particularly the family of Cazal- 
la, among them the court preacher Augustin de 
Cazalla. In 1558 the Inquisition interfered and May 
21, 1559, there took place in Valladolid an auto daft 
of Protestants. Cazalla retracted but was burned 
alive; a brother and sister were garroted; a brother 
and sister condemned to imprisonment; and the ex- 
humed remains of the mother were burned. The 
only one who refused to retract was the advocate 
Antonio de Herrezuelo, who suffered a heroic death. 
In Aug., 1559, Carranza, archbishop of Toledo, was 
arrested; after an imprisonment of seventeen years 
he was condemned to abjure heresy. On Sept. 24, 
1559, an auto daft took place in Seville. A house in 
which Evangelicals had frequently held meetings 
was torn down. The king attended a second auto da 
ft in Valladolid, Oct., 1559, and took an oath that 
he would assist and favor the Inquisition. Carlos 
de Seso was burned ; also Juan Sanchez the sacristan 
of another brother of Augustin Cazalla, who in turn 
was garroted. In Seville, Dec. 22, 1560, Julian 

Hernandez, a lay brother of the Isidore cloister, and 
others were sent to the stake. The remains of Egidio 
and Constantino, who had died in prison, and the ef- 
figy of Pineda were consigned to the flames. Several 
autos da f4 followed in 1562 with a number of vic- 
tims including Garcia Arias, called Maestro Blanco, 
who had kindled evangelism in the monastery. With 
these autos, but barely mentioned, the Evangelical 
movement in Spain was practically smothered. The 
rest of the acts of the Inquisition pertain to resident 
French, Dutch, and English traders and seamen, 
apart from any national movement. A group of 
French Protestants were thus executed at Toledo, 

From the group of fugitive monks of San Isidro 
originated the Aries Inquisitionis (Heidelberg, 1567), 
under the pseudonym Reinaldus Gonsalvius Mon- 
tanus, the reliability of which was evidently made 
uncertain by the author's hatred of his tormentors, 
and his southern temperament. Of the other fugi- 
tive monks of San Isidro Antonio del Corro arrived at 
Geneva, 1557; he soon went to Lausanne to study 
at the academy. Theodor Beza (q.v.) honored him 
with his friendship. In 1559 Corro with the recom- 
mendation of Calvin returned to southern France in 
order to be nearer to his countrymen. In 1563, he, 
together with his convent friend Cassiodoro de 
Reyna and Valera (ut sup.) printed the Spanish New 
Testament in one of the castles of the Queen of 
Navarre. Corro was proscribed at Toulouse, but 
escaped by flight. In Bergerac, where Reyna 
visited him, he was forbidden to preach because he 
was a foreigner. Juan Perez de Pineda met the same 
fate in Blois. All these fugitives from Seville were 
sheltered in Montargis by Renee of France (q.v.). 
In 1566 Corro followed a call as preacher to Antwerp. 
For the queen regent, however, a Spaniard as Evan- 
gelical preacher was objectionable. William of 
Orange desired that the Evangelicals of the Nether- 
lands should declare for the Augsburg Confession 
in order to assure imperial aid. The Evangelical 
preachers were banished from the Netherlands, 
however, and Alva's regime began. In the mean time 
Corro had gone to England. At London his known 
friendship with Reyna, who had gone there from 
Geneva, 1559, and taken charge of the Spanish con- 
gregation and left England because of unfounded 
charges, barred Corro from the French congrega- 
tion. He served the Italian, but was denied the 
communion and deprived of the pulpit by the bishop. 
He united with the Anglican Church, and under 
the auspices of the legal corporation of the Knights 
Templars in London delivered Latin theological 
lectures. He became religious teacher in three in- 
stitutes of the University of Oxford, 1597; was 
theological censor of Christ Church College, 1581-85; 
received a prebend of St. Paul's, London, 1582; and 
died, 1591, at London. He transformed the Epistle 
to the Romans into a dialogue between the apostle 
and a Roman (London, 1574). His Latin paraphrase 
of Ecclesiastes (1579) has been printed several times. 
Highly esteemed as a theologian by the Armini- 
ans, he denied predestinated reprobation and is said 
to have opposed the interference of the State against 
heretics. When Cassiodoro de Reyna left England 
in 1565 he settled with his family at Frankfort-on- 



the-Main, where he made his living in the silk trade 
and worked on his translation of the Bible (Basel, 
1568-69), which is the first complete Spanish Bible 
translated from the original languages. Frankfort 
conferred on him citizenship. In 157S he became 
French pastor of the adherents of the Augsburg Con- 
fession at Antwerp. In 1585 he returned to Frank- 
fort, and become, 1594, preacher of the Netherland 
colony of the Lutheran persuasion. Cipriano de Va- 
lera(ui«up.) fled with his friends from San Isidro to 
Geneva and in 1562 was burned in effigy like Reyna 
and Corro. He studied at Cambridge (B.A., 1560; 
M.A., 1563); was fellow of Magdalen College; ami, 
1566, was connected with Oxford. He published I.c« 
doe Tratados del Papa i de la Misa (1588); Tratado 
para confirmar toe pobra Cantivos de Berberia (1594); 
a new edition of the Spanish catechism of Geneva of 
1559 (1596); El Testamenlo Nveva of C. de Reyna 
(1596; 1870); Instiiucitm de la Religion Christiana 
(1597), a translation of J. Calvin's Institutes; and 
La Reyna (Antwerp, 1602 sua..; I860). 
Pedro Gales, a young Catalonian, was fltftfv 1 about 
1559 at Rome because he had asserted that it was un- 
necessary to confess to a priest and to abstain from 
meat on certain days, and was compelled to abjure. 
He studied at Bologna and Paris, and became pro- 
fessor at Geneva, 1582. Afterward he went to 
southern France and taught in several places until a 
Calvinihtic pastoral conference found him unsound 
in doctrine. On the way to Bordeaux, with wife 
and children, he was captured by members of the 
holy league and in 1593 surrendered to Spain. In 
the prison of the Inquisition at Saragossa he declared 
that the doctrine of the Roman church was fre- 
quently in contradiction with that of Christ and the 
Apostles. His second trial was completed after 
bis death, and his remains were dug up ami burned, 
Apr. 17, 1595. Melchior Roman of Aragon entered 
the order of the Jacobins. In the province of Tou- 
louse he was appointed Procureur Provincial arid 
sent to Rome; subsequently he became provincial 
vicar and confessor of the Dames du Chapellet 
d'Agen. The sight of a victim burned at the stake 
made a deep impression upon him, and he entered 
the Reformed church at Bergerac in 1600. 

(Theodor Schafeh.) 

BrauooaAPnr: T. MeCrie, Hint, of the Progress and Sup- 
prtmm of the Reformation in .Spain, Edinburgh, 1829 
and 185o: A. do Castro, Hitt. of Religious Intolerance in 
Spain, London. 18S3; Mtmoires de Francisco de Eminoj, 
2 vols.. Brawls. 1862-63; H, Dalton. Die emnaeUtehe Be- 
avfwna in Spanien. Wiesbaden. 1872: E. Boebmer. SpanisA 
Reformer* of Too Centuries, London, 1874-83: M. Drain, 
Hitt. de la reformation en Espaone, 2 vols.. Lausanne, 
1S80: M. Henendci yPebiyo. Hitt. dt lot helcrodoios Ef 
potato, 3 vols.. Madrid, ISSlj J. LaasnllQ, La Reform* in 
IqarjHnai sitrle, Paris, 1888; J. Ktoughton, ThcSpan- 
u* Reformers. London, 1883; C. A. Wakens, Gcschichtt da 
ipaniteAm ProleeJanHtmui, Qatcralob, 1888. Erie, transl., 
Spanish Protestants in the 16th Csnlurv. London, 1897; M. 
P. ran Lennep De Hervcrming in Sponje in de sestiende 
«v. Huricm, 1901; E. Rchifer, Beiir/ige Mr Ottdeieato 
der tpanischrn Protestantisms* . . . im iH. Jahrhunderl. 3 
rab.. GOtenilob, 1902; idem, Sevilla vnd Valladolid, die 
letncfen Spanient im Reformationsaaer r 

SPALATI", spa-la-tln', GE0RG: German Re- 
former; b. at Spalt (21 m. s.w. of Nuremberg! Jan. 
17, 1484; d. at Altenburg (26 m. b. of Leipsic) Jan. 
16, 1545. His family name was Burkhardt, which 

he changed to Spalatin — from his birthplace — after 
a frequent custom of the humanists. He was edu- 
cated at the universities of Erfurt (1498-B9, 1505) 
and Wittenberg (L502-03), early coming into con- 
tact with humanistic circles. In 1505 he began to 
teach in the monastery of Georgenthal, and in 1508 
was ordained to the priesthood. In the following 
year he was appointed tutor to the prince who Inter 
became Elector John Fred (-rick, although here, as at 
the monastery, his innovating tendencies rendered 
his position uncomfortable. In 1511 he was for a 
time one of the guardians of the princes Otto and 
Ernest of Brunswick- Lllneburg, although without 
severing his connection with the court of their uncle, 
Elector Frederick the Wise, who, in the following 
year, appointed him his own librarian — a most con- 
genial post. Spalatin gradually became the elector's 
most trusted confidant and a power at court, but 
though he was a priest, he had taken orders merely to 
escape the trials of a poverty-stricken humanist and 
poet. His association with Luther, whom he seems 
first to have met at Wittenberg, changed his life, and 
even before he broke with the ancient faith, he had 
found in the Wittenberg theologian his most ac- 
ceptable adviser. It was Spalatin, moreover, who 
won the elector to sympathy with Luther, even while 
endeavoring to restrain the more impetuous Augus- 
tinian from the course into which he was plunging, 
and it is to Spalatin that the vacillating tactics of 
Luther during the earlier years of tlie Reformation 
are to be traced. 

In 1518 Spalatin accompanied the elector to the 
diet of Augsburg, and conducted negotiations with 
Cajetan and Miltitz, and he was likewise present at 
the election and coronation of Charles V. n« well as. 
at the Diet of Worms, while during Luther's con- 
cealment at the Wartburg he provided means for 
him to correspond with Wittenberg. Despite the 
.liltVulty of hi- position with tin- eleetor, who still 
remained faithful to the Roman Catholic Church, 
Spalatin constantly .-ought to win him over to the 
views of Luther, who demanded the abolition of 
the ritual maintained in the seminary at Wittenberg. 
After the death of Frederick the Wise, Spalatin -.till 
remained in the service of the court, although he was 
now able to take up permanent resident* in Alten- 
burg, where he had received a canonry in 1511, and 
where he also assumed the position of preacher 
vacated by the departure of Weiieeslaus Link (q.V,). 
On Aug. 13, 1525, he delivered his first sermon, but 
his demand for a change of conditions in the Alten- 
burg seminary led to bitter controversy, complicated 
by his speedy marriage, which led to his depriva- 
tion, although hy the aid of secular law he rein- 
stated himself and gradually currier! out his pro- 
posed reformation. In 1526 he accompanied Elector 
John to the Diet of Speyer, where he took a promi- 
nent part in formulating instructions for the perma- 
nent embassy to the emperor dclermincd upon by 
the diet. He was also employer I repeatedly in 
visitations. In lo;t(i he attended the Diet of Augs- 
burg, later accompanying the elector to the elec- 
tion of Ferdinand at Cologne. In 1532 he attended 
the Diet of Schweinfurth ; in 1535 he went wiih 
Elector John Frederick when the latter visited Vi- 
enna to do homage; and he was a leading figure in 




such important matters as the peace of Cadan (1534) 
and the formulation of the Schmalkald Articles. 
Throughout his life he was deeply interested in the 
University of Wittenberg, of which he had been ap- 
pointed a visitor as early as 1518, and which he 
regularly visited two or three times each year. 
In 1536 he sought to be relieved of his many duties, 
and from this time on he became more and more 
melancholy, although he remained active until the 

Spalatin was a prolific writer, although some 
of his works still remain unpublished. His only 
really original contributions, however, are historical 
studies, especially on Saxon and contemporary 
themes, these including his Chronicon et annates (ed. 
J. B. Mencke, Scriptores rerum Oermanicarum, ii. 590 
sqq., Leipsic, 1728-30) and his biography of Freder- 
ick the Wise (ed. C. G. Neudecker and L. Preller, 
Oeorg SpalaHns historischer Nachlass und Brief e aus 
den Onginalhandscriften, Jena, 1851). A still more 
valuable source for the history of the Reformation 
period is afforded by his voluminous correspondence, 
of which only a small portion has appeared in print, 
although almost all the archives of Germany contain 
specimens, the library at Weimar being especially 
rich in this respect. (T. Kolde.) 

Bibliography: C. Schlegel, Hist, vita O. Spalatini, Jena, 
1093; J. Wagner, O. Spalatin und die Reformation der 
Kirchen und Schulen in Altenburg, Altenburg, 1830; £. 
Engelhardt, O. Spalatin* Leben, Leipsic, 1863; A. Seel- 
heim, O. Spalatin aU eacheischer Historiograph, Halle, 
1876; Q. Berfoig, Spalatin and eein Verhaltnie tu Martin 
Luther, Halle, 1906; and works on the life of Luther and 
the Reformation in Germany. 

Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop of Salt 
Lake; b. at Erie, Pa., Mar. 13, 1865. He was edu- 
cated at Princeton (A.B., 1877) and at the General 
Theological Seminary (graduated, 1891), after 
having taught in the Princeton Preparatory School 
in 1887-88. He was ordered deacon in 1891 and 
ordained priest in the following year, being minister 
of All Saints 7 , Denver, Col., during this time, and 
from 1892 to 1896 was principal of Jarvis Hall 
Military Academy in the same city. He was then 
rector of St. Paul's, Erie, Pa. (1896-1904), and in 
1904 was consecrated missionary bishop of Salt 
Lake, his diocese comprising all Utah, the eastern 
half of Nevada, the western half of Colorado, and 
part of a county of Wyoming. 

theran; b. at Tribsees (24 m. s.w. of Greifswald) 
Nov. 1, 1714; d. at Berlin May 22, 1804. After 
studying at the University of Rostock (1731-33), 
he was for several years private tutor, private 
secretary, etc., also finding considerable time for 
writing. In 1748 he published at Greifswald the 
work which first brought him distinction, the Ge- 
danken uber die Bestimmung des Menschen, in which 
he earnestly combated the increasing materialism of 
his time. A year later he was chosen pastor of Las- 
sahn, where, though too radical for his congregation, 
he found opportunity for studying and trans- 
lating standard works of English deism and anti- 
deism. In 1757 Spalding was called to Barth as first 
preacher and provost, and here he wrote, against 
Pietism, his second great work, Gedanhen Uber den 

Wert der Oefuhle im Christentum (Leipsic, 1761; 
Eng. transl., Thoughts on the Value of Feelings in 
Religion, London, 1827). In 1764 he was called 
to Berlin as provost, supreme consistorial councilor, 
and first preacher at the Marienkirche and St 
Nicholas'. Here for more than twenty yean he 
enjoyed the highest reputation as a pulpit orator, 
his sermons being collected in a number of volumes. 
It was at this time also that he published the work 
which exposed him to much attack, the Ueber die 
Nutzbarkeit des Predigtamts und deren Beforderung 
(1st ed. anonymously, Berlin, 1772), in which he 
advocated the preaching of ethical sermons only, 
to the complete ignoring of dogmatic problems. 
The true motive of this position was the desire to 
retain only what he deemed essential, to oppose the 
shallow infidelity proceeding from France and Eng- 
land, and to reconcile Christianity with the spirit 
of the times. This same attitude led Spalding to 
write his Vertraute Briefe, die Religion betreffend 
(1st ed. anonymously, Breslau, 1784), which have 
a distinct interest in that they give a vivid picture 
of the shallowness and religious indifference then 
prevailing in the higher circles of society. 

In 1786 the situation was abruptly changed by 
the accession of Frederick William II., and feeling 
himself put at a decided disadvantage, Spalding 
secured the acceptance of his resignation in 1788. 
He then retired to private life, and now wrote his 
last work, Religion, eine Angelegenheit des Menschen 
(1st ed. anonymously, Berlin, 1797), while after 
his death his autobiographical Lebensbeschreibung 
von ihm selbst was edited by his son, G. L. Spalding 
(Halle, 1805). He was neither a great theologian 
nor a great philosopher; he was essentially a popu- 
larizer who sought to bring the divine truths of 
Christianity close to the hearts and wills of rational 
men, though himself far from being an adherent of 
the Enlightenment, Rationalism, or Deism (q.v). 


Bibliographt: The chief source is the Lebend>eachrtSbu*Q 
von ihm eetibet, ed. his son, G. L. Spalding, Halle, 1905. 
Consult further: J. M. Schrockh, Christliche Kirchengc- 
echichte text der Reformation, viii. 138 sqq., Leipsic. 1808; 
F. K. G. Hiraching, Hietoriach-litterariachee ffandbuek 
beruhmter Pereonen, xii. 1, pp. 208 sqq., ib. 1808; K. O. 
Sack, in TSK, 1864. part 4; G. W. Frank, GeschichU der 
proteetantiechen Theologie, iii. 03 sqq., Leipsic, 1875. 

lic bishop of Peoria, 111., nephew of the following; 
b. at Lebanon, Ky., June 2, 1840. He was educated 
at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md., 
at the University of Louvain, Belgium, and in 
Rome, where he was ordained priest in 1863. After 
an additional year of study, he returned to the 
United States. In 1865 he was secretary to the 
bishop of Louisville, Ky., and in 1869 built, and 
was rector of, St. Augustine's (colored) Church at 
Louisville, while in 1871 he was chancellor of the 
diocese of Louisville. From 1872-77 he was curate 
of St. Michael's, New York City, and in the latter 
year was consecrated bishop of the newly created 
diocese of Peoria, which office he resigned in 1908. 
He is the author of Life of Archbishop Spalding of 
Baltimore (New York, 1872); Essays and Reviews 
(1877); Religious Mission of the Irish People (1880); 
Lectures and Discourses (1882); Education and the 



Higher Life (Chicago, 1890); Things of the Mind 
(1894) ; Means and Ends of Education (1895) ; Songs, 
chiefly from the German (1895); Thoughts and 
Theories of Life and Education (1897); Oppor- 
tunity and other Essays (1900); Aphorisms and 
Reflections (1901); God and (he Soul (New York, 
1901) ; Religion, Agnosticism and Education (Chicago, 
1902); Socialism and Labor (1902); Glimpses of 
Truth (1903); The Spalding Year Book (1905); 
Religion and Art, and Other Essays (1905). 

b. near Lebanon, Ky., May 23, 1810; d. at Baltimore, 
Md., Feb. 7, 1872. He was graduated from St. 
Mary's College, Lebanon, Ky., 1826; studied the- 
ology in St. Joseph's Seminary, Bardstown, 1826-30; 
completed his course in the Propaganda College 
in Rome, where he was ordained priest Aug. 13, 1834; 
was pastor of the cathedral at Bardstown, Ky., 1834- 
1838, 1841-48; president of St. Joseph's Theological 
Seminary, Bardstown, 1838-40; pastor of St. Peter's 
Church, Lexington, Ky., 1840-41 ; coadjutor bishop 
of Louisville, Ky., 1848-50; bishop 1850-54; arch- 
bishop of Baltimore from 1864 till his death. He 
founded The Catholic Advocate, Louisville, in 1835, 
and was connected with it until 1858; The Louisville 
Guardian in 1858; was main promoter of the Catho- 
lic Publication Society and Catholic World, both 
New York City. While coadjutor bishop, he estab- 
lished a colony of Trappist monks at Gethsemane, 
near Bardstown, Ky., and a house of Magdalens in 
connection with the Convent of the Good Shepherd, 
and while bishop of Louisville he built a magnificent 
cathedral in that city. In 1857 he founded the 
American College in Lou vain. Spalding was the 
author of D'Aubigne's History of the Great Reforma- 
tion in Germany and Switzerland Reviewed (Balti- 
more, 1844; subsequently enlarged and reissued as 
History of the Protestant Reformation in Germany 
and Switzerland ; and in England, Ireland, Scotland, 
the Netherlands, France, and Northern Europe, 2 vols., 
Louisville, 1860); Sketches of the Early Catholic 
Missions in Kentucky, 1787-1827: . . . Compiled 
from authentic Sources, with the Assistance of . . . S. 
T. Badin (1844) ; Lectures on the General Evidences of 
Catholicity (1847); Life, Times, and Character of the 
Right Rev. B. J. Flaget (Loiiisville, 1852); Mis- 
cellanea: comprising Reviews, Lectures, and Essays 
on Historical, Theological, and Miscellaneous Sub- 
jects (1855); and edited, with introduction and 
notes, Abbe* J. E. Darras' General History of the 
Catholic Church (4 vols., New York, 1865-66). 
Bebuogkatbt: J. L. Spalding, Life of Archbishop Spalding 

of Baltimore, New York, 1872; T. O'Gorman, in American 

Church History Series, ix, passim, ib. 1895. 

LIEB: Bishop of the Unity of the Brethren; b. at 
Klettenberg (34 m. e. of Gottingen) July 15, 1704; 
d. at Herrnhut Sept. 18, 1792. In 1717 he entered 
the cloister school of Ilfeld and in 1722 the Univer- 
sity of Jena. Here he became amanuensis of Johan- 
nes Franciscus Buddeus (q.v.), whose house was a 
center of Pietism, through whose influence his entire 
life was transformed, and he resolved to study the- 
ology. In 1725 his development underwent a new 
change as he was attracted by a circle of mystical 
separatists and afterward by Gichtelianism (see 
XI.— 3 

Gichtel, Johann Georg), but after the death of 
Johann Otto Glusing, the leader of the Gichtelians, 
in 1727, and his first contact with the Herrnhuters, 
he regained the simple faith of the Bible and the 
Church. In the summer of 1728 Zinzendorf so- 
journed at Jena advocating his movement, and 
soon gathered a circle of Pietistic students, among 
whom Spangenberg took a leading position. In 
1729 Spangenberg took his master's degree and de- 
livered philological and philosophical lectures, but 
his whole heart was with the movement of Zinzen- 
dorf, with whom his relations became most intimate, 
especially after a visit to Herrnhut (Apr. 21-28, 
1730). He continually took part in the affairs of 
the community, and Zinzendorf at various times 
claimed him as collaborator. In spring, 1732, 
however, Spangenberg accepted a call to Halle as 
adjunct in the theological faculty and assistant in 
the orphans' home, but did not sever his connection 
with Herrnhut. By his attempts to connect him- 
self with a circle of Pietistic citizens of separatists 
tendencies, he became involved in a conflict with 
his superiors. Early in 1733 he was called before a 
series of conferences of officers of the orphans' 
home, it being considered a duty of the teachers to 
conform with the principles and practise of the 
church. Spangenberg was Anally deposed and left 
the city on Apr. 4, 1733. With his dismissal the 
rupture between the movement of Zinzendorf and 
the Halle movement became complete. 

Spangenberg then formally joined the Brethren. 
Immediately after his dismissal from Halle Zinzen- 
dorf made him his assistant and entrusted him with 
various diplomatic missions in connection with 
his plans of colonization. Spangenberg brought 
colonists to Copenhagen and made the contracts in 
1733, superintended the beginnings of the colony 
on the Savannah river (1735), and finally turned 
to Pennsylvania in order to care for the Schwenck- 
feldians (1736-39) who had emigrated under the 
protection of the Moravian Brethren. The time 
from 1739 to 1744 Spangenberg spent in his native 
country. During this stay in his native country he 
had opportunities to show his talent for organization. 
He organized the Brethren in England and founded 
in London an auxiliary society for mission work, the 
Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the 
Heathen (1741). But his best work was achieved in 
America. In 1744 the synod of Marienborn ap- 
pointed him bishop and entrusted to him the super- 
vision of the work in America. Here two settle- 
ments of the Brethren were founded in Bethlehem 
and Nazareth, large areas of land were purchased, 
in New York and Philadelphia congregations 
were formed, while preaching-stations and school- 
houses were scattered all over the country. The 
financial difficulties which arose were solved by 
Spangenberg through the peculiar organization at 
Bethlehem, the so-called " common economy," 
according to which all work was done in the interest 
of the whole community, which in its turn provided 
for the needs of individuals. Spangenberg returned 
in 1749 to Europe, but in 1751 he resumed his work 
in America and founded a second great complex of 
colonies in North Carolina. In 1762 he again left 
America and made his permanent abode in Germany. 







He became member of the provisional board of 
directors formed after the death of Zinzendorf 
(1760), and until his death took a leading position 
among the Brethren, one of his services being his as- 
sistance in formulating their system of doctrine. It 
is chiefly owing to Spangenberg that the Congrega- 
tion of Brethren was saved from developing into 
sectarianism and that it maintained friendly rela- 
tions with the Evangelical church. Among his 
literary works were Deklaration aber die zeiiher gegen 
uns au8gegangenen Beschuldigungen . . . (Leipsic 
and Gorlitz, 1751); Darlegung richtiger Antwcrten 
auf mehr als 300 Beschuldigungen gegen den ordi- 
narium fratrum . . . (1751); Apologetische Schluss- 
schrift ... (2 parts, 1752); Leben dee Herrn 
Nicolaus Ludwig Graf en und Herrn von Zinzendorf 
... (8 parts, 1772-1775; Eng. transl., The Life of 
N. L., Count Zinzendorf, London, 1838) ; Idea fidei 
fratrufn oder kurzer Begriff der chrisUichen Lehre 
in den evangelischen Brihdergemeinen (Barby, 1779; 
Eng. transl., Exposition of Christian Doctrine, 
London, 1784). Spangenberg was also a writer of 
hymns, ten of which went into the denominational 
hymn-book of 1778. Some of these have been ren- 
dered into English, among them " The Church of 
Christ that he hath hallowed here/' by Miss Wink- 
worth. (G. Reichel.) 

Bibliography : Spangenberg left in manuscript three ac- 
counts of hie life, of which the first has not been pub- 
lished, the second and third appeared in Archiv ftir neur 
eete Kirchenoeschichte, i. 40 sqq., ii. 429-487, and Neuh- 
richten aue der Brtideroemeinde, 1872, pp. 135-180. Let- 
ten of his are published in Der BriiderboU, 1872, pp. 
sqq., 241 sqq., 1874, pp. 10 sqq., 1876, pp. 309 sqq.; and 
in J. Bernoulli's Sammlimo kurzer Reiaebeachreibuna, zvi 
(1784), 195 sqq., is found a sketch of him by a contem- 
porary, Janichen. Sketches or lives have been written by 
J. Lorets, in Laueitzieche MonaUechrift, 1793, i. 336-358, 
ii. 13-31. 75-89; J. Risler, Barby, 1794; K. F. Ledder- 
hose, Heidelberg, 1846; C. J. Nitzsch, in Evangeliechee 
Jahrbuch, 1855, pp. 197 sqq.; G. C. Knapp, ed. O. Frick, 
Halle, 1884; and (best of all) by G. Reichel, Tubingen, 

Spangenberg; b. at Nordhausen (105 m. w. of Leip- 
sic) June 7, 1528; d. at Strasburg Feb. 10, 1604. 
He began study at the University of Wittenberg in 
1542; took his master's degree in 1550, and in the 
same year the counts of Mansf eld made him preacher 
at the Church of St. Andrew in Eisleben. Afterward 
he became town and court preacher in Mansfeld, 
and in 1559, after the death of Michael Coelius, gen- 
eral dean of the county and assessor of the Eisleben 
consistory. He was a zealous champion of pure 
Lutheranism, combating the school of Melanch- 
thon. The theologians of Mansfeld became the 
stanchest partisans of Flacius. The three counts, 
Volrad, Karl, and Hans Ernst, were in ecclesiastical 
affairs under the influence of Spangenberg, whose 
authority grew wherever anti-Philippine Lutheran- 
ism appeared. The severe invectives of Hieronymus 
Menzel, general superintendent of Mansfeld, and of 
Spangenberg induced Elector August in 1567 to cite 
them to Dresden to vindicate themselves, but as 
Counts Volrad and Christoph protested against such 
summons as an intrenchment of their rights, the two 
theologians refused to go. Spangenberg had offended 
the theologians of Electoral Saxony especially by 
seven sermons De pradestinatione (Erfurt, 1567), in 

which he taught the servumarbitrium in the sense of 
the older Reformed theology. In Mansfeld there de- 
veloped also the tragedy of the controversy on hered- 
itary sin which had a fatal influence upon the future 
life of Spangenberg. As early as 1560 Flacius had 
used against Strigel the expression that hereditary 
sin is the substance of man. Spangenberg came to 
the defense of Flacius after the issuance of Johann 
Wigand's treatise, Von der ErbsCnde, with its blunt 
condemnation of Flacius, with the final result that 
in 1575 Spangenberg and bis adherents were excom- 
municated and Spangenberg himself was forced to 
flee into the district of Sangerhausen where he occu- 
pied himself with the composition of historical works 
and of polemical treatises. In 1 578 he, together with 
his protector, Count Volrad, was expelled from 
Sangerhausen and went to Strasburg; but in 1581 
he was appointed preacher at SchKtzsee-on-the- 
Fulda in Hesse, where he was allowed to remain 
until 1590. During this quiet time he concluded his 
large works of history, but in 1591 he was deprived 
of office though he was allowed to live in Vacha-on- 
the-Werra. About 1595 Count Ernst of Mansfeld, 
the nephew of Count Volrad, brought about Spangen- 
berg's return to Strasburg, where he spent the rest of 
bis life. 

Spangenberg left an immense number of writings, 
in many respects faithfully following the lines of his 
father's literary activity. He furnished practical 
commentaries on Thessalonians (1557), the pastoral 
epistles (1559 sqq.), Corinthians (1559 sqq.); and 
compiled tables on the Pentateuch (1563) and other 
historical books of the Old Testament (1567). He 
also continued the hymnological work of bis father, 
ChrisUiches Gesangbuchlein, Von den furnembsten 
Festen (137 songs, among them some of bis own, 
1568); Cithara Lutheri, a series of sermons on the 
hymns of Luther (1569, reprinted Berlin, 1855); 
Der game Psalter . . . gesangsweise und 114 schone 
geistreiche Lieder . . . der lieben Patriarchen (1582). 
Among his sermons special mention may be made of 
Theander Lutherus (1589), a cycle of twenty-one 
sermons on Luther. His polemical writings refer 
chiefly to the controversy on original sin, on syner- 
gism, and on the Lord's Supper. In German litera- 
ture he has a place as composer of spiritual comedies 
(1589-90). But his chief services were in the sphere 
of history, bis most prominent works being Chronicon 
Corinthiacum (1562); Mansf eldische Chronica (Eis- 
leben 1572); Historia Manicheorutn (Ursel, 1578); 
Sdchssische Chronica (Frankfort, 1580); Quern- 
furtische Chronica (Erfurt, 1590); Adds Spiegel 
(Schmalkald, 1591-94); Hennebergische Chronica 
(Strasburg, 1599) ; Bonifacius oder deutsche Kirchen- 
Historie von 714-766 (1603), and others. 

(G. Kawerau.) 

Bibliography: The principal collection of Spangenberg'f 
letters is by H. Rembe, 2 parts, Dresden, 1887-88, though 
others are printed in J. Fecht, Hietoria ecdeeuuticm mbcvU 
XVI., supplement, Frankfort, 1684, and in Maruf elder 
Blotter, xxii. 155 sqq. On his life consult: M. Adam, 
Vila Germanorum theolooorum, pp. 731 sqq., Frankfort. 
1653; J. Fecht, ut sup., Apparatus, pp. 107 sqq.; J. O. 
Leuckfeld, Hist. Spanoenbergensia, Quedlinburg. 1712 (the 
best) ; H. Rembe, in the reprint of Spangenbeis/s Form*- 
larbUchlein, Dresden, 1887; W. Hots, in BeitrQge xw hee~ 
etscKen KirchengeachxchU, iii. 205 sqq.; J. J. 1. von DoU- 
inger. Die Reformation, ii. 270 sqq., Regensburg, 1848; 



"roaer. li. Flaeim IHynctu und trine Zeit, vol. ft, 
n. 1881; A. O. Meyer, Dw Florunumiu in aW 
l/( MaiuftU, Hille, 1873; 4Dfl. nrv. 37 sqq. 

3EHBERG, JOHANB: German theologian; 
rdegsen (10 m. n.n.w. of Gottingen) Mar. 29, 
at Eialeben (43 m. s. of Magdeburg) June 13, 
b was educated at Gottingen and Einbeck; in 
altered the University of Erfurt (B.A., 1511). 
cd Count Botbo of Stolberg called him as 
> the Latin School in Stolberg; about 1520 
ae also preacher at the Church of St. Martin. 
pled the teaching of Luther and was soon 
nd esteemed as a prominent preacher of the 

la 1524 the council of Nordhausen ap- 
him preacher of the Church of St. Blasius 
jrfng an activity of twenty-two years he es- 
] the Evangelical doctrine, and after the 
ncesof the Peasants' War carried out a new 
irder in a conservative spirit. Spangenberg 
I especially valuable services for the ad- 
tut of higher education in Nordhausen. Aa 
ledral and municipal schools had perished 
tonus of the Peasants* War, Spangenberg 
i private school in his own house until the 
at his request in 1525 established a new 
bool in the Dominican monastery, for which 
berg wrote text-books. In 1546, at his last 

Eisleben, Luther proposed Spangenberg 
Hints of Mansfeld as general inspector of all 
i and schools in the county, and in this 
ition Spangenberg remained until his death. 
umerous writings mention may be made of 
i in usum juventutis Nortkusana: (Augsburg, 
Quastiones musicar in usum scholw Nort- 

(Nuremberg, 1536); Evangclia dominicalia 
culos versa (1539); Artifieionw memorim 
in mum studiosorum wlleetus (Wittenberg, 
Computus eccIeMasticus (1530); Margarita 
i (1540; Eng. transl., The SZ of DivinUie, 

1548) ; Grow Kateehismut . . . Lutheri . . . 
tucke ver/osaet (1541); Ein new Troatbuchlin 
'Lnmcken, V nil rom ehristliehen Hitter (15*1- 
llt und neve geutliche Lieder und Lob-Gescng 
Geburt Christi . . . fGr die pinge ChrUten 
Paalterium carmine Elegiaeo redditum (1544); 
3 ecciesiasiica latino: trimul ac synceriores 
prtrcula . . . Kirchengcsft'tgedcutschdurchii 
Jar . . . (1545); Des ehetichen Ordens 
und Kegel (1545); Kommentar zur Apostel- 
e (Frankfort, 1546); Explicationes emngeli- 

epistolarum, quit dominicis diebus more 
troponi in eerlrxin pnpnln solrnt, in tabvlo* 
daeta (Basil, 1564), edited by his son Cyri- 
p.)- (G. Kawerau.) 

irar: H. Menie), Epilation in memnrinm Jnhannii 
tttrv. Wittenberg. 1551; iitrm. .Vurmho histories 
; initio: in amitatu Mamfddewi, reproduced in 
iff dee rramrrruta,iviU3S3>. 8fl eqq.; M. Adam, 
muiuniin Oitologortm, p. 08. Frankfort. 165% 
euekfeld. Vtibmtrte histariKht Nachriehl ran den 
md Scnriften Johann Spanembrrgn, Qui -il mlium, 
:. G. Fontemsnn. Miltheitvngen iu finer OetchicMe 



unrf ekaroHmtnttitr i. 1 

or. Dif GraffichnSl V«W- 
. 345 Bqq.. Eisleben. 185B, 
.. Die Reformation in Nordhaueen, pp. 10 

SPA11HEIM, span'huini, EZECHIEL, BARON: 
Eldest son of Fried rich Spunheim the folder; b. at 
Geneva Dec. 7, 1629; d. at London Nov. 7, 1710. 
After 1642 he studied philology and theology at 
Leyden, and in I860 returned to Geneva. In 1656 
he became tutor of Karl Ludwig, elector of the I'alafc- 
inate, when studies in political science led him into 
a diplomatic career for which he showed great apti- 
tude. By order of the elector he went in IGlil to 
Rome to investigate the intrigues of the Roman 
Catholic electors against his sovereign. After his 
return in 1665 the elector employed him as ambassa- 
dor at different courts, finally in England whore 
after 1679 he was charged also with the affairs of 
the elector of Brandenburg. In 1630 he entered the 
service of electoral Brandenburg as minister of 
state. As amhassador of the great elector he spent 
nine years at the court of Paris, and subseijiKTiily 
devoid some years to studies in Berlin, but after 
the Peace of Ryswyk iu 1697 he returned as am- 
bassador to France where he remained until 170J. 
In 1702 be finally went ;is Hist Prussian ambassador 
to England. His principal works are Disputationet 
de usu et prajstantia numismatum antiquorum (Rome, 
1664; best edition, 2 vols., London and Amsterdam, 
1706-17) and Or&is Romania (London, 1704; Halle, 
1728). He also edited with Petavius the 0p*t9 
of Cyril of Alexandria and of the Em[>eror Julian 
(Ijeipsic, 1696). (S. D. van Veen.) 

viiiisti ie professor at the University of Leyden; 
b. at Amberg (35 m. e. of Nuremberg) Jan. 1, ltVO; 
d. at Leyden May 14, 1649. He entered in 1614 the 
university of Heidelberg where he si.udii'd [iliili.ilo^y 
and philosophy, and in 1619 removed to Geneva to 
study theology. In 1621 he became tutor in the 
house of Jean de Bonne, Baron de Vitrolle, governor 
of Erobrun in Dauphin^, and after three years he 
visited Switzerland (Geneva), and France (Paris'), 
and England, returning to Geneva in I'5'J'i and be- 
coming professor of philosophy; in 1631 he went over 
to the theological faculty, and was rector of the acad- 
emy 1633-3". In 1642 he removed lo Leyden as pro- 
fessor of theology. In Holland Spanheim becama 
one of the most decided defenders of the Calvinislie 
doctrine of predestination against Amyraut. He 
pulili-lied anonymously, Li Sol/ltil fiui-'lfii.i (1'13-f), l 
history of the Thirty Years' War until 1631; Le 
Mereure suisne (1634); Commenlnirr hintoriquc ile lit 
vie el de la mart de . . . Chrislojh V k-'imli' tit: D-ihim 
(1639). His principal t.heolocieal works are. Dvbia 
evangelica (3 vols., Geneva, 1631-39; Eng transl., 
England* Warning by Gcrmanuss Woe, London, 1046}; 
Di.-.piiUitio de gratia unirersali (3 vols., Leyden, 
1644-48); Epitlolit ad Buchonanum tap&r contro- 
verriia . . . inecclesiis Anglicanis (I*yden, 1645). 
Afctainst the Anabaptists he wrote Vtiritr ,!i*putntit>nrs 
anti-AnabaptUticm (1643) and Diatribe histories de 
origme, progress^, sectia et nominibus OMbapttd' 
arum (1645). (S. D. van Vbbn.) 

Bibuoorafht. A. Heidao, Oralto fund/ris in obilum . . . 
F Spanhemii. LevfJeu. lOJft- Baylt. Dictionary, v. 1S3- 
105, Niceroa, M&meirn, ixbc. 35, J. .Sonebior, Hist, lit- 


Speaking; with Tongues 



Urairc de Geneve, ii. 191 sqq., Geneva, 1786; Iichtenberger, 
ESR, xi. 656. 


of Friedrich the Elder; b. in Geneva May 1, 1632; 
d. at Ley den May 18, 1701. He studied at Ley den 
(M.A., 1648), continuing his studies in theology after 
the death of his father, and in 1655 accepted a call to 
assist in reorganizing the University of Heidelberg, 
having previously received his doctorate at Leyden, 
whither he went as professor of theology in 1670, 
giving instruction after the next year in church 
history, becoming librarian in 1674, being four 
times rector, and in 1684 becoming professor pri- 

The results of his literary activity, which was great, 
were collected in his Opera (3 vols., Leyden, 1701-03). 
They included works in history, exegesis, and dog- 
matics, to which must be added a certain polemic 
activity against Arminians, Cartesians, Cocceians, 
and Jesuits. In this last respect important is his 
De novissimis circa res sacra* in Belgio dissidiis 
epislola (Leyden, 1677). His theology was con- 
servative, and he opposed the " novatores." His 
commentary on Job is regarded as of high value. 
He issued also a Brevis Introductio ad hisioriam vJkri- 
usque Testamenti (1694), and a large number of ser- 
mons. [The list of his writings takes up two pages 
in the British Museum Catalogue.'] 

(S. D. van Veen.) 

Bibliography: The funeral oration by J. Triglandius was 
published at Leyden, 1701, and was included in vol. ii. of 
Spanheim's Opera, ut sup. Sketches of his life are given 
in their alphabetical place in Niceron, Mtmoires, xxix. 11- 
26 and in Chauffepie's Nouveau Dictionnaire, Amsterdam, 

SPARROW, WILLIAM: Protestant-Episcopalian; 
b. at Charlestown, Mass., Mar. 12, 1801; d. at 
Alexandria, Va., Jan. 17, 1874. His parents re- 
turning to Ireland in 1805, he attended a boarding- 
school in the Vale of Avoca; returned to America, 
181 7 ; was a student at Columbia College, New York, 
1819-21; professor of Latin and Greek at Miami 
University, 1824-25; ordained in 1826; colaborer 
with Bishop Chase in founding Kenyon College; 
eleven years Milnor professor at Gambier; and 
professor of systematic divinity and Christian evi- 
dences in the Theological Seminary of Virginia, 
1840-74. During the civil war (1861-64) he carried 
on the work of the seminary in the interior of Vir- 
ginia. At its close his unique relations to both 
sections enabled him to exert important influence 
in restoring the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
Virginia to its former ecclesiastical relations. 

Sparrow was recognized as the ablest theologian 
and the most original thinker of the evangelical 
school in the Protestant Episcopal Church. He 
bowed with unquestioning faith to the supremacy 
of Scripture, yet welcomed modern criticism as an 
ally; all his thinking proceeded on the conviction 
of the ultimate harmony of revelation and science. 
An earnest Evangelical and a zealous Protestant, 
he was usually classed as Arminian in theology; 
yet he abhorred the narrowness of theological sys- 
tems, and led his pupils to independent thought 
and rational inquiry. He was an earnest Episco- 
palian, but put doctrine before order; hence he felt 
himself at one with Protestant Christendom, and re- 

joiced in the Evangelical Alliance as an expression 
of Protestant unity. Although he sympathind 
with the difficulties of Bishop George David Cum- 
mins (q.v.), he deprecated his secession, and re- 
mained firm in bis adherence to the church. Far* 
haps no man of his time in America did more to 
check the spread of the tractarian theology. He wm 
an earnest antagonist of the dogma of a tactail 
apostolical succession, holding it to be essentially m> 
scriptural and anti-Protestant. To bis great intel- 
lectual powers he added the influence of exalted 
piety, a character of great modesty and humility, 
and a life of simplicity and self-denial. His life- 
long feebleness of health unhappily prevented his 
entering the field of authorship; but a number of his 
occasional sermons and addresses were published. 
In collaboration with J. Johns he wrote Memoir 
of Rev. W. Meade (Richmond, 1867) ; and, inde 
pendently, Select Discourses (New York, 1877). 

Bibliography: C. Walker, Life and Correspondence o/lTJB* 
iam Sparrow, Philadelphia, 1876. 


Basal New-Testament Passages (J 1). 
Manifestations in the Early Church (f 2). 
Old-Testament and Ethnic Parallels (5 3). 
The New- Testament Phenomena (I 4). 
Meaning of Qlossa (J 5). 

Of the early Christian phenomenon called " speak- 
ing with tongues " (Gk. glossolalia) I Cor. xii.-xiv. 
gives a fairly comprehensible picture. It is repre- 
sented as an activity of the Spirit of God coming 
upon man and constraining him to external ex- 
pressions directed to God but not understood by 
others (xii. 10-11, xiv. 2), during which the soul life 
is passive and the understanding in 

z. Basal abeyance (xiv. 14-15); the condition 

New- is that of Ecstasy (q.v.), the utterances 

Testament are words or sounds of prayer or praise, 

Passages, but are not clear in meaning (xiv. 5, 
13-16), and give the impression to the 
hearer of being mysteries or insane expressions (xiv. 
2, 23), and need, at any rate, to be interpreted, 
though an unbeliever might see in the phenomenon 
a divine sign (xiv. 21-22). Three sets of illustrations 
used by Paul serve to make this clear: in the use of 
pipe and harp distinct and separate notes are neces- 
sary to give meaning, a definite set of sounds of the 
trumpet is required to give the signal to battle, 
and knowledge of a strange tongue is needed in 
order to interpret it (xiv. 7-11). This phenomenon 
seems to include sighs, groanings, shoutings, cries, 
and utterances either of disconnected words (such 
as Abba, hosanna, hallelujah, maranatha) or of con- 
nected speech of a jubilating sort which impresses 
the observer as ecstatic prayer or psalmodic praise. 
Other passages in the New Testament refer to the 
practise. So the ungenuine Mark xvi. 17, as well 
as Acts x. 46, xix. 6, refers to something like that in 
I Cor. xii.-xiv. But Acts ii. 1-13, referring to the 
events at Pentecost, needs to be distinguished, 
though the phenomena mentioned in verses 4 and 
13 range themselves with those of I Cor. xiv. 21, 
23. But the intention of the writer in Acts is not 
to describe ecstatic speech, it is rather to describe 
a miracle of tongues. The noise resulting, happen- 
ing at the festival of weeks, drew a large concourse, 




Speaking with Tongues 

and in verses 9-11 are named nations representa- 
tives of which each heard in his own tongue the dis- 
dpfee make known the wonders of God. While only 
four varieties of speech are necessarily involved, the 
Implication is that these Galileans were enabled to 
apeak the Gospel in the languages of the world. But 
the problem here presented is difficult. How could 
awn of different nationality hear, each of them, all 
the disciples speaking his mother tongue? and it is 
not suggested that certain disciples addressed groups. 
Indeed, this appears to be within the region of 
legend. Moreover, it would not be strange for the 
Jew of verse 9 to hear a Galilean speak his mother 
tongue; the conjectures of Tertullian, Jerome, and of 
modern men that some other word is to be read for 
" Judea " does not help in view of the text, and the 
conclusion is that the story of the miracle is a late 
intrusion. The speech of Peter in verses 17-18 im- 
plies a prophetic inspiration, but says nothing of 
strange tongues. The enlargement which is to be 
seen here can be traced to Judaistic sources, as in the 
belief that the law of Sinai was not to be restricted 
to the Hebrews but to be given to the nations in a 
miracle like that of Pentecost (cf . Philo, De septen- 
ario, and De decalogo, §§ 9, 11). Such a conception 
as this, embodied in the work of the Alexandrian 
Jew, could easily become the basis of an insertion 
like that in Acts ii. This conception is the more 
easily understood in that the character of Luke's 
representation is to make Christianity universalistic. 
Belated phenomena appear elsewhere. In I Cor. 
xii 1-3 Paul evidently means by the pneumatikoi 
especially those in ecstasy; in verses 4-11 he shows 
that the working of the Spirit is varied, and in xiv. 
37-39 the pneumatikoi may be those who speak with 
tongues. He also places here the prophets who were 
endowed with the Spirit alongside those speaking 
with tongues; with verse 39 should be 
a. Xanifes- compared I Thess. v. 19-20. Paul had 
tations in not had occasion to warn at Thessalon- 
fhe Early ica against ecstatic and related phe- 
Chorch. nomena (cf. II Thess. ii. 2). Gal. iv. 6 
and Rom. viii. 15-16, 26-27 are to be 
brought into this relation, in which the crying (Gk. 
kraz&n) of the Spirit and its testimony are distin- 
guished from that of man's spirit. It is God's 
spirit which speaks within us, and when we know 
not how to pray, the Spirit makes intercession with 
unutterable groanings (Rom. viii. 26), and this God 
understands (verse 27). The apostle himself has had 
experience of this speaking with tongues (I Cor. xiv. 
18; cf. II Cor. xii. 1, in which he describes ecstasy, 
and note verse 4, which is to be placed with I Cor. 
ii. 9). Somewhat unrelated to this species of ecstasy 
are the phenomena of Rev. i. 10, iv. 2, xvii. 3, xxi. 
10, which deal with apocalyptic vision. Justin 
Martyr relates that in his own times spiritual gifts 
were active in the Church (Trypho, lxxxii., lxxxviii., 
Eng. transl., ANF, i. 240, 243-244) though it is not 
certain that speaking with tongues is here intended; 
in chap, xxxix. he speaks of seven kinds of gifts, 
and this seems to combine Isa. xi. 2 and I Cor. xii. 
7-10, though speaking with tongues is again not 
mentioned. The " Address to the Greeks,' 1 chap, x., 
hardly comes into account here, since the Greek 
doctrine of inspiration is here under discussion. 

In the Acta Perpetua et Felicitatis, viii., the Spirit 
overpowers Perpetua and constrains her to utter- 
ance of a name of which she had not thought. The 
description of the outbreak of Montanism in Euse- 
bius, Hist, eccl., V., xvi. 7 sqq. (NPNF, 2 ser., i. 231) 
does not exclude speaking with tongues, though the 
concern here is not with unmeaning and unintelligi- 
ble speech but with prophetic utterance, and not only 
Montanus but two women had the seizures. Epi- 
phanius (Hcer., xlviii. 4) makes Montanus describe 
his experience as a taking-out of his own heart by the 
Lord and the implanting of a new one. Tertullian 
(Adv. Marcionem, V., viii., Eng. transl. ANF, iii. 
445-446) seems to include, among his demands of 
Marcion, that the latter explain what seems to be a 
claim to gloMolalia, and the same thing is probably 
meant when in his De resurrectione carnis there is a 
kind of utterance mentioned which no one can know 
without interpretation. A weighty witness for the 
continuance of this gift is presented by Irenseus 
(Hcer., V., vi. 1), who speaks of " many brethren in 
the Church who . . . through the Spirit speak all 
kinds of languages " (ANF, i. 531), and he evidently 
refers to the phenomena noted by Paul. Yet it can 
not be decided whether Irenaeus meant speech in 
foreign languages like that of Pentecost or a phe- 
nomenon like that of Corinthians. But that some 
such phenomena were in his mind is clear, with 
a probable reference to I Cor. xiv. Chrysostom ap- 
pears at a loss to describe the facts, which are no 
longer manifested in his times. In a book that is 
half Jewish and half Christian, the Testament of 
Job, is a description of the ecstatic speech of the 
daughters of Job, one of whom used the method of 
one class of angels; and this implies the conception 
of a foreign tongue. Yet the phenomenon is not 
altogether common, and it can not have been im- 
portant in the apostolic Church; later manifesta- 
tions of which church history knows, such as those 
of the Irvingites, must be explained as repristina- 
tions of the events of Pentecost and early Christian- 

Conditions similar to those outlined in the fore- 
going are indicated in the Old Testament, where the 
influence either of the Spirit of God or of an evil 
spirit is represented as producing exalted, enthusias- 
tic, ecstatic speech or action. To the examples 
noted under Ecstasy (q.v.) may be 
3. Old-Tes- added the seventy elders of Num. xi. 
tament and 24-30, and the illustrations furnished 
Ethnic by Jer. xxiii. 32, xxix. 26. Having a 

Parallels, connection with these phenomena is 
the condition of the prophet when 
having his vision; the consciousness however per- 
mits the prophet to give a clear and connected ac- 
count of what he sees and an interpreter is not 
needed, and nothing is said in this relation of ecsta- 
tic speech. But the things seen in the visions ap- 
pear to the prophet to be psychological realities. 
The Greek-Roman world furnishes many evident 
parallels. The Greek oracles were mediated through 
priests or priestesses who uttered what the divinity 
suggested to them while their consciousness was in 
complete abeyance. Another characteristic of the 
giving of oracles is the obscurity or unintelligibility 
of the oracle, which ever needs explication. So 

Speaking wltn Tonnes 
Speer. Robert Elliott 



Plutarch (De pythice oraculis) brings out the com- 
plete passivity of the pythia, Heraclitus (Sermo, 
lxxix.) notes the necessity of elucidation of the oracle, 
Dio Chrysostom (Oratio, x.) remarks upon the use 
of rather uncommon, poetic, strange, and circum- 
locutory expressions. Very illustrative for this 
class of phenomena is the description which Plato 
gives in the Timceus of the mantis or prophet. He 
says that the inspired and true seer's art is not prac- 
tised under full consciousness, but that the vision 
comes when the understanding is under constraint, 
or in sleep, sickness, or ecstasy, and what he sees 
or says under such circumstances is to be inter- 
preted by one who has his reason. The last is the 
gift of the prophet. This representation is analogous 
to that of Paul, except that the latter does not make 
the prophet interpret the utterances, but speaks of 
an interpreter of the same. In post-Homeric times 
the cult of the Dionysiac orgies made their entrance 
into the Greek world. According to this, music, 
the whirling dance, and means of intoxication had 
power to make men " full of deity," to produce a 
condition in which the normal state was left behind 
and the inspired perceived what was external to 
himself and to sense. The soul was supposed to 
leave the body, hence the word " ecstasy," a being 
out of oneself, while other expressions used were 
" to rave " and " to be in the divinity," the latter 
expressing the thought that in its absence from the 
body the soul was united with deity, and so the deity 
spoke in and from the person in that condition. 
At such times the ecstatic person had no conscious- 
ness of his own. It was to this quality that Philo 
attributed the prophet's power (De spec, leg., IV., 
viii.), while Plato regarded true poetry as the result 
of divine inspiration through the poet's being entheoi 
— " in the divinity." Out of the Dionysiac rites, 
then, developed a species of prophesying which 
through ecstasy put itself into connection with the 
divine and spirit world and so foretold the future. 
Cicero (Pro Sexto, x.) joins prophesying and mad- 
ness, and in De divinatione, I., lxvii., asserts that it 
was not Cassandra who spoke, but the divinity in- 
closed in the human body. A prophetess officiated 
in a Thracian temple of Dionysus as did the pythia 
in Delphi. And this same frenzy spread into Italy 
(Livy, XXXIX., viii. sqq.). Origen (Contra Celsum, 
VII.,ix.,Eng.transl. in ANF, iv. 614) quotes Celsus 
to the effect that both in and outside the sanctua- 
ries people exhibited ecstatic phenomena and uttered 
unknown, unintelligible speech. In modern times, 
such demonstrations are not entirely unknown, as 
in the case of the dervishes (see Dervish). 

Consideration of these examples enables one to 
arrive at a decision regarding the New-Testament 
speaking with tongues. It is significant in this 
connection that the two places, Jerusalem and 
Corinth, where the phenomenon in question ap- 
peared recall the Old-Testament phenomena and the 

practise in the Greek world. Accord- 

4. The New- ing to the opening verses of I Cor. xii. 

Testament it appears that the Corinthians had 

Phenomena, asked Paul how one could recognize 

the working of the Spirit of God. They 
had learned that the demonstrations of demons 
were like the operations of the Christian charismata, 

but they had no means of discriminating. Paul 
then recalls for them that they had had experience 
of the power of demons, but that now they were 
ruled by the Spirit of God; no one so ruled could 
call Jesus accursed, nor could one call Jesus Lord 
except in the Holy Spirit (I Cor. xii. 2-3). Paul then 
made the distinction rest upon the content of 
spiritual qualification (I Cor. xiv.) . While the physi- 
ological basis of the phenomena was the same in the 
two classes, Paul saw a distinct difference; the Corin- 
thians were in danger of putting undue stress upon 
this one gift, perhaps because it was connected with 
memories of their old life; but as a matter of fact 
it was of value solely to the one who experienced it 
unless it were interpreted to others. Hence Paul 
would regulate its employment; it was to be used 
only when an interpreter was present, and not by 
more than two or three at a time even then, that no 
confusion might result. Indeed, prophecy was a far 
more desirable gift than speaking with tongues. A 
slightly different condition is that of Pentecost, 
where the events resemble the ecstasy of the Old 
Testament and of the Greeks; but a new force is at 
work in that it makes them rejoicingly speak of the 
wonderful works of God, and have new knowledge, 
inner illumination, and firmness in propagating the 
news of the Gospel. 

In considering the meaning of glossa, " tongue/ 1 
in the various combinations in which it appears in 
referring to the phenomena in question, it may be 
said that this word is used in general to designate 

the organ of speech, to denote a method 

5. Meaning of speech (in which it has various 

of Glossa. significations), and also speech itself. 

But in the passages in the New Testa- 
ment under discussion it is best to take glossa in the 
metaphorical sense as a technical term denoting a 
strange and unwonted form of words. With this 
meaning it occurs not only in the literary monu- 
ments but as employed by the common people es- 
pecially in referring to phenomena which seemed 
supernatural or unordinary, like the utterances of 
the pythia, of poets, or of the muses. This could 
then easily be taken over by Christianity to express 
something different from " teaching " and from 
prophecy, something which impressed one as being 
of the nature of secrets or as inspired. No insuper- 
able difficulties inhere in this meaning. The most 
important arises from the fact that the term seems 
to have been used in Jerusalem before it was in 
Corinth, and could not have derived directly from 
the Greek world. The explanation may be offered, 
however, that in IV Mace. x. 21, and often in the 
Psalms (e.g., Ps. exxvi. 2) the tongue is used to mean 
the instrument of the praise of God. The Jews also 
thought of the tongue as the unconditioned instru- 
ment of God and of his Spirit, and from this " to 
speak with tongues " could easily come to mean an 
ecstatic and jubilant method of speech in praise of 
God. So that if glossa means " tongue, 1 ' " to speak 
with other tongues " or " with new tongues " would 
be analogous to the expression in I Cor. xiii. 1, 
" Though I speak with the tongues of men and 
of angels." On Greek soil glossa was employed 
to express an unusual, poetic, or unintelligible 
method of expression. Whether Paul as a Hellenist 


gave the expression the peculiar cast it has in 
I Corinthians or whether he borrowed it, it is 
equally explicable from the basis here afforded. 

(P. Fedje.) 

BauooRirar: The literature of especial worth in that con- 
tained in the commentaries do Acte and I Corinthians, 
many of which contain excursuses on the phenomena ol 

in <he irorfai on the history of the Apostolic Arc— e.g., 
McCuTert. pp. 50-51. 308, 521-522, 52o; in the works on 
general chureh history, e*. Schaff, Ckritlian Church, i. 
330-243; and in works on the life of the Apostle Paul. 
e-C-. Cooybean and Howson, vol. i., chap. xiii. Consult 
further: F. Bleak, in TSK, lyja. i>p. 3-7i>. 1830. pp. 45- 
84; F. C. Baur, in Tubinoer ZeiUchrift fur Theologie. 1830, 
pp. 78-133; idem, in TSK, 1338, pp. 818-702; M. Sthnrek- 
enburger. BatrOt/e nir Einlatune in dot JV. T., Stuttgart. 
1832: D. Scbults. Die Gei*Uraabcn der ertten Christen, 
Braalan. 1338; Wiesoler. in TSK, 1348, pp. 703-772; 
C. Bohm. Raden mil Zungnt und Weissaeen, Berlin, 1M8| 
A. Hugenfeld. Die Glcaetalie in dtr often Kirche, Leipsic. 
1850; E. Romleuacbor, Gobi der Sprachen. in apottoliteJien 
ZeOedter, Marburg, 1850; A. Maier. Dim Gloaolalie, Fnsi- 
burc. 1S55; W. A. Van Heugel, Dt Oast der Talen. Ley- 
den. 1884; J. Gltiel. Da htUioe Grist in der Heiln-erkGndi- 
0UB0 da Poulus, pp. 337-348. Halle, 1888; C. Weii- 
aacker. Dot apottttliaebe Zeitaller. pp. 589 sqq,, 2d ed,, 
Freiburg. 1892, Eag. tranal., 2 vols.. Loudon, 1894-95; 
M. Bevenliua. Dt heilioe Grist en zijnr, Werkinaen nolatnt 
kit ... N. Verbond, Utrecht. 18B8; A. Wright. Some 
K. T. Problem*, pp. 277-302, London, 18(18; If. Gunkel. 
Die IV irkvnoen tie* briliaen Gtistis. pp. 18-20, 2d .'<!., OS4- 
tingen. 1899; II. Weinel. Die rVirkungen da Geitta tend 
da Gtister, pp. 71-100, Freiburg, 1899; D. Walker, TU 
Gift of Tongua and Other Eisaw. London. 1906 (conserv- 
ative in tone): C. Lombard, De la gtoaolatie ekes la pre- 
miers Chretien* et da phenomena timilaira, Lausanne, 
1910; DBT, iv. 793-790; EB. iv. 4701-7Q. 

SPECHT, spent, THOMAS: German Roman 
Catholic; b. at Turkheim (25 m. a.a.w of Augsburg), 
Bavaria, Jan. 29, 1847. He was educated at the 
Lyceum of Dillingen aud at the University of Mu- 
nich (D.D., 1875). He was ordained to the priesthood 
in 1873; was curate at St. Ulrica's, Augsburg 
(1875-81); and professor of religion and Hebrew at 
the gymnasium at Neuburg, Bavaria, until 1887. 
Since 1887 he has been professor of apologetics and 
dogmatics at the lyceum of Dillingen, and librarian 
Eince 1902. He has been an episcopal spiritual coun- 
selor since 1901. He has written Die Wirkungcn 
des eueharistitchen Op/erg (Augsburg, 187ti); Die 
Lehre von der Einheit der Kirche nach dem heUigen 
A vguttin (Neuburg, 1885) ; Die Lekre von der Kirche 
-nach dem keiligen A ugustin (Paderbom, 1 892) ; 
Gesehichte der ehemaligen UniversUat DQBnQt " 
(Freiburg, 1902); Oeschichle de* kOniglichen Lyceums 
Dillingen {Regensburg, 1904); and Lehrbuch der 
Dogmatik (vol. L, 1907). 

SPEE, spd, FRLEDRICH V0H: German Roman 
Catholic religious poet; b. at Kaiserswertb (27 m, 
ti.n.w. of Cologne) Feb. 25, 1591 ; d. at Treves Aug. 7, 
1635. In 1610 be entered the Society of Jesus, and 
after ordination to the priesthood became, in 1621, 
professor of grammar, philosophy, and ethics in ihi- 
Jesuit college at Cologne. Four years later he was 
sent to Paderbom as cathedral preacher, and in l<iJ7 
became parish priest in Wuraburg. In the EaUcnring 
year he waa transferred to Lower Saxony, where he 
distinguished himself as a successful leader of the 
Roman Catholic Counter- Reformation, especially at. 
Peine in the diocese of Hildesheim. While at Wilrz- 
burg, Von Spee was required to perform the last 

offices of religion for some 200 persons executed for 
witchcraft, although he believed them all to be 
innocent, later assailing the entire system of trial 
for witchcraft in his Caulio criminalis, sen de pro- 
cttmhus contra sagas (Rinteln, 1631), the first edition 
of which appeared anonymously. For several 
months he was seriously ill at Hildesheim, ap- 
parently in consequence of a Protectant attempt tr. 
assassinate him, and for a time he lived at the little 
village of Falkenhagen, but in 1032 he was again 
leeching moral theology at Cologne, inspiring the 
Mvhdla theologian moralis of Hermann liusenbaum 
(q.v.). Subsequently he was parish priest at Treves, 
where his devotion to the sick and wounded during 
the siege and after the capture of the city by the 
imperial and Spanish troops in 10;m exposed him to a 
contagious fever of which he died. 

It is, however, aa a religious poet that Von BpM b 

now best known, both his Trutz Nachligull, mltr 

!/ri".v(/iWr .*-;»*■< i'.iWi Lnxt-WnliUein (Cologne, 1049) 

and his Giiltiencs Tugrndliitcli (lfl4!i) having passed 

through repeated editions, the latest of the Trutz 

S'irhliijt:!!, including the poems of the Guldenes 

Tugcndbuch, being that of A. Weinrich (Frnlburg, 

1908), and of the Tugendbuck that of F, Hauler 

(1894). Two i.if his hymns have I iron t ran dialed into 

EnttHsfa: " Rei stiller Nacht, zur ersten Wacbe " as 

"Within a garden's bound"; and "Der trilbe 

Winter ist vorbei " a3 " The gloomy winter now is 

o'er." (O. ZocKLERf.) 

Bibuoobafiit: Lives have been written by J. B, Diel, 2d 

od.. by B. Duhr, Frahum. IIMI; H. Cnrduuas. Fniolt- 

Fort. 18S4; I. fii-ljluir-it, HildMlii-im. 1st*:!: It. Mfili.T, in 

HUtoriKh-polilische Blatter, cniv (1900), 78S aqq.. cxiv 

(1901). 430 sqq.: in ADB, xxxv. 92 sqq,; and KL, li. 

G75 sqq. ; cf . T. Ehner. F . Spee und die Hexenproteae teiner 

Zeit, Hamburg, 1EO0, 

SPEER, ROBERT ELLIOTT: Presbyterian lay- 
man; b. at Huntingdon, Pa., Sept. 10, 1867. He 
was educated at Princeton College (A.B., 1899) 
and also studied for a year at Princeton Theologjbaj 
Seminary. He was secretary of the Student Volun- 
teer Movement for Foreign Missions in 1889-90 and 
instructor in Hiiglish Bible in Princeton Cullcsw in 
1890-91. Since 1801 he has been secretary of the 
I'rcsbyu'rian Board i.f Foivisrn .Missions. In 1896- 
lS'iT lie m:ide a tour of (he I 'hrisli.-m missions in the 
orient, visiting Persia, India, China, Japan, and 
Korea. In theology he is Evangelical, and has 
written fiiudie* in the Gospel of Luke (New York, 
1892); Stwlies in the Book of Act* (1882); The Man 
Christ Jetnu, (1896); Missions and Politics in Asia 
(1898]; A Memorial of a True Life (1898); Remem- 
ber Jesus Christ (1899); The Man Paul (1900); 
Presbi/kriii'i Fiin-iiin .l/i\>.>:i »«.<,■ ( Philadelphia, 15101V 
Christ and Life (New York, 1901); Principles of 
Jesus applied to some Question* of To-Day il'KU); 
VtMiVHMrV Principles and Practice (1902); A 
Young Man's Questions (1903); A Memorial of 
llornrt:. Triicy Pitkin i 1903) ; Misrions and Modern 
History (2 vols., 1904); Young Men who Overcame 
(1905); Marks of a Man; Essential* of Christian 
Character (1907); Master of the Heart (190S); tf* 
morial of Mice Jackson (1908); Paul the All Round 
Man (19091; Servants of the King (1909); Second 
Coming of Christ (1910); and Christianity and the 
Nations (1910). 



SPELLMEYER, HEHRY: Methodist Episcopal 
bishop; b. b New York City Nov. 25, 1847. He was 
educated at New York University (A.B., 1866) and 
Union Theological Seminary (graduated, 1869). 
For thirty-five years he held various pastorates of 
his denomination in and around Newark, N. J., and 
in 1904 was elected bishop. 

SPENCE, JAMES: Synod of United Original 
Seceders; b. at Evie (20 in. e. of Kirkwall), Orkney 
Islands, May 22, 1845. He was educated at the 
University of Aberdeen, and in theology in the 
Original Secession Hall, Glasgow, and New Colic;;*', 
Edinburgh; became minister of the Original Secta- 
rian church at Auchinleck, Ayrshire, 1870, and bo 
remains. In 1876 lie was appointed professor of 
systematic theology in the divinity hull of bis com- 
munion in Glasgow, and was transferred to his 
present chair of Biblical criticism, 1895. 

Church of England; b. at London Jan. 14, 1836. 
He was educated at Corpus Christi, Cambridge 
(B.A., 1864), and was ordered deacon in 1865 and 
ordained priest in the following year. He was pro- 
fessor of English literature and lecturer in Hebrew 
at St. David's College, Lampeter, Wales (1865-70); 
lector of St. Mary -de-Crypt with All Saints and St. 
Owen, Gloucester (1870-77); and principal of 
Gloucester Theological College (1875-77); vicar and 
rural dean of St. Pancras. London (1877-Sli), and 
since 1886 has been dean of Gloucester of which he 
had been honorary canon since 1875. He was select 
preacher at Cambridge in 1S8M, 1887, 1 Ml, and 1905, 
and at Oxford in 1892 and 1903. In 1906 he was 
elected professor of ancient history in the Royal 
Academy. In theology he is a moderate evangelical. 
He hat contributed the volume* on 1 Samuel and the 
Pastoral Epistles to Bishop Ellicotl's Commentary 
(2 vols., London, 18SO-S4), and on Acts (in collabo- 
ration with .1. S Iitnvson) to Schaff's Popular Com- 
mentary on the New Testament (New York, 1880). 
He also edited The Pulpit Commentary (48 vols., 
London, 1880 417) in collaboration with J. S. Exell, 
to which he himself contributed the section on Luke 
(2 vols., 1889), and edited and translated the Didache 
(1885). As independent works he has written 
Dr&miand and History: The Story of the Norman 
Dukes (London, 1891); Cloister Li/e in the Days of 
Cantr de Lion (1892); Gloucester t'athedrtd i" IS'JT) ; 
The Church of England (4 vols., 1897-98); The White 
Robe of Churches nf the Eleventh Century; Page-sfrom 
the Story of Gloucester Cathedral (1900); The Hit- 
lory of the English Church (1900); Life anil Work of 
the Redeemer (1901); Early Chrintumiti/ ami Pagan- 
ism: A History, A.D. 64-SSO (1902);' The Golden 
Age of the Church: Stadiet in the Fourth Century 
<I006); and The Early Christians in Rome (1910). 

SPEHCER, HERBERT: Philosopher; b. in 
Derby, England, Apr. 27, 1S20; d. in Brighton Dec. 
8, 1903. He was a son of William George and Har- 
riet Holmes Spencer. His father was a schoolmaster 
and private teacher. His early education was un- 
academie, partly at homo, partly under an uncle. 
After trials at engineering (1837—16), and journal- 
ism (an economist newspaper, 1848-53), he became 

contributor to various reviews. He was an early 
convert to the doctrine of development already 
formulated by Lamarck. In 1855, four yean; be- 
fore the appearance of Darwin's Origin of Special, 
he pu! 1I1- 1 1 >  j. I Principles of Psychology, based on the 
principles of evolution. Evolution is defined as a 
continuous change from indefinite, incoherent 
lii'iPioL-etieity to definite, coherent heterogeneity of 
structure and function, through successive differ- 
entiations and integrations. By a law of the per- 
sistence of force, the entire universe, inorganic, 
organic, and superorganic, becomes both more spe- 
cialized and complex and at the same time more 
organic and unified. Three laws are appealed to: 
homogeneity tenda to heterogeneity; heterogeneity 
tends to integration and equilibrium; the equilib- 
rium reached is unstable and tends to dissolution. 
In hill enlarged Principles of Psychology (London, 
1870-72) he treats consciousness from a genetic 
point of view as analogous to developing biological 
organisms. Certain tendencies of mental react ion 
are traced to racial heredity and hence the explana- 
tion of what appear to he innate or intuitive ideas. 
Society is an organism and social institutions are the 
product of development with two opposing tenden- 
cies — the Slate and the individual; with the in- 
dividual lies the initiative, only he must be pre- 
vented from aggressive self-assertion (Princijies of 
Sociology, 1877). In the field of ethics development 
is also the rule. The moral sense is traced to the 
experience of the race; conscience originates in 
social customs, either permissive or restrictive; the 
moral life is an equilibrium between the claims of 
altruism and egoism. Pleasure is indeed the sum- 
mum bonum, but it must be defined by such an 
Ideal adjustment to environment that moral con- 
duct will be seen to be a perfectly natural function- 
ing; this, however, is a condition only possible in a 
future and final stage of social development when 
the sense of duty shall whol'v disapf«?ar (Dnia of 
fifftics, 1879; Justice, tb. 1891). His pttitude toward 
ultimate reality is twofold: intellectually, a modi- 
fied agnosticism; religiously, a feeling of mystery 
and awe. Agnosticism springs from the irreconci- 
labie contradict ions in our assertions concerning tin- 
Absolute, and is partly resolved by the necessary 
affirmations of ;m "Infinite and Eternal Energy, 
from Which all things proceed." Even if religions 
have a history, they are reducible to a sense of awe 
which is awakened by the ultimate mystery of the 
universe (cf. Fir* Principles, 1862, rev. ed., 1867). 
The chief significance of Spencer is found in two 

directions: first, his explanation of coii-eioiisiiess 
and all human institutions by reference to a law of 
functional development: secondly, while he has 
been denounced as a materialist, yet many parts 

of his writings ;ire charged with pustulates and im- 
plications which require only further elucidation 
to disclose their essential theism. His relations With 
America, which he visited and where he had a large 
circle of readers, were from the first reeiproeully 
cordial. C. A. Beckwith. 

Bibuoqbapht. Spencer's Syrfcn. of Synthetic PkOoK/jAv 
•ppeared in 10 vols., LoadoB. 18fl0-S7. IS rata., ih. and 
New York. 1900. now uniform ed. of bis Wort.. IS «ol» . 
New York. 1910. For hio Ufa consult: H. Spencer. An 
Autobiography, 2 vain., London ind New York, 1904; 



D Duncan. Life ami Lata* of Herbert Spencer, ib. 1903 
(the authorised biography); 8. H. Mellone. Leaden of 
Rdiaiortt Thought in the Nineteenth Century, London. 1002: 
Bone Lift ailh Herbert Spencer, ib. 1900. 

Oq aia philosophy consult: G. S. Morris. British Thought 
and Thinkers, pp. 337-388. ib. 1870; W. B. Grew, Thi 
Fact! of Consciousness and the Philotophy of Herbert 
Spencer, New York, 1871; B. P. Bowne. The Philosophy 
of Herbert Spencer, ib. 1874; J. L. Porter. 8tf—« and 
Reieiatian, Belfast. 1874; R. Watts. An i'famiMU'ii ■.'/" 
H. Spencer* Biological Hypothesis, ib. 1875; C. Wright. 
Philosophical Discussions, pp. M-90, New Yurk, IS.77; 
E. Blanc. La yovneOa Bases d* la morale d'apret M. 
Herbert Spencer, Lyons, 1881; T. R. Dirks. Modern Fhyt- 
iral Fatalism and the Doctrine of Evolution, including an 
Examination of Mr. H. Spencer'! ' Fir* Principles: 2d 
ed.. London. 1383: W. H. Rolpb, Biologischi Problem* 
luaieic/i alt Verruch tintr rationttlen Ethik. lidfetfo, 188* 
C. E. Bwby, The Woa of the Gospel, London, 1834: T. 
Fniimnn, Herbert Spencer on Socialism, ib. 1834; J. 
Iveneb. The Philosophy of Herbert Spencer Brnmlntf. lb, 
1834; W. Arthur, Religion without God, and God without 
Betigion. part 2, ib. 1885; P. fl. Bridel. La Bata dt 
morale tvelulionid, dapri* H. Spencer. Paria, 18SS; K. 
Gnquoin, Die Grundloge der tpencer'tehen FflQtntUt, 
Berlin. 1388; A. Roder, Der Weg rum GlOck. Av.fGru.nd 
finer Darstellicng der b'nhcick elungslehre H. Spencer: 
Leipnc. 1388: J. Watson. Gospels of Yesterday: Drum- 
memd, Sptnctr, Glfui|(ow. 1888; C. Lnurens. L'L volutin ■! 
M. Hubert Spencer, Lyons. 1330; U. G. Thompson. Her- 
bert Spencer, Kc*/ York. IS*"; K.linnw. Herbert Spencer't 
Lehre rem dem Unerkennbaren. Leipsie. 1890; B. F. I'n- 
denrood. Herbert Spencer's Synthetic Philotophy, New 
York. 1391; E. A. E. rihirrefT, Moral Training: Froebel 
and Herbert Spencer. London. 1M.'; A. Wcismann, Dae 
Keimplaema. Jena, 1892. Eng. transl., Germ Plasm, Lon- 
don. 1883: K. Busse. Herbert Spencer's PMtemmpkt* tm 
Geschichte, Leipsie. 1894; W. H. Hu.lsrcn. intt„.l;„t,.,n re 
the Philosophy of Herbert Spencer. New York. UN! & tie 
Roberty. AvgwHe Camte et Herbert Spencer. Fata. 1S94; 
J. M. Bosch, Die entrrvklungttheoretische Ida sotialer 
Gtrethligkcit, Zurich. 1398; G, Vidnri, Hosmini e Spencer, 
Ha m, 1897; G. AHievo. La Psicologia di Herbert Spencer, 
Turin. 1898: F. H. Collins. An Epitome of the ' Synthetic 
Philosophy,' 4th ed.. London. 1899; J. Dubois. Spencer it 
U principe de la morale. Paris, 1899: J. Ward, .\at uralism 
and Agnosticism, London. 1899: M. Macpheraon. Spencer 
and Spencerism. New York, 1900: J. Royce, Herbert 
Spencer, ib. 1904; C. W. SoJeeby, Evolution, the Master 
Key, ib. 1908 (entertaining, candid, iuoid); J. A. Thom- 
son. Herbert Spencer, London and Now York. 1906; W P. 
Steenkamp. Het AgnosticUme van Herbert Spencer, Am- 

SPEHCER, JOHH: English theologian and He- 
braist; b. at Bocton (near Blean, 3 m. n.w. of 
Canterbury), Kent, baptized Oct. 31, 1630; d. at 
Ely May 27, 1603. He was educated at Corpus 
Christ i College, Cambridge (B.A., 1648; M.A., 1652; 
B.D., 1639; D.D., 1665), and then served the par- 
ishes of St. Giles and St. Benedict, in Cambridge; had 
the care of Landbeach in Cambridgeshire ( 1667-83] ; 
became prebendary at the cathedral of Ely (1671); 
archdeacon of Sudbury (1677); and dean of Ely in 
the same year. In 1667 he was chosen master of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Not without 
justice has he been called the founder of the science 
of comparative religion, tracing as he did the rela- 
tione between Hebrew and other Semitic religions. 
In his first treatise, Dissertatio de Uritn et 
(Cambridge, 1669), he derived these emblems from 
the Egyptians. This treatise prepared the way for 
his chief work, De legibus Hcbraoritm rUuidilmn it 
wrum ration ibiia libri tres (1685; in four books, 
Tubingen, 1732). Here he investigated the origins 
of the Mosaic ritual and arrived at the conclusion 
thai the Moaaic religion was not wholly based upon 

ffiTfllattrrTlj but was to a certain extent derived from 
existing customs. Spencer's views were severely 
attacked by men like Hermann Wilsius, John 
Kd wards, and others. Spencer replied with a care- 
fully revised edition of his work to which was ap- 
pended a fourth book, wliich appeared only ufter 
his death, iu 1727, edited by Leonhard Chappelow. 
Besides these works. Sjnaieer published .-1 Discourse 
rimurning Prodigies (London, 16(13; 2d ed., 1065, 
with an appendix, Trciilim- i-oncrrning \'ulg<ir Proph- 
ecies). His chief work is still regarded as the most 
important work on the religious antiquities of the 
Btauoaunm DttB, lui, 359-300 (where may OB found 

references to scattering notices); a life by C M. Pfaff was 

profiled to book iv. of thq Tubingen edition of the Dt 



SPENGLER, speng'ler, LAZARUS: Town clerk 
of Nuremberg rind zealous adherent of Luther; b. 
at Nuremberg Mar. 13, 1479; d. there Sept. 7, 1534. 
In 1494 he entered the University of Leipsic, but on 
his father's death, two years later, was obliged tO 
terminate his studies. He then entered the Nurem- 
berg chancery, becoming first town clerk in 1507 and 
a member of the council in 1516. A decided admirer 
of Staupiti, and publicly accused of " being a 
disciple or follower of Luther," Spenglcr wrote, late 
in 1519, his SchuUred und christlicke. Antwart fines 
ehrbartn lAebhnbers chrUtlirhtr Wahrheil, in which 
he boldly defended Luther's teachings. The work, 
which ran through live editions within a year, ex- 
posed its author t» niueli hostility. espcei;illy on the 
part of Joliann Eck.and Sin-nglcr in the 
hull of CM'oniniiniieation airninst Luther. In com- 
pliance with the desire of his superiors, and in the 
interest of Nuremberg, Spongier yielded externally, 
though only that he might gradually lead the council 
and city to his own position, his attitude being 
strengthened by his observations during his attend- 
ance, as delegate of the Nuremberg council, at the 
Diet of Worms in 1521. His name is intimately con- 
nected with llio beginning and gradual development 
of the Reformation in \'ureml>erg. At his suggestion 
the Irish monastery of St. jEgidius was transformed 
into a Protestant gymnasium; he proposed the 
church visitation of 1528 in the territories of Nurem- 
berg and Brandenburg; the formulation of the Nu- 
re ml icrg- Brandenburg church order was largely due 
to htm; and it was in great part his reluctance to 
make war upon the emperor thai prevented Nurem- 
berg and Brandenburg from joi.img I he Sehmalkald 
League. He also mainlained continual correspond- 
ence with Wittenberg, especially with Luther, with 
whom he sided against But /it in I he Eucharist ic con- 
troversy, exactly as he had opposed the compliant 
po-ition of Melanehthon at Augsburg in 15-tO. Be- 
sides the Schtdzred already mentioned, Spengler 
wrote Schrift-Ermanung und Uridlcrwegsung zu 
einem lugenJiaften Wandel (1520); Ein trOsUiehe 
Clirvstcnliche tintreisung vnd art&iey in all f 11 iridcr- 
in'rligkeilen (Nuremberg, 1521); £irt kurtzer Begriff 
trie sic/i etn warluiffter Christ in allem IMI MI 
iir/,1 inandtl, gegen got vnd sfinen icc'isicn holten soli 
( 1525); TVost in Clrinmuligk.-il ,;er hi ili,j, n E<-«r.'ji:Ui 
sachen belangend (1529); Chrisdiche Trostschrift 


saml dem 64. Psalm ausgdegt (1529); Eyn kwtter 
ausszug aust den BepeUiehen Bechten, der Decrel und 
Decretalen (1530), and a number of minor works. 
He is also supposed to have been the author of 
the anonymous Hauplartikel, durch welehe gemeine 
ChrUUnhMt bisher verjuhrt warden, darneben auch 
Grund und Ameigen eines ganten rechlen ckristlichen 
Wesens (1522). Spengler wrote two hymns, one of 
■which, " Durch Adorns Fid] ist ganz verderbt," 
was translated by Bishop Miles Coverdale in 1539, 
and in other versions is still used by the Moravians, 
also appearing in the Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal 
published at Columbus, O., in 1880. (T. Kolde.) 
Bihijqgiiapht: C. O. Haussdorf. L&entbachreBnma rinti 

cAruifieArn Politici, . . , Laiari Sptnaleri, Nuremberg. 

1740; M. M. Mayer, Sprnalrriaaa. ib. 1830; F. Ruth, Hit 

Ai../.:'.r„J.v .1.1 l;,lli.„, ,„ X ,irnl..T,i. Wi.lll.urK, I -".J. 
P. Drews. W. Pirkhrimm Sltltullg mr fteformation, Leip- 
sic, 1887; G, Ludcwig. Dit Polilik tiQmberot im Zeilaller 
der Rrformatum. Gflttingen. 1893; P. KolknfF. Pirkhdmert 
und Sptngtcra Loaungvom Banna, IStl, Braslau, 1800; H. 
\Vi-.u nucyr. in HsitrtiQc ivr baymtchtn Kirchenoeachichte, 
vol. ii., Erlongen. 1890; cf. idem, Der orandenburpucn- 
niirnberffuche Kirchenordntinff. ib. 1804; K. Schombaum, 
2ur Politii da Markerafm Otara von Brandenburg, Mu- 
nich, 1900; Julian. Hymnolaoii- P- 1072. 

SPERATUS, sper-a'tus, PAUL: Informer of Prus- 
sia and one of the oldest Protestant hymn-writers; b. 
at BAtton (a villuge near Ellwangen, 45 m. e.n.e. of 
Stuttgart) probably Dec. 13, 1484; d. at Marien- 
■werder (45 m. s.s.e. of Danzig) Aug. 12, 1551. He 
studied in Paris and Italy, and probably at Freiburg 
and Vienna. About 1500 he was ordained to the 
priesthood and was later ennobled as a papal and 
imperial palsgrave. As a priest he was stationed at 
Satttnag in 1514, became cathedral preacher there 
in 1516, removed to Dinkelsbuhl in 1520, and in 
July of the same year bec;ime cathedral preacher in 
Wlirzburg. His Lutheran sympathies, complicated 
by his marriage and his debts, forced him to flee 
on Nov. 21, 1521, to Salzburg, oidy to be speedily 
expelled. He then accepted a call to Ofen, in Hun- 
gary, but his denunciation of monastic vows in a 
sermon preached by him in St. Stephen's, Vienna 
(Jan. 12, 1522; printed at Konigsberg in 1524 as 
Sermon com hohen Gdubde der Taufe), led the theo- 
logioal Faculty of Vienna to excommunicate him on 
Jan. 20, 1522. This precluded a position at Ofen, but 
before long he found a place at Iglau, where, in 
1523, he was imprisoned by the bishop of Olmlltz 
and condemned to death, escaping this fate only by 
the intervention uf iiifiuent.iitl friends on condition 
that he would leave Moravia. He then went, by way 
of Prague, to Wittenberg, where he assisted Luther 
in the preparation of the first Protestant hymnal 
(1524). In 1524, on the recommendation of Luther, 
he was called to K6nigsberg by Albert of Prussia 
(q.v.). There he was court chaplain until 1529, and 
from 1530 until his death was Protestant bishop of 
Pomeranifl, with his residence at Marienwerder, 
It was largely through his efforts that East Prussia 
was thoroughly Lin !i!T:miz<'d, and its religious con- 
ditions completely reorganized. In all this lit; mg 
aided by Johannes Briessmann and Johann Polian- 
der (qq.v.); and with George of Polentz (q.v.), bish- 
op of Samland, Ehrhard of Queiss, bishop of Pome- 
raoia, and Councilor Adrian of Waiblingen he 
conducted the first and most important church visi- 

tation in the duchy of Prussia (1526), also taking 
a prominent part in the second visitation o[ 1528. 
In Jan., 1530, Speratus succeeded Ehrhard of Queiss 
as bishop of Pomerania, where, despite the greatest 
financial difficulties, he displayed marvellous ability 
in the Protestantizing of Prussia. He seems to have 
inspired the division of Prussia into three district 
synods and one national synod, and from 1531 to 
1535 he made every effort to suppress the Schwenck- 
feldian movement (see Schwenckfeld von Ossiq, 
Castas, ScmraNCKTELDiASS), his task being made 
still more difficult by Albert's harboring of Dutch 
Protestant (though non-Lutheran) refugees. The 
Munster outrages, however, led the duke to require 
unity of doctrine in Prussinin the spirit of the Lu- 
theran church order of 1525 (the Artikel der Ceremo- 
nien und anderer Kvchenordnung, in the preparation 
of which Speratus himself seems to have had a share). 
Speratus stood ready in 1537 to attend the pro- 
posed ecumenical council ;il M;i on condition that 
free expression of opinion be allowed and the Bible 
be taken as the basis of all decrees, at the same time 
maintaining the right of resistance to the forcible 
suppression of religious opinions. In 1549 he was 
arbiter in the dispute between the Melanchthoaion 
Lauterwald and the Osiandrian Funck, and though 
he died too soon to become a prominent figure in the 
Osiandrian controversy, after it had been allayed 
the life-work of Speratus became fully effective, 
influencing the Church in East Prussia until the rise 
of Kantian rationalism. Besides translating some of 
Luther's works from Latin into German and assist. 
ing in the preparation of the EtiichGesang . . . allet 
aus Grund gtiltlicher Schrift (Konigsberg, 1527), he 
wrote Wie man trobten soil au/s Kreut, wider all* 
Well zu stehen bet dem Evangelio (Wittenberg, 1524); 
the lost Epistola ad Batavos vagantea; and probably 
the EpUcoporum Prussia! PometaniensU atque Sam- 
biensis constitution's synodalea evangelical (manu- 
script in the archives nt Konigsberg). The greater 
portion of his dogmatic writings and of hia corre- 
spondence is edited by P. Tschackert in his Urkun- 
denbuch zur Reformationsgeschichte dee Herzagthurru 
Preusaen (3 vols., Leipsic, 1890). Of the five hymns 
of Speratus two have been translated into English: 
" Es ist das Heil unskommen her "as" To us salva- 
tion now is come"; and "In Gott gelaub ich, dass 
er hat aus nieht " as " In God I trust, for so I must " 
! I iy Mile?, Covt-rilali 1 , who also made a version of the 
former hymn, "Now is our health come from 
above "). (Pact. Tschackert.) 

Bibuoqraprt: An sources use should be made of bis works 
as given in the text, and of hk Brirfirec/uel. in P. Tschack- 
ert, Urkundenbuch tur Refonnationageachichte dea fffrsoo- 
Ihumi rVfliHin, 3 vols., Leipsie. 1890. Consult further! 
C. J. Cosack, Paulua Sptrolui, Lfben und Lieder. Bruns- 
wick. 1861: P. Tschackcrt, Paul Speralut nm Ratlin, 
Halle, 1891 ; T. Kolue. in BritrUtir iur bayerixhrn Kirchnt- 
SMdtfauV, vol. vi., pnrt 1, Erlnngen. 1S9Q; B. Schumacher, 
NiedertAndiache AnritdlunQen tm HenoQtum Prruoten ntr 
Zril HrrtoQ AOinchli. Leipsic, 1903; J. Zeller. PnuJu 
Speroiiu. seine Herkta/t, tan Sludiengang. und wins 
Thaiiakeil hia 1633, Stuttgart, 1907) Julian, Hi/miHiogv. 
pp. 1073-74. 

SPEYER, spoi'er or spoir, BISHOPRIC OF: A 
German dioccst; first spi'dlkMlly mentioned in 614 
although Christianity may have been implanted in 
the regJoii duriui; the Roman period. It later be- 




came part of the archdiocese of Mainz, the larger 
portion of the see being on the right bank of the 
Rhine, and the smaller portion on the left bank. 
The northern and southern limits respectively were 
Altrip and Lauterburg, while in the east the diocese 
extended to the present Wurttemberg circle of 
Jagst, and in the west to the vicinity of Pirmasens. 

(A. Hauck.) 
For a long time after the rise of Lutheranism the 
diocese of Speyer, although almost invariably ad- 
ministered by faithful and able prelates, was exposed 
to many vicissitudes. In 1546 the deanery of Weis- 
senburg was incorporated in the diocese, but a few 
years later the troops of Margrave Albert of Bran- 
denburg-Culmbach plundered and desecrated the 
cathedral. The majority of the old monasteries 
came into the possession of adherents of the new 
faith, although sturdy resistance was made to Prot- 
estantism, both in its religious and its political 
aspects. In 1621 Ernest of Mansfeld again sacked 
Speyer, and in 1632 the victorious advance of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus led the bishop to make alliance with 
the French. This union, even though aided by 
Swedish neutrality, could not protect the diocese 
against the horrors of the Thirty-Years' War, and 
for ten years (1635-45) the bishop was a prisoner 
at Vienna. The years following were devoted to 
the restoration of the almost ruined diocese, but 
the War of the Palatinate and of the Orleans and 
Spanish successions brought new distress upon 

Speyer, while occasional conflicts between city and 
diocese still further complicated the situation. The 
wars of the Polish and Austrian successions also 
worked to the disadvantage of the see. In 1801 that 
portion of the diocese to the left of the Rhine, which 
had been permanently occupied by the French, was 
divided between the sees of Mainz and Strasburg, 
while the district to the right of the river was later 
shared by Freiburg and Rottenburg. In 1817 the 
Bavarian concordat created a new diocese of Speyer, 
which is identical in limits with the Bavarian 
Rhenish Palatinate and forms part of the arch- 
diocese of Bamberg. 

Bibliography: Annate* Spirent*, ed. G. H. Pert*, in MGH, 
Script., xvii (1861), 80-85; Pontes rerum Germanicarum, 
ed. J. F. B6hmer and A. Huber, iv. 315-355, Stuttgart, 
1868; F. X. Remling, Urkundliche Geschichte der ehemal- 
igen Abteien und Kldeter itn jeteigen Rheinbayern, 2 vols., 
Neufltadt, 1836; idem, Das ReformaHonewerk in der Pfalz, 
Mannheim, 1846; idem, Geschichte der Bischdfe tu Speyer, 
2 vols., Mains, 1852-54; idem, Urkundenbuch tur Ge- 
schichte der Bischdfe zu Speyer, 2 vols., ib. 1852-53; idem, 
Der Speyerer Dom, ib. 1861 ; idem, Die Rheinpfalz in der 
Revolution 1708-98, 2 vols., Speyer, 1865; idem, Neuere 
Geschichte der Bischdfe zu Speyer, ib. 1867; W. Molitor, 
Die Immunitat dee Domes zu Speyer, ib. 1850; Urkunden 
zur Geschichte der Stadt Speyer, ed. A. Hilgard, Stras- 
burg, 1885; N. Meyer-Schwartau, Der Dom tu Speyer, 
Berlin, 1893; J. Zimmern, Der Kaiserdom tu Speyer, Lud- 
wigshafen, 1897; Urkunden tur pfalxischen Kirchenge- 
schichte im MittekJter, ed. F. X. Glasschrdder, Munich, 
1903; KL, xi. 589-614. For list of the bishops consult 
Gams, Series episcoporum, pp. 313-315; and Hauck- 
Hersog, RE, xviii. 589. 

I. Diet or 1526. 

The Political Situation (ft 1). 
Demands of the Estates (J 2). 
Changed Political Situation; 
bassy to the Emperor (| 3). 



II. Diet of 1529. 

The Emperor's Position (J 1). 
Roman Catholic Preponderance 

Withdrawal of the Evangelicals (§ 3). 

The " Protest " (( 4). 

Roman Catholic Charges (J 5). 
m. Diet of 1542. 
IV. Diet of 1544. 

L Diet of 1526: When Archduke Ferdinand 
opened the imperial diet in Speyer June 15, 1526, 
the political situation was unfavorable to the 
friends of the Reformation. Through the peace of 
Madrid, Jan. 14, 1526, the Emperor Charles V. had 
gained a free hand, and could hope to enforce within 
the German empire the provisions of the edict of 
Worms. The South German Roman 
i. The Catholic princes had formed a compact 

Political alliance at Regensburg in July, 1524; 

Situation, the North German princes, at Dessau 
on June 26. So when, early in 1526, 
Duke Henry of Brunswick reached Spain, to entreat 
the emperor's support in behalf of the ancient faith, 
Charles joyfully acceded to the appeal. On Mar. 
23, 1526, he announced that he expected to start 
for Rome in June, then to proceed to Germany to 
put an end to Lutheranism. 

Accordingly, the imperial instructions to the 
estates at Speyer demanded no more than ad- 
visement over the ways and means whereby the 
ordinances of the Church might be administered as 
usual. But although the chiefs of the Evangelical 
party, Elector John of Saxony and Landgrave 
Philip of Hesse, had not yet arrived, the two princely 
colleges, on June 30, demanded some action in the 
matter of terminating abuses. The cities declared 

the execution of the edict of Worms to be impossi- 
ble. At the same time they demanded that such 
( practises as opposed the word of God 
2. Demands be abolished. On July 4, this memorial 
of the of the cities was communicated to the 
Estates, princely colleges, and it was accepted 
unaltered. At this juncture, each of 
the three tribunals, electoral, princely, municipal, 
elected a separate committee, whose office was to 
decide between abuses to be abolished and the good 
practises to be retained. The anti-Roman temper 
of the major part of the German nation again came 
openly to the front, and powerful reenf orcement was 
received by the arrival in Speyer of Landgrave 
Philip on July 12, and of Elector John on July 20. 
By an agreement subscribed at Torgau May 2, ap- 
proved by other Evangelical princes on June 12, the 
leaders pledged themselves to open confession of the 
Evangelical truth. The committee for the princes 
endorsed the marriage of priests and the cup for 
the laity as articles worthy of resolute endeavor, 
but the municipal committee proposed to leave to a 
free vote with every estate of the realm how it would 
deal with ceremonial affairs until convention of the 
council. Subsequently, on July 30, a " great com- 
mittee " was appointed for further consideration of 
the whole matter; but on Aug. 3, Archduke Ferdi- 




nand appeared with the abrupt and summary noti- 
fication that an imperial collateral advice of Mar. 
23 prohibited all that procedure, and called simply 
for the execution of the edict of Worms. Most of 
the estates heard this communication with aversion. 
Finally the princely colleges agreed to inform the 
imperial commissioners that, in the question of re- 
ligious belief, each estate would " so abide and 
behave that it might render loyal account before 
God, his imperial majesty, and the kingdom. 1 ' 

A memorial tendered on Aug. 4 by the cities to 
the estates called attention to the alteration in the 
political situation since the debated instructions had 
been decreed. The emperor, being now 
3. Changed at war with the pope, must admit the 
Political practical inexpediency of the mandate 
Situation; of Worms. Since a council could not 
Embassy convene at short notice, it was advised 
to the that they report by despatches and en- 
Emperor, voys to the emperor concerning the 
present state of affairs, and beseech 
him to suspend the edict of Worms, and to approve 
the national assembly that had been forbidden by 
the emperor. So early as Aug. 5, the estates con- 
curred in the cities 1 proposal, and the instructions 
to be despatched with the envoys were concluded 
Aug. 21. The envoys were to remind the emperor 
that while some of the imperial estates were still of 
the former faith and practise, others adhered to a 
different ecclesiastical teaching, which in their 
estimation was also Christian; therefore let both 
parties hold their own way in behalf of the Chris- 
tian truth. The emperor was entreated to come to 
Germany as soon as practicable, so that counsel 
might be devised through his presence. Further- 
more, he was asked to bring it about that within a 
year and a half a " common free council " should be 
set afoot on German soil, or, at all events, a free 
national assembly. He was also asked to set at rest 
the matter of the edict of Worms. This proposition 
was adopted in the diet Aug. 27, and accepted by 
the imperial commissioners. The friends of the 
Reformation had cause to be content with the result 
of the diet. While the proviso which gave to the diet 
its lasting historical significance brought about no 
permanent peace, it was designed to aid in tiding 
over the momentary embarrassment by a truce that 
deferred the ultimate decision. But inasmuch as 
the regulation of the religious issue never came 
to pass, and as neither the council nor the national 
assembly, nor even the proposed embassy to the 
emperor, was realized, the embassy being expressly 
forbidden by the emperor, on May 27, 1527, the 
Evangelical estates of the realm held themselves to 
be justified by the diet's ruling to continue and com- 
plete the reforms already begun in their jurisdictions. 
In this way the resolutions of Speyer came to be the 
legal foundation for the Evangelical party's further 
innovations in religion. But since the Roman 
Catholic estates, in their suppression of the Gospel, 
could also appeal to the ruling of Speyer, the relig- 
ious division of the German nation dates effectively 
from this diet. 

IL Diet of 1529: The political situation had be- 
come still more threatening for the Evangelical 
estates when a second imperial diet convened at 

Speyer in 1529. Charles V., just then on the point 
of concluding peace with the pope, was resolved to 

make an end of Lutheranism in the 

1. The empire. At the opening of the diet on 

Emperor's Mar. 15, the imperial address to the 

Position, estates expressed in the bluntest terms 

the emperor's disfavor on account of 
the " pernicious errors " abroad in Germany, seeing 
they had even caused tumult and riot. The emperor 
would connive no longer at these disorders; the 
council, which the pope, too, would now gladly pro- 
mote, was to be convoked as soon as possible. Till 
then the emperor forbade, under penalty of the ban 
of the empire, that any one be coerced or enticed 
into unrighteous belief. From the former ruling of 
Speyer, there had ensued " great mischief and mis- 
understanding over against our holy faith "; where- 
fore the emperor did now repeal the same, and com- 
manded the regulation prescribed in his manifesto. 
In the diet, this time, the Roman Catholic party 
had vastly the majority. Among the eighteen mem- 
bers of the " great committee " that was appointed 

on Mar. 18 for drafting the diet's 
2. Roman enactments, only three were Evangel- 
Catholic ical. Hence the Roman Catholics 
Preponder- carried their motions, notwithstanding 
ance. the Evangelical members' resistance. 

No later than Mar. 22, the committee 
resolved to lay before the diet the repeal of the pre- 
ceding decree of Speyer. The committee's memorial 
was communicated to the estates on Apr. 3, and 
accepted by the princes Apr. 6 and 7. But when 
the Evangelical princes declared that they would 
not be forced from the former decree of Speyer, the 
motion was returned to the committee for modifica- 
tion, with the proviso, however, that the " sub- 
stance" thereof should remain unchanged. The 
memorial, so unpalatable to the Evangelical party, 
was left practically unaltered, was referred to the 
princely estates on Apr. 10, and adopted on Apr. 
12, although Elector John at once made it publicly 
known that he would protest against it. Shortly 
afterward, it was delivered to the cities for final 
passage. When the municipal envoys were sum- 
moned one by one to pronounce whether they ac- 
cepted the decree, twenty-one cities yielded their 
assent on Apr. 12 and 13; others answered evasively. 
All the rest, however, besides the still protesting 
cities of Frankfort, Hall in Swabia, Goslar, and 
Nordhausen, had the courage to refuse compliance. 
On Apr. 12, the Evangelical princes caused a writ 
of grievance to be read aloud, wherein they offered 
searching arguments for their declension of the ma- 
jority resolution, and begged for its alteration. But 
the estates answered merely (on Apr. 13) that they 
had delivered their decree, together with the griev- 
ance, to the imperial commissioners. The estates 
being then assembled in solemn convocation on Apr. 
19, the commissioners, through King Ferdinand, 
announced that in the name of the emperor they 
adopted the resolution of the estates. Touching the 
grievance of the Evangelical estates, they remarked 
that they had taken cognizance thereof, and left the 
same to stand or fall by its own weight, and they 
trusted that the estates concerned would not refuse 
the ruling by majority duly decreed. 




Thus the situation of the Evangelical estates had 
come to be serious. In the imperial diet, they stood 
completely isolated. Yet the Evangelical leaders 
held firm and unanimous, even. though the opposi- 
tion attempted to effect their separation by utili- 
zing the dissension between Luther and 
3. With- Zwingli. The magistrates of Evangel- 
drawal of ical cities, especially of Nuremberg and 
the Evan- Strasburg, contributed not a little, by 
gelicals. their animating instructions, to the 
result that their advocates in Speyer 
maintained their courageous determination. After 
the imperial commissioners' ultimatum, Elector 
John, Margrave George, Landgrave Philip, and 
Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt, as also the chancellor 
of Dukes Ernst and Franz of Luneburg, who had not 
yet reached Speyer, returned to the audience cham- 
ber, whence they had withdrawn for a brief con- 
sultation, and protested orally against the decree, 
stating also that they would take no part in any 
subsequent proceedings of the imperial diet. And 
when Jacob Sturm announced that the Evangelical 
cities adhered to the protestation, they filed in the 
records of the diet a writ of protest, which mean- 
while had been hastily drawn up by the Saxon 
chancellor, wherein they declared that they were not 
bound, without their assent, to vacate the former 
unanimously resolved decree, and that they pro- 
tested against the majority ruling as null and void. 
For the drafting of a second, more explicitly de- 
tailed writ of protestation, they commissioned the 
chancellor of Brandenburg, George Vogler, who 
now prepared with the utmost expedition a draft, 
which is still extant in the district archives of Bam- 
berg, in sixteen folio pages. This document meeting 
with the approbation of the Evangelical princes, a 
clean copy thereof was despatched to King Fer- 
dinand on Apr. 20. At first, indeed, he accepted the 
same, but afterward he returned it with disapproval. 
At the last moment, Duke Henry of Brunswick and 
Margrave Philip of Baden made an attempt at medi- 
ation that found ready response with the Evangelical 
princes, but was rejected by Ferdinand. The decree 
was signed on April 22; and the diet, wherein the 
Evangelical princes no longer took part, was closed. 
The protesting delegates announced, however, that 
they meant to conduct themselves peaceably and 
friendly toward all estates. 

For security against hostile attacks, Elector, John 
and Landgrave Philip, on April 22, had an " under- 
standing " with Nuremberg, Strasburg, and Ulm, as 
to which more particular terms were to 
4. The be defined in June, at a diet in Rotach. 
" Protest." On Apr. 25, the formal act of protes- 
tation was vested with legal finality 
by an attested instrument of appeal, wherein all 
antecedent records were duly cited and reviewed. 
In this connection, the counselors of Elector John of 
Saxony, Margrave George of Brandenburg, Dukes 
Ernst and Franz of Luneburg, Landgrave Philip of 
Hesse, and of Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt, protested 
by every form of law against the decree; and at the 
same time appealed to the emperor, the council, the 
national assembly, indeed to every impartial Chris- 
tian judge. The delegations of the fourteen cities 
made simultaneous declaration of their adherence to 

this appeal. The Evangelical princes departed from 
Speyer on Apr. 25 and straightway arranged for the 
publication of the protestation. This was effected 
by the landgrave on May 5, and by the elector on 
May 12. A deputation, whose members were deter- 
mined at Nuremberg on May 26, was to convey the 
appeal to the emperor. These envoys did also set 
out in July, but not till Sept. 12, at Piacenza, could 
they deliver their message to the emperor. On Oct. 
12, he then assured them that he expected the pro- 
testing estates to obey the decree, since otherwise 
he must proceed against them with severe measures. 
Lastly he had the envoys arrested, nor were they 
released until Oct. 30. 

It was from the protest at Speyer that the ad- 
herents of the Reformation obtained the designa- 
tion of " Protestants " (see Protestantism), and 
this act received a worthy memorial in the commem- 
orative " Church of the Protestation," erected by 
means of gifts from all Evangelical countries, and 
solemnly dedicated on Aug. 31, 1904. 

The " protest " from which thus " Protestants " 
derived their name has been charged by Roman 
Catholics with being a protest against tolerance as 
expressed with reference to the edict of Worms by 
the diet. But the edict bound those who main- 
tained it to deny to Luther and his adherents all 
rights, even of food and shelter, and 
5. Roman permitted their spoliation and persecu- 

Catholic tion; the diet's terms required the 

Charges, execution of these commands. The 
directions of the diet further did not 
admit the legitimacy of the Reformation where it 
was already deeply rooted, and forbade further 
progress; had the Evangelical party signed this, 
they would by that fact have admitted the Refor- 
mation to be at fault. The diet further attempted 
to prohibit preaching against the Roman Catholic 
doctrine of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, even 
where the Lutheran position was held by the major- 
ity; since it also required that the mass be not abol- 
ished in Evangelical jurisdictions, even the Evangel- 
ical clergy would have been compelled to read mass, 
and this involved practically the prohibition of the 
Evangelical celebration of the Lord's Supper. The 
charge which has most behind it as stated by Roman 
Catholics is that of intolerance by Evangelicals, in 
that the masses had proceeded to the length of riot 
in their opposition to Roman Catholic observances 
and institutions. The medieval theories were in 
this respect still in practise. On the other hand, the 
Roman Catholic position was no better, but ex- 
plicitly involved the extinction of Protestant re- 
ligion and practises. But the " protest " embodied 
a clear and concrete presentation of the principles 
of Protestantism, and was a courageous statement 
in the face of an adverse majority. 

IIL Diet of 1542: The purpose of this third im- 
perial diet of Speyer, opened by King Ferdinand on 
Feb. 9, 1542, was to afford him aid against the 
Turks, who were closely pressing Austria. The Prot- 
estant estates declared themselves ready to attend 
on condition that the religious peace of Nuremberg 
(see Nuremberg, Religious Peace of), whose 
provisions had been renewed at Regensburg in 1541, 
be maintained intact. It was not until Apr. 1 1, and 




after protracted negotiations, that a ruling was de- 
vised by which the desired aid was granted, and the 
status of peace, as at Regensburg, was extended for 
five years. By the terms of a bond to the Protestant 
estates, executed by Ferdinand's order the day be- 
fore, the Regensburg " declaration " was also to 
remain in force during the same period. The Roman 
Catholic estates did not recognize this arrangement, 
but accepted a proffer tendered by the papal legate 
Morone, for convening a council on Aug. 15, at Trent. 
The Evangelical estates made written protest against 
the place selected. 

IV. Diet of 1544: At the brilliant fourth im- 
perial diet of Speyer, opened on Feb. 20, 1544, by 
Charles V. in person, the emperor especially labored 
to obtain the support of the empire in his war with 
France. The Protestant estates again made their 
consent depend upon the condition that the Regens- 
burg " declaration " be renewed; and they de- 
manded that this proviso be embodied in the diet's 
ruling, a point which the Roman Catholic estates re- 
fused. After months of prolonged negotiations, it 
was finally resolved, on May 27, to defer the draft- 
ing of the proper provisions to the emperor. In this 
connection the Roman Catholic estates announced 
that they must needs endure what the emperor might 
resolve. The ruling of the imperial diet, as then 
sealed on June 10, yielded essential concessions to 
the Protestants. On occasion of a new imperial 
diet, in the ensuing autumn or winter, when the em- 
peror hoped again to be present, they would ar- 
range on what footing they should stand in the dis- 
puted articles of religion, until the council. The 
proceedings were to be outlined in advance, accord- 
ing to projects of reform that were to be furnished 
by the emperor and the estates. Meanwhile the 
public peace should be observed; whereas the decree 
of Augsburg and the trials pending before the su- 
preme court for the cause of religion should be sus- 
pended. The clergy, endowments, cloisters, schools, 
and hospitals, irrespective of religious confession, 
were to continue in the enjoyment of the incomes to 
their credit in 1541. The supreme court itself was 
to be supplied anew with devout and learned judges, 
without regard to religious affiliations. The Roman 
Catholic estates were far from satisfied with this 
measure, while the pope formally protested against 
it in a brief of Aug. 24. But indeed, even the Prot- 
estants, whom the emperor at this diet had treated 
with more favor than ever before, could not feel 
altogether content with the actual result. The 
emperor's concessions were merely provisional, and 
were equivocally worded; nor did the Roman Catho- 
lic estates deem themselves bound thereby. Then 
again, the aid of the empire, that had been granted 
the emperor, not only so strengthened his material 
power that he was able to advance victoriously into 
France and force to his will the peace of Crespy 
(Sept. 14, 1544), but freed his hand, by the same 
stroke, for contingent action against the Protestants. 
For that matter, the evidence that Charles had not 
changed his mind in relation to the Reformation, 
but had fully harbored the intention of opposing it 
with force if occasion required, came clearly to light 
in the outbreak of the Schmalkald war, a few years 
later. Julius Net. 

Bibliography: The subject is treated more or leas fully in 
the works on the history of the Reformation, and the 
treatments of the life of Lather generally deal with it 
Also to be noted is the literature under Philip op Hjcssb; 
F. B. von Buoholts, Geechichte der Regierung Ferdinand 
dee Breten, vols, i.-ii., Vienna, 1831 ; O. Egelhaaf , Deutsche 
Geechichte im ZeitalUr der Reformation, Berlin, 1885. Ob 
the diet of 1526 consult: W. Friedensburg, Zur Vjrge- 
echichte dee torgauiechen Bundnieeee, Marburg, 1884; idem, 
Der ReichetaQ tu Speier 1626, Berlin, 1887; Q. Kawerau, 
Johann Agricola. pp. 90 sqq., Berlin, 1881; J. Ney, Der 
ReichetaQ zu Speier 1626, Hamburg, 1889; idem, in ZKQ, 
viii. 300 sqq., ix. 137 sqq., xii. 334 sqq., 593 sqq.; A. 
Kluckhohn, Der ReichetaQ tu Speier 1626, in Historieche 
Zeitechrift, lvi. 193 sqq.; J. Janasen, Hiet. of the German 
People, v. 59 sqq., St. Louis, 1903; Cambridge Modem 
Hielory, ii. 196, New York, 1904; Ranke, Popet, L 79- 
80; Hefele, Conciliengeechichte, ix. 454 sqq.; T. Briefer, 
Der Speierer ReichetaQ von 1626 und die reHgidee Frage der 
Zeit, Leipsio, 1910. 

On the diet of 1529 consult: J. J. M Oiler, Hietorie toft 
den evangeUechen St&nde-Protettation tu Speyer, Jena, 
1705; J. A. H. Tittmann, Die Proteetation der cvangeH- 
echen St&nde auf dem Reichetaoe zu Speier . . . 1629, 
Leipsic, 1829; A. Jung, Geechichte dee Reichetage tu Speyer, 
Strasburg, 1830; J. Ney, Geechichte dee Reichstage eu 
Speier . . . 1629, Halle, 1880; idem, Die Proteetation der 
evangeUechen St&nde zu Speier . . . 1629, Halle, 1890; 
E. Heuser, Die Proteetation von Speier, Neustadt, 1904; 
idem. Die Appellation und Proteetation der evan- 
geliechen St&nde tu Speier 1629, Leipsio, 1906; J. 
Janasen, Hiet. of the German People, v. 188 sqq., 8L 
Louis, 1903; Cambridge Modern History, ii. 203-204, 206, 
330, New York, 1904; Hefele, Conciliengeechichte, ix. 
568 sqq. 

On the diets of 1542 and 1544 oonsult: The work of 
Bucholts, ut sup.; also Janasen, ut sup., pp. 164-172, 247 
sqq.; A. de Boor, Beitr&ge zur Geechichte dee Speierer 
Reichetage . . . 1644, Strasburg, 1878; Cambridge Mod- 
ern History, ut sup., pp. 77, 244, 661. 

SPIEKER, spi'ker or spai'ker, GEORGE FREDER- 
ICK: Lutheran; b. at Elk Ridge Landing, Md., 
Nov. 17, 1844. He was educated at Baltimore CSty 
College and in the Lutheran theological seminaries 
of Gettysburg and Philadelphia, being graduated 
from the latter in 1867. He was acting professor of 
German in Pennsylvania College (1864-66); pro- 
fessor at the Keystone Normal School, Kutztown, 
Pa. (1867-68); professor of Hebrew at Muhlenberg 
College (1887-94); and since 1894 professor of 
church history, Old-Testament theology, and in- 
troduction in the Lutheran Theological Seminary 
at Philadelphia. He was pastor of the Lutheran 
Church at Kutztown (1867-83), and occupied a pul- 
pit of the same denomination at Allentown, Pa. 
(1883-94). He is associate editor of the Lutheran 
Church Review, and has written Commentary on II 
Corinthian* (New York, 1897), besides translating 
L. Hutter's Compend of Lutheran Theology (Phila- 
delphia, 1868) and K. A. Wildenhahn's Martin 
Luther (in collaboration with H. £. Jacobs; 1883). 

SPIERA, spt-tfra, FRANCESCO: Italian jurist; 
b. at Cittadella (13 m. n. of Padua), Italy, 1502; d. 
there Dec. 27, 1548. Interest in Spiera is due to the 
fact that the Protestants of the sixteenth century 
used his case as an example of the dreadful conse- 
quences of the sin against the Holy Ghost, since he 
discerned Evangelical truth, but denied and ab- 
jured it for external reasons. Spiera had won an 
esteemed position in his native town; and a well 
bestowed house, in which ten children grew up, ap- 
peared to insure his happiness. Besides the Scrip- 
tures, there fell into his hands various Evangelical 


ritings, such as " The Benefit of Christ's Death," 
Doctrine Old and New," and " Summary of 
icred Scripture," which instilled in him doubt as to 
■e Roman Catholic teachings on purgatory, venera- 
oo of the saints, etc. With others he was ar- 
jgned before the inquisition at Venice; andhistrial 
ime off between May 24 and June 20, 1548. The 
inutes of the trial are still extant in the archives 
; Venice, and are reprinted in Comba's fran- 
co) Spiera (1872). On the latter day in St. Mark's 
piera made solemn abjuration of his " errors," and 
obscribed the abjuration, which be then repeated 
n the following Sunday in Cittadella, after mass 
a the cathedral. On returning home, so he related 
X himself, " the Spirit," or the voice of bis con- 
science, began to reproach him for having denied 
the truth. Amid grounds of comfort that either he 
or his friends advanced, and a state of despair that 
grew more and more hopeless, there began a ter- 
rible struggle within himself, which soon so affected 
even bis sturdy physique that it gave occasion for 
conveying him to Padua to be treated by the most 
celebrated physicians. The treatment was vain, and 
the conflict, which Vergerio and others witnessed, 
ended in hia death, shortly after his return to bis 
home. That Spiera laid violent hands on himself 
h bier invention. K. Benrath. 

Bmuomumr: C. S. Curio, F. Spina . . . historia, Geneva, 
1S50 [?! (contains accounts by Curio, M. Gribnidus. H. 
6»W1 ud S. Grlvu*. with preface by Calvin mid apol- 
t*y by Vcrgerius); F. P. Vergerio. La Historia di M. 
frtscSpitra .... (Tiiliinn'iiJ. l.'i'.l, ronrinud Florence, 
IK!; N Bacon. Relation of the Fear/full Estate of Francis 

r, 1B4S; F. Lautence. Hist, de Francois 

Hm, Leyden. 1646; E. Comhn. F. Spiera, Episodia delta 
nfm, religiasa in Italia, Roma, 1S72; C. Ronneke, 
T*Kaa> Spirra. Hamburg. 1871; K, Bcotsth. Oesehiehte 
*r fafirmation in Venedig, pp. 35-36, Hnlle. 18K7; W. 
Somawifelt. F. Spiera. tin VnatOcklichtr, Leipaio, 1896; 
Cmbndoe Modern History, ii. 304-305, New York. 1004. 

SHFAHE, JACQUES PAUL: French CalviniHt; 
b- « Paris 1502; executed at Geneva Mar. 23 (or 
25), 1566. He was at first a Roman Catholic and, 
hiring studied law, became a parliamentary coun- 
ttlor and later a counselor of state. He then sud- 
denly took orders and was made canon, as well as 
'hsncellor of the I' Diversity of Paris, etc., besides 
Mrompanying the cardinal of Lorraine to the Coun- 
nl of Trent as his vicar-general. In 154S he was 
consecrated bishop of Nevers, but eleven years 
later resigned his see in favor of his nephew and re- 
jW to Geneva, where be Boon professed open al- 
kpance to Protestantism. This step was clearly 
due in great measure to his adulterous relations 
»ith Catharine de Gaspeme, whom he had induced 
to abandon her husband, and with whom he lived 
■far the Iatter's death. To legitimate the two 
diildren of this union, Spifame pretended to reveal 
n Hate of affaire to the council aud consistory of 
Gwva, alleging that his orders bad prevented him 
from manying the woman, and that he had been 
weed to leave Paris because of hia fear of persecu- 
tion. The union was declared legitimate on July 27, 
•MS. and Beza and Calvin readily accepted him as 
f*$at, so that in the following year he became minis- 
jjj stlssoudun. Other congregations soon desired 
™ *rric£s, among them his old city of Nevers, but 

though Calvin urged him to accept this post, Spi- 
fame was next found in Bourges and Paris. With 
the outbreak of the first religious war he became a 
still more important figure, particularly at the 
princes' diet at Frankfort (Apr. -Nov., 1562), where 
he was the envoy of Condi. While returning to 
France, he came into the midst of military opera- 
tions, and until the concluding of the Treaty of 
Amboise (Mar. 19, 1563) was civil governor of 
Lyons. He then went back to Geneva, where he had 
meanwhile been elected to the Council of Sixty, ;md 
in Jan., 1564, he accepted the invitation of Jeanne 
d'Albret, queen of Navarre, to visit Pau to ar- 
range her affairs. Here he committed the as- 
tounding indiscretion of declaring that her son, 
Henry IV., was the offspring of adultery, and in 
Apr., 1565, he returned to Geneva. Suspicions now 
began to cluster around him; he was supposed to 
be intriguing with France, either to become bishop 
of Toul or to be made controller of finances ; hi.- 
nephew, who knew the true story of his relations 
with Catharine de Gaspeme, declared bis two 
children incapable of inheriting; and he wua form- 
illy rlmrged with insulting the queen of Navarre. 
On Mar. 11, 1566, he was imprisoned, especially as 
there were rumors that he had forged papers at- 
testing a common-law union with Catharine de 
Gaspeme in 1539 while her husband was still alive. 
Investigation proved the falsity of his documents, 
and though he pleaded that his adultery was out- 
lawed and denied all other charge ljrmiglil ;i.L';iinsT 

him, his acte of forgery were deemed by the <■< 'il 

to be sufficient reason to condemn him to be be- 
headed. (Eooes Lachenmann.) 

Bib Liixi kaput: The account of the trial and rnnfmnion of 
Spiiame »a* printed at Geneva. 1568. Consult further: 
T. Beza. Hist, rccltsiastiqur des Mists rrfurmlts , , . de 
France, ii. 166 ■qt)., Geneva. 1580. new ed. by J. W. Bauin 
and A. E. Cunitz, 3 vol*.. Paris, 18S:i-S8, also ed. P. 
Vernon, 2 vols.. Touluu.«.\ Issi-il; Culviu. Opera, vols. 

1730; J. SeoObior, H:-J. liufwir.- ,'■■ (// n ,Y-, i. :i.s.]-;(Sj', 
ib. 1788: E, nod K. Hang. La France protectant!, is. 300 
sqq.. Paris. 1850: Bulletin dt la sariitt de I'hist. du proles- 
tantisme francais. is. 276-277, lii. 4S3, xlviii. JUS aqq.) 
Lichtenbergcr, ESS, si. 874. 

SPINA, spl'na, ALFONSO DE: Spanish anti- 
Jewish and anti-Mohammedan apologist of the 
fifteenth century; d. atOrense (115 m. s.w. of Leon), 
Galicia, 1469. Entering the Franciscan order, he 
became rector of the University of Salamanca, and 
in 1 4f>fi was consecrated bishop of Orense. He is 
generally, and probably justly, held to be the author 
of the anonymous ForUdilivm fidei contra Judtros, 
Snracmtts aliogqut Christiana fidei inimicos (n.p., 
1487 and often), which, according to its pffl ■f;icc, 
was written by a Franciscan teacher at Yalladolid 
in 1458. The work is in four books: the first prov- 
ing the messtahsbip of Jesus from the fulfilment, of 
prophecy; the second decline "it Ii herd ics :iiid i ln-ir 
manifold punishments; the third attacking the Jews; 
and the fourth polemizing against the Moham- 
medans, with an interesting, though one-sided, ac- 
count of the struggles between the Christians and 
the Saracens. (O. ZOcKLERf.) 

Bihliocihapht: J, A. Fabricius. Delectus argvtnentorum at 
syllabus scriplemm . . . , pp. 575-578. Hamburg. 1725; 
R. Simon, Bibliothique, critique, iii, 3IQ-322. Paris, 1708) 



J. M. Schrdckh, ChritUiche KircKenouchiehU. xxx. 573- 
674, Leipaic, 1802; I. M. Jost, OetehiehU de* Judenthum* 
und seiner Sekten, iii. 96, ib. 1850, H. Graets, Geachichte 
der Juden, viii. 228-220, ib. 1890, Eng. tnosl., 5 vota., 
Philadelphia, 1891-08; JE, xi. 510. 


Spanish Roman Catholic advocate of union; b. 
near Roermond (27 m. n.e. of Maestricht), Holland, 
1626; d. at Vienna Mar. 12, 1695. He was edu- 
cated at Cologne and at an early age entered the 
order of the Observantine Franciscans. He taught 
philosophy and scholastic theology at Cologne, and 
rose to be general of his order. In 1661 he was 
called from Madrid to Vienna to become confes- 
sor of Maria Theresa, wife of Leopold I., and in 1668 
was consecrated titular bishop of Tina, while in 1685 
he was made bishop of Wiener-Neustadt. Thor- 
oughly versed in diplomacy and irenic in tempera- 
ment, he labored unceasingly to reconcile Protes- 
tantism with the Roman Catholic Church, willing 
to make certain concessions for the furtherance of a 
plan which lukewarm Protestantism and notable 
conversions from its bickerings rendered plausible. 
In 1671, after gaining the approval of the papal 
nuncio at Vienna, Spinola began negotiations with 
German Lutheran and Reformed princes and theo- 
logians, but in nearly every case his advances were 
met with profound distrust. His most favorable 
reception was in Brunswick and Luneburg, and 
especially in Hanover, where he had the sympathy 
of the converted duke, John Frederick, as well as of 
Gerhard Walter Molanus and Gottfried Wilhelm von 
Leibnitz (qq.v.). The first conference, in 1676, 
amounted to little, but in 1683 Spinola made ver- 
bally a number of concessions, such as communion 
under both kinds, marriage of the clergy, continued 
possession of secularized estates of the Church, the 
suspension of the decrees of the Council of Trent, and 
remission of formal adjuration, the sole require- 
ment being recognition of the supremacy of the pope. 
At a conference over which Molanus presided the 
plan proposed by Spinola was practically adopted, 
but when the proceedings became generally known, 
they aroused the anger of Protestants, while Roman 
Catholics regarded them as futile. Nevertheless, 
Molanus and Leibnitz remained in correspondence 
with Spinola, and in 1691 the plan was submitted to 
Bossuet, who bluntly rejected the entire affair, de- 
manding unconditional submission to the authority 
of the Church and the Council of Trent, although he 
was unable finally to break off negotiations until 
1694. Meanwhile Spinola had entered into com- 
munication with the Hungarian Protestants, having 
received, in 1691, an imperial appointment as com- 
missioner general for the promotion of religious 
union in Austria. Here again his hopes were ill- 
founded, and although a conference was expected to 
be held in 1 693, it never took place. After the death 
of Spinola a few attempts at Roman Catholic and 
Protestant union were made by his successor, Graf 
of Buchheim, and by Leibnitz, only to prove equally 
abortive. (Paul Tbchackert.) 

Bibliography: J. D. Gruber, Commereii epistolici Lmbmr 
Hani, i. 411 sqq., Hanover, 1722; J. Schmidt, in Grens- 
boten, I860, not. 44-45: J. X. Kiesl, Der Friedeneplan de* 
Letimi* zttr Winder eirtgung der QeLrennlen chrUUichen 
Kirchen, PadertXTO, JPW; KL, xi. 030-626. 

Philosopher; b. at Amsterdam Nov. 24, 1632; i 
at The Hague Feb. 21, 1677. His parents were Jen 
who had been driven from Portugal by retigioai 
persecution. He devoted himself to the study of the 
Bible and the Talmud; was instructed in Latin by 
Franz van der Ende, a celebrated physician of 
naturalistic sympathies; and, turning to free philo- 
sophical speculations, was excommunicated by the 
synagogue. Employing himself with the study of the 
Cartesian philosophy and the development of 
own, he dwelt near Amsterdam, 1656-60 or 61; at 
Rhynsburg near Leyden until 1664; at Voorbtag 
near The Hague until 1670; and at The Hague from 
1670 until his death, supporting himself by 
lenses. In 1673 he declined a call to the profc 
ship of philosophy at the University of Heidelberg 
so as not to restrict his liberty of thought. Hie 
works written at the Hague, 1660-77, were, Rem 
Descartes principiorum philosophic (2 parts, Am- 
sterdam, 1663) ; Tractatus theologico-poliUcus (Ham- 
burg, 1670); and, most important of all, Ethic* 
ordine geometrico demonstrata, which, together with 
Tractatus politicus, Tractatus de intellectus emendeh 
Hone, and Epistolce, was published in Opera postham 
(Amsterdam, 1677). His De Deo hominc, ejusqm 
felicitate was not known before it appeared in a 
Dutch translation (Halle, 1S52). 

For the basis of his method Spinoza depended 
on Rene 1 Descartes (q.v.) and for his point of view 
in part upon the influence of Giordano Bruno (q.v.). 
Aiming to arrive at mathematical certainty, he pro- 
ceeds by a method of exact demonstration, analogous 
to the geometry of Euclid, with series of definitions, 
axioms, propositions, and proofs. His fundamental 
notion is that of substance, which he defines aa 
" that which is in itself and is conceived by itself, 
i.e., the conception of which does not need the con- 
ception of any other thing in order to be formed." 
There is but one substance, which is absolute and 
infinite, and is God. Nothing can be predicated of 
it, because " all determination is negation." It can 
be comprehended only by attributes which belong 
only to the mind. Having neither intellect nor will, 
it cannot have an ultimate end in view, but is the 
immanent cause of all things. There being nothing 
to constrain it, it is absolutely free, acting from an 
inner self-determination or necessity. This sub- 
stance has two fundamental attributes cognizable 
by man; namely, thought and extension, although 
an infinite number of attributes is possible. There 
is no extended substance as separate from thinking 
substance. An attribute is "that which the mind 
perceives as constituting the essence of substance." 
Movement, intellect, and will, on the whole, are 
infinite modes or affections of substance; all in- 
dividual things are finite and changing modes. A 
" mode is that which is in something else, through 
the aid of which also it is conceived." Modes of the 
attribute of extension are physical objects; modes 
of thought are ideas. There is no causal nexus be- 
tween the attribute and modes of extension on the 
one hand, and the attribute and modes of thought 
on the other, inasmuch as they belong to the same 
substance; although in either attribute there are 
chains of cause and effect, and between the two 



here is a complete parallelism (ordo idearum 
4 ae ordo rerum). Finite things including 
uals being only modes, God is no individual. 
* succession in time or duration holds among 
oes or modes; but essence or substance is 
nporal, and God is eternal. 

as an individual, being a mode, first sees 
in relation to himself discretely, or the world 
gs as natura naturata. He thus has inade- 
deas by opinio or imaginaHo. Ratio affords 
te ideas of the common agreements of things. 
m is the full perception sub specie ceternUoiis 
as infinite substance in immanent causation, 
ra naturans. The criterion of truth is truth 
for the human mind in so far as it has a true 
a part of the infinite divine intellect. Voli- 
» form of assent to, or dissent from, the idea, 
dentical with it; just as will is identical with 
t. Man as a mode, being conditioned by 
Itiplicity of things about him, is in a state of 
int, having inadequate ideas (in the form 
,tion) of the complex self as affected, of the 
affecting him, and of the affections or pas- 
iU8 produced. This is commonly illustrated 
fact that the same thing appears differently 
rent men from different points of view. But 
active when he has adequate ideas, or when 
ig follows from his essence or nature clearly 
iood: he is passive when he has inadequate 
Desire or conscious appetite as an affection 
SBertion of man's essence toward this greater 
l. The agreeable transition to a higher 
of perfection is the occasion of the passion 

the opposite is the occasion of sadness. Joy 
tanied by the idea of its external cause is the 
, of love; sadness so accompanied is hate. 
sice to prevail over one's passions is bondage, 
opposite of freedom. Evil, which is relative, 
diment. To get rid of a passion, i.e., an af- 
or a state of suffering, is to have a clear idea 
This means to know all things as necessary. 

has such a knowledge of self and passions 
i, and the idea of the external cause of such 
te joy involves the love of God, just as ad- 

the knowledge of all things as necessary in- 
the knowledge of God as immanent cause, 
i what Spinoza calls the intellectual love to 
tnceived under the form of eternity. As God 
ly adequate ideas and is not subject to pro- 
e perfection and passions, he cannot be af- 
by love or hate. In God, so far as he may be 
led by the essence of man conceived " under 
rm of eternity," the loving subject and the 
loved are one and the same; the intellectual 

1 God denotes absolute acquiescence by the 
in the law of his nature. The intellectual 
the mind to God is a part of that love, based 

he intellect which is part of the infinite divine 
st and therefore immortal, i.e., non-temporal. 
, which is the power to produce that which is 
ing to one's essence, or nature, is not the re- 
f happiness but its own reward. 
lie Theclogico-pcliticue Spinoza argues for 
is freedom so long as the interest of the State 
I works is satisfied. He maintains that theol- 
d philosophy have nothing in common, and 


repudiates the authority demanded by the former 
over the latter on the ground that theology deals 
with the anthropomorphic attributes and relations 
of God and philosophy with clear notions. In dar- 
ing and imagination and fidelity to method, Spinoza 
ranks as one of the greatest philosophers. The 
practical lessons which his system taught, those of 
necessity and stoical resignation, were best illus- 
trated in his own life. Undermined by consump- 
tion, harassed by persecutors, and burdened by 
overwork, he was a model of patience and sweet 
kindliness. See Pantheism, § 4. 
Bibliography: The chief editions of the Opera are by H. 

E. O. Paulus, 2 vols., Jena, 1802-03, C. H. Bruder, 3 
vols., Leipsic, 1843-40, J. van Yloten and J. P. Land, 
2 vols., The Hague, 1883, and 3 vols., 1895-96; Eng. 
transl. of the chief works by R. H. M. Elwes, 2 vols., 
London, 1883-84; Fr. transl., by E. Saisset, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1842, 2d ed., 1861; by J. G. Prat, Paris, 1863, and 
by C. Appuhn, Paris, 1907 sqq. Further details respect* 
ing partial eds. and issues of separate works are given in 
the British Museum Catalogue, s.v., and in Baldwin, Dic- 
tionary, iii. 1, pp. 488-489 (followed by a very full general 
bibliography). Special works translated into English are 
Tractatus theolooico-polizicus (by R. Willis), London, 1689, 
reissues, 1737, and another, 1862, 1868; the Ethica, by 
W. H. White, London, 1813, 2d ed. by A. H. Stirling, ib. 
1894, by R. H. M. Elwes, ib. 1884, by H. Smith, Cincin- 
nati, 1866, and selections by O. S. Fullerton, New York, 
1892, 2d ed., 1894; Tractatus de inteUectus emendations by 
W. H. White, London, 1895; Principles of Descartes* Phi- 
losophy, London, 1907; and Short Treatment on God, Man 
and his Well-Being', transl. and ed., with an Introduction 
and Commentary and a Life of Spinosa, by A. Wolf, New 
York, 1910. 

As sources for a life consult Der Briefwechsel dee Spinosa 
im Urtexte, ed. H. Ginsberg, Leipsic, 1876; Die Briefs 
mehrer Oelehrten an Benedict von Spinosa und dessen Ant- 
uxtrten, ed. J. H. von Kirchmann, Berlin, 1871; and 
Lettres inSdites en francais, translated and annotated by 
J. G. Prat, Paris, 1884, 2d ed., 1885. Consult further: 

F. Pollock, Spinosa, his Life and Philosophy, 2d ed., Lon- 
don, 1899; M. Saverien, Hist, dee phUosophss modemes, 
Paris, 1760; A. Sain tea, Hist, de la vie et des ouvrages de 
B. Spinosa, ib. 1842; C. von Orelli, Spinoza's Leben und 
Lehre, 2d ed., Aarau, 1850; J. B. Lehmann, Spinosa: 
sein Lebensbild und seine Philosophie, Wursburg, 1864: 
K. Fischer, Baruch Spinosa* s Leben und Charakter, Heidel- 
berg, 1865, 4th ed., 1898; S. S. Coronel. Bar. tfEspinoza 
in de lijet van syn tijd, Zalt-Bommel, 1871 ; J. van Vloten, 
Baruch cTEspinoza, eijn leven en schriften, 2d ed., Schlie- 
dam, 1871; J. E. Linter, Spinoza, London, 1873; H. J. 
Bets, Levenschechts van Baruch de Spinosa, The Hague, 
1876; H. Ginsberg, Leben und Charakterbild B. Spinozas, 
Leipsic, 1876: J. Martineau, A Study of Spinoza, London, 
1882; W. Bolin, Spinosa, Berlin, 1894; J. Freudenthal, 
Die Lebensgeschichte Spinozas, Leipsic. 1899; P. L. 
Couchoud, Benoit de Spinosa, Paris, 1902; J. Freuden- 
thal, Das Leben Spinozas, Stuttgart, 1904; S. von Dunin- 
Borowski, Der junge De Spinosa. Leben und Werdegang 
im Lichte der WeUphUosophie, Monster, 1910. 

On the philosophy of Spinosa consult: C. Schaar- 
schmidt, Descartes und Spinoza; urkundlichi DarsteUung 
der Philosophie B eider, Bonn, 1850; B. Auerbach, Spinoza; 
ein Denkerleben, Mannheim, 1855; E. Saisset, Precurseurs 
et disciples de Descartes, pp. 185-352, Paris, 1863; F. W. 
Barth, Einige Oedanken Uber Atheismus und uber die 
Meinungen des Spinoza, Brandenburg, 1868; P. W. 
Schmidt, Spinoza und Schleiermacher, Berlin, 1868; M. 
Brasch, B. v. Spinoza's System der Philosophie mit einer 
Biographic Spinozas, ib. 1870; J. A. Froude, Short Studies 
on Great Subjects, London, 1873; R. Albert, Spinoza's 
Lehre uber die Existent einer Substanz, Dresden, 1875; 

G. Buaolt, Die Grundzuge der Erkenntniss-Theorie und 
Metaphysik Spinozas, Berlin, 1875; M. Arnold, Essays in 
Criticism, pp. 237-362, 3d ed., New York, 1876; H. J. 
Bets, Spinoza en de vrijheid, The Hague. 1877; T. Cam- 
erer. Die Lehre Spinozas, Stuttgart, 1877; M. Dessauer, 
Der Socrates der Neuzeit und sein Gedankenschatz, Co then, 
1877; R. Flint, Anti-theistic Theories, pp. 353-375, notes 
547-552, Edinburgh and London, 1879; J. Martineau, 



A Study of Spinoza, 2d ed., London, 1883; A. B. Mow, 
Bruno and Spinoza, London, 1885; A. Baltier, Spinoza* « 
Entwicklungsgang insbcsondens nach seinen Brie/en ge- 
zchUdert, Kiel, 1888; J. Caird, Spinoza, Edinburgh and 
London, 1888, new ed., 1901; J. Stern, Die Philosophic 
Spinozaz, Stuttgart, 1800; R. Worms, La Morale de 
Spinoza, Paris, 1802; G. J. Bolland, Spinoza, ib. 1890; 
E. Ferriere, La Doctrine de Spinoza, ib. 1800; S. Rappaport, 
Spinoza und Schopenhauer, Berlin, 1800; R. Wahle, 
Kurze Erkl&rung der Ethik von Spinoza, Vienna, 1800; J. 
Zulaw&lti, Da* Problem der CausalitAt hex Spinoza, Bern, 
1800; J. D. Bierens de Hann, Levensleer naar de begin-' 
zelen van Spinoza, The Hague, 1000; J. H. von Kirch- 
mann, ErlAuterungen zu Benedict von Spinozaz Ethik, 
Leipsic, 1000; H. H. Joachim, A Study of the Ethicz of 
Spinoza, Oxford, 1001: B. Auerbach, Spinoza, Stuttgart, 
1003; R. A. Duff, Spinoza* z Political and Ethical Philoso- 
phy, Glasgow, 1003; J. Iverach, Dezcartez, Spinoza, the 
New Philosophy, Edinburgh, 1004; E. E. Powell, Spinoza 
and Religion, Chicago, 1006; W. PrOmera, Spinozaz Re- 
ligionsbegriff, Halle, 1006; J. A. Picton, Spinoza, a Hand- 
book to the Ethicz, London and New York, 1006; A. Wen- 
sel. Die Weltanschauung Spinozaz, Leipsic, 1007; F. 
Erhardt, Die Philosophic des Spinoza im Lichte der Kritik, 
&. 1008; J. Stern, Die Philosophic Spinozaz, 3d ed., 
Stuttgart, 1008; K. Fischer, Gcschichte der neueren Phi- 
losophic, vol. ii., 5th ed., Heidelberg, 1000. 

SPIRES. See Speyer. 

ing to the final Old-Testament presentation, the 
Spirit of God is the divine power which proceeds 
from God in creation and preservation in nature and 
in human historical life, especially in Israel. This 
power of God is active at the precise point where 
energy is manifested, i.e., the Spirit of God is the 
immediate cause of all kinds of change; it comes 
and goes, it is given or withdrawn wholly according 
to the divine will. Special attention is directed to 
unusual forms of human action which are attributed 
to this Spirit — heroism, genius, prophetic utterance, 
singular personal consecration, in a word, all rare 
individual physical and religious phenomena. In 
their suddenness, strangeness, involuntariness, irre- 
sistibleness, and in their results they seem to reveal 
a more than human power. Religious psychology 
had not yet distinguished the form from the ulti- 
mate source of these experiences. The obverse of 
this conception appears in the belief in the influence 
and possession of men by evil spirits, and later by 
Satan as the prince of demons. For the history of 
this belief one would need to trace the development 
of the notion of the power of discarnate good and 
evil spirits over men in its varied stages of unfolding 
from animism through polytheism up to ethical 
monotheism (see Comparative Religion, VI.). 
The conception of the good Spirit of God influencing 
men differs from the Greek and other national 
ideas of divine possession, (1) in the concentration 
of the entire divine activity in one personal source, 
and (2) in the aim to which the activity is directed 
— furtherance of the theocratic ideals. Distinctive 
redemptive functions are rarely attributed to the 
Spirit of God in the Old Testament. 

The New Testament has no elaborated doctrine 
of the Spirit of God. There is material for the per- 
sonal and trinitarian aspect of the Spirit, but the 
time was not ripe for the theological construction 
of the Constantinopolitan Creed (q. v.) . On the other 
hand, many allusions imply that the Spirit is an 
influence or a form of the action of God or of Christ 
(see Holy Spirit, I.). In the New Testament, how- 

ever, one discovers several lines of deveiop no sij 
in the idea of the Spirit. (1) The tendency to! 
tatize the divine power of action appears 
m the Old Testament (cf. Isa. xliv. 3, xlviii. 15, hi 
Gen. i. 2; Pa. Ii. 11), and is part of that movement ( 
thought which was accelerated by Aryan influonen^ 
in which God becomes metaphysically elevated' 
above the world, while his withdrawal and isolate ! 
are compensated for by the introduction of ii 
diary beings and forces by which his will was effected, 
Moreover, before the close of the apostolic age the 
Spirit has begun to be differentiated from lbs.. 
Father and the Son. (2) Whereas in the entire (M 
Testament and in many portions of the New Testa- 
ment the Spirit is conceived of as transcendent 
intermittent, and frequently miraculous in 
yet side by side with this earlier and 
notion, in the later writings of Paul and Jobs 
— not in the Synoptics — the Spirit is presented as 
an immanent and abiding personal power. For 
this change no other occasion need be sought than 
that which springs from the permanent necicssSt SBi 
of Christian experience — a continuous inner redemp- 
tive influence by which the follower of Christ ii 
quickened and empowered for every good work. 
(3) This idea of the immanence of the Spirit of God 
completes itself in the removal of the divine actr?i$r 
from the region of nature whether of the phyaieal 
world or of the human soul, and in the entire refer- 
ence of it to the ethical and spiritual life. 

C. A. Beckwtth. 

Bibliography: The reader should consult the worts em 
Biblical theology given in the article on that subject, espe- 
cially the works of H. Schults, Duff, and Bennett on tat 
Old Testament, and of Beysohlag:, Holtamann, AdsMft 
Stevens, and Gould on the New; the subject is treated 
also, more or less fully, in the literature given under Hour 
Spirit (q.v.). Consult further: C. A. Beckwith, AasK- 
tiez of Christian Theology, pp. 277-286, Boston, IMS; 
H. H. Wendt, Die Begriffe Fleisch und Oeist im biUutkm 
Sprachgebrauch, Ootha, 1878; H. Gunkel, Die Wirkvaem 
des keiliaen Oeistes nach der . . . Anschauung der spzs- 
tolischen Zeit und der Lehre des Paulus, Gftttingen, 1888; 
K. von Lechler, Die biblische Lehre vom heQigen Odzk, 
Leipsic, 1899; I. W. Wood, The Spirit ofOodin BMcd 
Literature, New York, 1904. Further discussions will bs 
found in the various works on systematic theology C*m 
Dogma, Dogmatics). 


of personal feeling with outer conditions; self- 
satisfaction being the harmony of personal feeling 
with inward conditions. Contentment presupposes 
that the means for the satisfaction of the necessities 
of life are inadequate (Prov. xvii. 1), and signifies 
a willingness not to suffer the inner equanimity to 
be disturbed by the scantiness of outward means 
(Phil. iv. 11-12; I Tim. vi. 6). While such content- 
ment may be natural, and conditioned by climate, 
social order, racial instinct, or national circum- 
stances, it may also be acquired as a cultured relig- 
ious and ethical state of life, and as such it is a re- 
quirement of Christian religiousness (Matt. vi. 25-34; 
I Tim. vi. 8; Heb. xiii. 5). Discontent is unworthy 
of the Christian, who must remember that, though 
all is his (I Cor. iii. 21-22), he can not lose his soul 
to the world since he belongs to Christ. Religiously 
it is the inner result of the piety produced by the 
theistic contemplation of God, which obtains quie- 
tude and peace of soul through its conviction of the 



governance both of the individual (Ps. czvL 6) 
of the universe. Yet such satisfaction is active, 
room for ends and aims, the desire of im- 
fevoveiuent, and the joyous taking up of tasks. 
Khun is a wide difference between the satisfaction 
on natural instinct and temperament and that 
on religious ethical self-culture, even 
temperamental predispositions are of the 
importance in the ethical world. Dissatis- 
is aroused by instincts, desires, and passions; 
b stimulated by sensibility and the imagination; 
may be awakened by the exercise of the will 
by ideals; but receives few stimuli from the 
■wIoihI muling, and almost none from the reason. 
Christianity does not teach satisfaction with all 
conditions. It demands dissatisfaction with 
Hat is evil, corrupt, morbid, and disorderly; and 
that this disapproval be not merely a 
of opinions and words, but that it enlist the 
activity within the confines of vocation. 
Mf-emtisfaction, in both the Pharisaic and the Stoic 
snse, is opposed to Christian teaching, which re- 
jects the moral self-complacency of the natural man 
(Luke zviii. 11 sqq.), because it is an insuperable 
to repentance (Luke v. 30-32) and to the 
of heaven (Matt. v. 3-6). The power that 
in the kingdom of God is not one's own 
(I Cor. iv. 7), but the divine gift of grace 
(I Gor. xv. 10), so that there is no place for self- 
gfarification (I Cor. i. 31). The highest Christian 
lapability is proportionate to the most humble sense 
of personal incapability (II Cor. iii. 5, xii. 8-10). 
Persistent Christian dissatisfaction with one- 
Mlf, therefore, does not denote a peaceful disquie- 
s, but the sense of indispensable and limitless 
on divine grace, which in Christ does not 
impair strength, but sets it free (Phil. iii. 12 sqq., iv. 
13). (L. Lemme.) 

plied to the belief in the actuality of intercourse 
be tw e en the living and the spirits of the dead and 
to those who hold this belief. Such a belief has been 
existent in practically all stages of culture (see 
Divination; Magic), and in the 
Barry Roman Empire manifestations similar 
Phenomena , to those common to modern " Spiritu- 
alism " were reported. To those who 
hold to the belief in modern times, who have formed 
what in some respects corresponds to a denomina- 
tion, the name "Spiritualists" has been given. 
Many of these accept, for instance, the statement 
that the writings of Swedenborg (q.v.) were the 
result of communications from spirits; while the 
declarations of Andrew Jackson Davis (b. 1826) 
ire treated as part of the evidences for the alleged 
Eact. His Principles of Nature, her divine Revelations, 
md a Voice to Mankind (New York, 1847) is said to 
bave run through fifty editions. Since the middle of 
the nineteenth century Spiritualism has gained in the 
United States a large following. The rise of this 
movement goes back to 1848, the year of the 
"Rochester knockings," though the Shakers (see 
DoiOfUNiBM, II., i 10) claim that similar phenomena 
in their communities in 1837-44 had resulted in 
valuable communications from Ann Lee. The 

" Rochester knockings " were first heard in the 
family of John D. Fox of Hydeville, near Roches- 
ter, N. Y., always in the presence of his daughters 
Margaret and Kate, and continued after the removal 
of the family to Rochester, communications being 
made by rappings after an established code. These 
and more violent demonstrations were given near 
Stratford, Conn., always, it was claimed, without 
visible human agency. The phenomena grew still 
more varied and even violent in character as the 
area enlarged, including table-tipping, playing on 
musical instruments, levitation of various objects 
and even of the medium, appearance of objects in 
the atmosphere, spirit writing, and materialization. 
Mediumship became a lucrative profession, and the 
returns offered temptations to fraud which were not 
resisted, while the frauds were often exposed. But 
interest became extended and believers many. As 
early as 1855 adherents were reckoned at nearly 
2,000,000 in the United States (North American Re- 
view, Apr., 1855), while over a dozen periodicals were 
devoted to the interests of the cult. The move- 
ment was introduced into England through Mrs. 
Hayden in 1852, while the Davenport brothers in- 
tensified the impression already made by the 
phenomena which they exhibited there in 1864. Dr. 
Henry Slade was also distinguished by the character 
of the exhibitions which he gave. In Germany 
spiritistic writing was introduced by Baron Ludwig 
von Guldenstubbe (d. 1873) in 1856, who received 
in twelve years more than 2,000 communications in 
twenty different languages, but the substance of 
these was trivial and even jejune. 

A new stage was begun with the advent of the 
mediums Daniel Douglas Home, William Stainton 
Moses, and Mrs. Leonora Piper, and with the inves- 
tigations undertaken by men of science of inter- 
national reputation. Home was a 
Later Scotchman by birth, but lived for some 
Stage, years in America in the house of an 
aunt, where the manifestations were 
begun in the form of violent movements of the furni- 
ture. He visited England, where Mr. (now Sir) 
William Crookes accepted the materializations, 
which Home then showed, as probably genuine. 
Home's travels extended to Italy, Russia, and 
France, but his work was discredited by the results 
of a suit at law which obligated him to- return £65,- 
000 to the heirs of a rich widow. Moses (b. 1840; 
studied at Bedford and Exeter College, Oxford, B.A., 
1863; d. in London 1892) became convinced of the 
truths of Spiritualism, became a medium against 
his own predilections, exhibited remarkable trance 
phenomena, and also automatic writing which was 
claimed to evince the personality of spirits of per- 
sons long dead. But he resented investigation by 
scientists as casting suspicion upon his honesty and 
sincerity. The general trend of the later phenomena 
has been outside of materialistic happenings and 
in the direction of communications of information 
supposedly beyond the sphere of personal knowl- 
edge of the mediums. Such communications, cover- 
ing a number of years, were preserved by Moses and 
appeared in his Spirit Identity (London, 1879) and 
Spirit Teachings (1893). Similarly, the exhibitions 
of Mrs. Piper are apart from the physical and con- 



sist of communications of varied character. She 
first became a medium in 1885, and soon after came 
under the observation of Professor William James of 
Harvard and of Dr. Richard Hodgson, secretary of 
the American branch of the Society for Psychical 
Research. The various sets of phenomena, an out- 
line merely of which is given above, aroused scien- 
tific interest, and have been under consideration 
by various learned or scientific bodies. One of the 
year 1884 from the University of Pennsylvania 
achieved little because of inability to come to an 
understanding with the mediums. In 1882 the So- 
ciety for Psychical Research was formed in Eng- 
land for the accumulation and investigation of data 
upon this and related subjects. Parts of the results 
of the work of this organization are presented and 
reviewed by F. W. H. Myers in his Human Person- 
ality and its Survival of Bodily Death (London, 1903), 
while the whole range of alleged spiritistic phenom- 
ena is reviewed by F. Podmore in Modern Spiritual- 
ism (London, 1902). The general trend of opinion 
among scientists, when considering phenomena of 
the sort under consideration, from which the ele- 
ment or possibility of fraud has been eliminated, is 
that the manifestations are not those of spirits, but 
are to be referred to powers of the human mind 
which are beginning to be the objects of systematic 
study, such as the " subliminal consciousness " 
and various other phenomena, many of these com- 
ing in the domain of abnormal psychology. One 
of the characteristics of most of the " communica- 
tions/' the inherent unimportance, has thus re- 
ceived explanation. The way is probably being 
prepared for a scientific explanation of other kinds 
of manifestation, which have been supposed to show 
the interference of spirits, by prof ounder and patient 
study of the lower regions of psychology. The ex- 
posure of those " mediums " who resorted to fraud 
and the formulation of tests by which to assure the 
reality of the manifestations presented have reduced 
the field to be covered, while they have also greatly 
diminished the number of adherents of spiritualism. 

The belief in the actuality of communication be- 
tween discarnated spirits and the living drew to- 
gether in various places those of like mind, and led 
in the course of time to the formation of bodies 
corresponding to congregations and 

Organized 'churches in other Christian denomina- 
Form. tions, and utimately to the formation 
of a national organization, through 
which a statement of belief and platform of prac- 
tises have been issued. Thus determined, the belief 
of Spiritualists involves the actuality of communica- 
tions, as stated above; they reject the doctrine of 
the Trinity and of the deity of Christ, and also that of 
the supreme authority of the Scriptures; they hold 
to the existence of an infinite intelligence expressed 
by the physical and spiritual phenomena of nature, 
a correct understanding of which, and a following of 
which in life constitute the true religion; the con- 
tinued conscious existence of the spirit after death 
is a postulate, and with this goes belief in progress 
as the universal law of nature. All legislation re- 
specting the observance of Sunday as a holy day is 
opposed by the National Spiritualists' Association, 
as also all attempts to unite Church and State, 

sectarian instruction in the public schools, ti» 
granting of special favors to the clergy, and the as> 
pointment of paid chaplains in the public servm; 
the organization favors equal taxation of all seeds* 
and ecclesiastical property, an educational qualifi- 
cation for all voters, and the elimination of sex asa 
criterion of availability for civil office and the wA- 
frage. The Association has offices in Washingta, 
D. C, holds annual conventions (nineteenth held 
in Wichita, Kan., 1911), maintains a free hbnrj 
at Washington, employs salaried cessionaries, u 
editor at large, arranges for lectures and camp- 
meetings, carries on correspondence with orgaans- 
tions in other lands, and has at Whitewater, Wk, 
the Morris Pratt Institute with a two-years' conns 
of instruction. It reports twenty-two state a&Bodft* 
tions, 437 active local societies with 216 othes 
meeting irregularly, 32 camp-meeting associations* 
120 churches and temples with a valuation of $V 
000,000; 75,000 avowed adherents with a constfofr 
ency of nearly 2,000,000; 370 ordained niinisten, 
and 1,500 public mediums. W. H. Larhabee. 

Bibliography: J. W. Edmonds and Q. T. Dexter, 8pww> 
ualism, New York, 1864-55; E. W. Capron. Mwlem Spir- 
itualism; its Facts, Boston, 1855; R. Ware, BxperitnesM 
Investigation* of the Spirit Manifestations, New Yoik, 
1856; R. D. Owen, Footfall* on the Boundary of Amsaur 
World, Philadelphia, 1859; idem. The Debatable Lewd be- 
tween thie World and the Next, New York, 1872; W. 
Howitt, The Hist, of the Supernatural in All Age* ami 
Nations, London, 1863; A. De Morgan, From Matter m 
Spirit, ib. 1863: H. Tuttle, Philosophy of Spiritual Bmsh 
enee and of the Spirit World, 2d ed., Boston. 1864; idea. 
Arcana of Nature, new ed., London, 1908; W. McDonald, 
Spiritualism Identical with Ancient Sorcery, New T***> 
ment Demonology and Modern Witchcraft, New York, 1891; 

E. Sargent, Planchette, or the Despair of Science, Boston, 
1869; H. S. Oloott, People from the Other World; wee d * 
ful Doings of the " Eddy Brothers," Hartford, n. d.; E. W, 
Cox, Spiritualism Answered by Science, L ond o n, 1872; 
M. Hull, Contrast: Evangelism and Spiritualism com- 
pared, Boston, 1874; J. M. Peebles, Seers of the Aim 
ancient, medieval, and modern Spiritualism, 6th ed* Bos- 
ton, 1874; idem, Spiritualism Defined and Defended, ib. 
1875; F. O. Lee, The Other World, London, 1875; idsn. 
Sight* and Shadows; Examples of the Supernatural, ib. 
1894; A. Mahan, Phenomena of Spiritualism scientific** 
Explained and Exposed, New York, 1876; W. B. Carpen- 
ter, Mesmerism, Spiritualism . . . historically and sneer 
tificaUy Considered, London, 1877; D. D. Home, Lie*** 
and Shadows of Spiritualism, ib. 1878; T. B. Hall, Mod- 
ern Spiritualism, Boston, 1883; J. W. TraesdeU, Bemem 
FacU concerning Spiritualism, New York, 1883; J. Cherts* 
Earthly Watchers at the Heavenly Gates; the false and tree 
Spiritualism, Philadelphia, 1886; E. Carney and F. W. 
Meyers, Phantasms of the Living, 2 vols., London, 1887; 

F. Johnson, The New Psychic Studies in their Relation m 
Christian Thought, New York, 1887; J. C. Street, The 
Hidden Way across the Threshold, Boston, 1887; Sir W. 
Crookes, Researches in the Phenomena of Spir itunHsm , 
London, 1891; A. R. Wallace, Miracles and Modem 
Spiritualism, new ed., London, 1895; J. Jastrow, Foot 
and Fable in Psychology, Boston, 1901 (adverse to spir- 
itualistic claims); F. Podmore, Modern Spiritualism, 2 
vols., London, 1902 (history of the movement in England 
and America); idem, The Newer Spiritualism, ib., 1910: 
E. W. Cook and F. Podmore, Spiritualism; is Communi- 
cation with the Spirit World an accomplished Factt ib. 1905 
(gives both sides of the argument); F. W. H. Myen, 
Human Personality and its Survival of BodUy Death, ib. 
1903 (important); E. T. Bennett, Physical Phenomena 
popularly Classed under the Head of Spiritualism, ib. 1906; 
J. H. Hyslop, Borderland oj Psychical Research, Boston, 
1906; idem, Enigmas of Psychical Research, ib. 1906; J. Q. 
Raupert, Modern Spiritism, London, 1904 (critical exami- 
nation of the alleged phenomena) ; idem. The Dangers of 
Spiritualism, ib. 1906; D. P. Abbott, Behind the Seen** 
with Mediums, Chicago, 1907; C. Flainmarion, MysterUm 


ie Form. Boston. 1907; C. M. Lano, Thi Theory of 
nol™. St. Louis. 1007; W. N. Wilson, Theocomia: 
nril World ixplored, London, 1907; W. F. Barrett, 
i Tkraholdi/a Wm World of Thought. AnEzami- 
• oftht Phtnomena of Spiritwiiitm. \b. 1908; H. Car- 
lo. TA* Piycaiml PAennnuiu □/ Spiriiuulum, Fraud- 
and Onutiw. ib. 1008: G. Delaune. £ndnu .for a 
 Lift. ib. 1908: J. Robertson. Spiritualism; lie open 
h> lAe unteen Vnixtrtc. ib. 1B08; C. IoD>bro», After 
— Whalt ib. 1900; Sir Oliver Lodge, The Survival of 
ib. 1010; Amy Elisa Tanner, Studia in Spirititm, 
fork. 1910 (a thoroughgoing roviewaf the recent ph«- 
imof Spiritism, with decidedly adverse decision); T. 
Hot, Btprile tt mediums, Paria. 1911; the iitorsture 
Pstchicai. Risnica wo the Fcthm Lin. 


d Protestant, son of Karl Johann Philipp 
(q.T.); b. at Wittingen (35 m. n.e. of Bruns- 
Hanover, Jan. 10, 1852. He was educated 
universties of GSttingen and Erlangen 
IS); was teacher in the high school at 
bt (1876-77); inspector of the Tholuck 
ry at Halle (1877-79); assistant pastor at 
[1870-81), and pastor at Ober-Kaesel, near 
(I8S1-87) ; privot-docent for Evangelical 
y at the University of Bonn (1880-87); 
sit to Strasburg as professor of New-Tes- 

exegesis and practical theology, as well as 
ity preacher (1887). Besides editing the 
tchrift /Or Gotteodienst und kirehliche Kurust 
J96, he has written; 

ritf da Jvliu* Aftieanut an Arittida (Hallo, 1877); 
tuoW AndadU am LtdherJubilaum (1883); Dtr 
uw, eint biblisehe Getehithte und ihre apakruphitchen 
ngtn (1883); Luther und die erangetuche GoUa- 
884): Dtr twite Brief det Petrut and dtr Brief det 
S8S): Dit Panionen nach den net Evangiliittn con 

.Scsiiii (Leipaic. 18861. Htinrich Schutl. tein Ltbtn 
i Kuntt (Hildburgh, 1886) ; Predioten (3 vols.. Bonn 
asburg, 1888-99); Dttt kirehliehe Feettpiete far 
ten. Ottem und Pfingtttn (Strasburg. 1889); Die 
unu dm Johanna unterracht (Halle. 1889): Chritli 
« die GaMer dtr Unttrwtit (GOttingeu, 1890); Zur 
a tuingiii^-hen K,dlut{imii: Die Apottelgetthichle. 
■!-.,: ur..1Jiren ;r-r).„-).Hi, h. r IV, rl (', It.Hi; Z\,r 
!• und Literatur da t/rehriMeniumt (3 vols.. Gfl-ltin- 
l-ia07): Drr Knlu-tirfiirr ;.mteiKhm Agen,te(l&Q3i; 
rung dee preusaitehen Agendenentumrfte (1894); Hat 
•eh far die tranaetitchen Gemeinden von Eltatt- 
t* brilitrA btUuehtet (Strasburg, 1894); GoUetdientt 
■sf (1808): Ludaie Schoberleim mwriea sacra far 
*ore (Gottingen, I«95): Der Brief det Jakobui 
U (1898), J. Zwickt GtbeU und Litder fur die Ju- 
Ol); Unltrtuchungen Uber den Brief da Pavlvi an 
m (190U; Mueik und Kunttvflege auf dem Land 

1902): Do* Magnificat tin Ptalm dtr Maria und 
- Elieabeth (Tubingen, 1902); Dit Ktlchbewtovxe in 
and und dit Reform dtr Abendmahlt frier (GOttingen, 
Die Kowtamtr Litderdiehter (Hamburg. 1904); 
■tar Burg id tenter GaU," die Lieder Luthert in Hirer 
it far dot evangplvtrhe Kircheniied (Gottingen, 1905); 
sen dtr Oachichte Jen (1907); Dot Testament 
•d doe Neue Tetlamenl (1007) ; Jetut unddie Heiden- 

(Gieasen. 1909): Dot J ahanna-E consilium ale 
er Gadiiehte Jem (CSttingcn. 1910); and Beitrage 
tt nach dcr getittichen Dichtung da Hertogt Albrecht 
on (KOnigsberg, 1910). 

in hymn-writer; b. at Hanover Aug. 1 (or 
I), 1801; d. at Burgdorf (13 m. b. of Celle) 
S, 1859. He was educated at the University 
lingen (1821-24), though he there devoted 
ttention to poetry and music than to theol- 

ogy, as is shown by his anonymous ffiflllfjfifli IsflWI 

der Liebe/iir HandtoerkdeuU (Gattingen, 1824). In 
1824 he became a private tutor at I.une, near Liine- 
burg, where true religion was for the first time 
roused within him, and during his residence here 
the greater and better portion of his hymns were 
composed. From 1828 to 1830 he was curate at 
Sudwalde, and from 1830 to 1837 was military and 
prison chaplain at Hamelo, where, despite ration- 
alistic opposition, he succeeded in reviving relig- 
ious life and in gaining the esteem of both ecclesias- 
tical and military authorities. In 1837^7 Spitta 
was pastor at Wecbold, near Hoya, where he again 
succeeded in reviving interest in religion, as he also 
did while stationed as superintend: nt :it. Wiuiiigi'ii 
(1847-53). At Peine, on the other hand, where he 
was pastor in 1853-50, religious life was too dead 
for him to achieve any great resulta. In 1859 he 
went as superintendent to Burgdorf, but died sud- 
denly within the year. 

The attitude of Spitta was distinctly one of de- 
vout Lutheran orthodoxy, filled with deep religious 
conviction, but absolutely free from nmf«riiHiimn 
and fanaticism. At the same time his fidelity to 
Luther's teachings rendered it impossible for him 
tj> accept calls to the unionistie eonfirej;:! lions ol 

Barmen (1844) and Elberield (1846). He 
anonymously two volumes of BiMiaclie AwfocUt n 
(Halle, 1836-39), but his chief Fame was attained by 
the phenomenal success of his Psalter und Har/e (2 
ser., Pima and Leipsic, 1833-43, and in innumer- 
able editions since, e.g., Gothu, 1890, Halle, 1901; 
Eng. transl., by R. Mussic, "Lyra Domes tica," 2 
eer., I-ondon, 1860-64, and in part by Lady E. A. 
Durand, "Imitations from the Uermnn of Spitta 
and Terstoegen," 1873). [A large number of his 
hymns have been rendered into English; ef. Julian, 
Hymnology, pp. 1075-80.] After his death a further 
collection of hie hymns was published under the title 
Nacligelasaene geistfiche Lieder (Leipsic, 1861), and 
later still his Lttder aus der Juyimhiit appeared 
(ed. Peters, 1898). (Wilhblii Nelle.) 

BiBLioaKiFsr: The one biography is bv K. K Mankel, 
Loipsic. 1861. 2d ed., with notes by O. Meier, IMS, with 
which should no compared the biographical sketch in L. 
8pitta*s ed. of tho Ptalier and Barft, pp. i.-caxxvi., 
Gotna, 1890. Consult further: E. E. Koch. Gttchirhu 
det KircAenlieda, vii. 232 boo... Stuttgart. 1ST2- S. W. 
DuffiL-ld. Enolith llgmnt, pp. 239-241. 149. 420, K™ 
York, 1888; W. Nolle, Philipp Spitta. tin Gedtnkbuchtein. 
Berlin, 1901; idcui.. 'l.-vhirhtt ./.» lieat-u-h. u  i uw l\.*rh, n 
Kirchentiedt, 2d ed., Hamburg. 1909; and Julian, Hipnn- 


German Lutheran layman distinguished for his 
services in behalf of missions; b. at Wimsheim (a 
village of Wurttemberg near Lconbcrg, 8 m. w.n.w. 
of Stuttgart) Apr. 12, 1782; d. at Basel Dec. 8, 
1887. After a brief trial of the revenue and admin- 
istrative service (1796-1800), he was called, in 1801, 
to Basel as assistant in the ('hrisk'ntiiuis^scllsehaft 


where he kept the books and conducted the corre- 
spondence both of this society and of the Bible and 
tract society which it soon established. In 1807 all 
secretarial work was placed in his hands, and in the 
following year he received the official appointment 


to this position, which he retained for the remainder 
of liia life. In 1812 he founded a publishing-house 
at Basel, ami in l&!4 a lending library, but in 1841 
he limit o.l lii-  — "L : 1 1 'lirtimcnt to Bibles, tracta, and 
the publication of the literature of the Christen* 
fconisgeaeUaobaft. He was by no means a clear or 
systematic thinker, ami bis work was characterised 
by a lack of fixed plan which was reflected by the 
premature anil impracticable nature of many of his 
projects, yet nearly all the activities, instit (itiuiis. 
and undertakings of the Inncre Mission had in him 
their pioneer. The diversity of his philanthropic in- 
terests was marvelous. During the war of 1812-13 
be labored in behalf of all in distress, regardless of 
ruiIi'Udililv, station, and creed, and in the war of 
ISM he made provision for the distribution of Bibles 

and the cans of the sick; while during the Greek 
War of Independence he established a society for 
the moral and religious betterment of the (i recks 
And a short-lived institution for the training of a 
number of < ireek slaves whom hn ransomed, even as 
be piuvidi'J an KilsiNsIi -cli"^l fur (In- children of 
the J-inglish workmen engaged in tunneling the 
Haueiistcin. In 1X1:2 lie established a homo for poor 
students of theology, and in IS30 an institution for 
distributing Bibles to poor children; in 1833 he 
changed the tm.ek institution already mentioned 
into un asylum for deaf-mutes which still flourishes 
at Riehcn near Basel; and he was also instrumental 
in the founding of several other philanthropic insti- 
tutions. The development of the deaconess system, 
like Jewish missions, found an enthusiastic advocate 
in him, and to him was ultimately due the estab- 
lishment of the luminary for teachers of ragged 
schools at Bcuggen. 

Spittler is particularly noteworthy for his effort 
to carry Protestantism into Roman Catholic dis- 
tricts and unchurched I'roti-staut regions, by means 
of peasants, artisans, and other laymen, who should 
travel from place to place and in their wan.k rintis 
spread the tenets of the faith. He soon reali/.eil 
that a certain degree of training and organization 
was necessary for such missionaries, but after a 
number of abortive attempts (including the estab* 
lislinn jit of colonies of such laymen about a day's 
journey apart, and the training of quasi- 
for Palestine), he was compelled by the 
society at Basel to restrict his activities to the In- 
ncre Mission and the education of missionaries l.o 
work among the German emigrants to the Dnited 
States. Real progress now began, and in 1854 
Spinier 's " t'hrischona " founded some small com- 
munities in Sackingen and Rheinfelden, while a 
number of missionaries were even trained for the 
foreign field. The looR-cherishcd plan of sending 
missionaries from the " Chrischona " to Abyssinia 
also seemed on the eve of realization when the war 
between England and Abyssinia (1866-68) put an 
abrupt end to all such plans. While, however, the 
foreign missionary field of the "Chrischona" was 
practically annihilated at the time of Spittler's 
death, his Inncre Mission work was most success- 
ful, and has been most prosperously carried on to 
the present day. (Wilhelm Borne mask.) 

BiBLioaHipmr: The one complete l>io K rauhy is by J. Kober, 

B-m1, 1887, sins- the mora ambitious C. P. Spittler im 

RaSmtn Miner Zril, Basel. IS76. bestm by Spitd-fi 
adopted daughter, reached only the end of Pel. L. oota- 
ing dawn to 1812. Consult further: T. Jlger. Jakat, Ltd- 
in- JOgtr, tin Ltbaubild, Bud, 1898: W. Hidom. 0+ 
tehuMe dtM Piflfwmu- in 
Kirrhcn, pp. 493-504. Can-tance, 1901. 

Protestant church historian; b. at Stuttgart Nov, 
11, 1752; d. there Mar. 14, 1810. He early devel- 
oped a marked interest in history, and the 
subjects of his study at Tubingen (1771-75) 
philosophy and church history. His publication* 
while lecturer at Tubingen (1777-79) included hi* 
Kritische Untermtchung des sechzigstcn Laodicaittim 
Canons (Bremen, 1777) and the anonymous Ge> 
achichle des kanoniscken Rechts bit au/die Zeiten ie* 
falschen Isidore (Halle, 1778), the latter winning 
him an appointment as professor of church history 
and the history of dogma at Gottingen in 1779. 
Here his lectures developed into his Grundrit* der 
Geschichte der christiichen Kirehe (GSttingen, 1783), 
a work long much admired, being both somewhat 
popular in tone and decidedly rationalistic. To 
church history Spittler also contributed, among 
other works, his De u*u textus Alexandria* ap*4 
Jotephum (Gottingen, 1779); Geschichte da Kth*i 
im Abendmald (Lemgo, 1780); and Von der ehemai- 
igen Zinsbarkcit der nordischen Reiche an den rami- 
tchen Stuhl (Hanover, 1797), as well as his Porta- 
ungen Qber die Geschichte des Kirchenreehts, ud 
Uebcr die GeschichCe des Mdnchtums (both in bu 
Sammttiche Werke, x.); Vorlesungen Qber die G*- 
schichte des Papsttums (ed. H. E. G. Paulus, Hei- 
delberg, 1826); Geschichte der KreuuOge (ed. C. 
Mtlller, Hamburg, 1827); and Geschichte der Rier. 
archie von Gregor VII. bis auf die Zeiten der Rtfar- 
motion (ed. C. Mtlller, 1S28). 

In 1782 Spittler began to lecture on general his- 
tory, and in 1784 he ceased all courses on church 
history, so that his writings were henceforth prac- 
tically restricted to secular history, political econ- 
omy, and statistics. He was one of the most 
popular and influential of the Gottingen professor), 
although his political attitude caused the king to re- 
gard him with little favor. In 1797 he accepted the 
invitation of Duke Frederick Eugene of WQrttem- 
berg to return to his native city as a privy councilor, 
but the sudden death of his patron was almost fatal 
to his plans, and though he was created a baron in 
1806, and made minister of state, Curator of the 
University of Tubingen, etc., his real influence was 
scanty, nor could his new honors compensate for the 
days at Gottingen. The Sammtlicht Werke of Spit- 
tler were edited in fifteen volumes by K. Wactiter 
(Stuttgart, 1827-37; tho vols, of chief interest for 
the theologian are i.-ii. and viii.-x.). 


:, Uihtr Spinier aU Hi****. 

in Woltmum. Werke, xii. 311 
aqq.. BerliD, iszi: A. n. L. Heeren, Hittuntcht Wtrkt, 
si. Slfi «qq.. IS vols.. Gottingeo, 1821-28; D. F. Str-uua, 
Kleint Scliriftm, pp. 6S sqq., Leipsic. 1863; G. Wait* 
Cuinfl-n Pro/'.-or-n. pp. 246 «qq., Goth*. 1872; P. X, 
vod Wegele. QeschitJtts der deuUchtn HiOoriographir, pp. 
872 eqq.. Munich, 188B; ADB. xxxv. 212 sqq. 

SPOILS, RIGHT OF {Jus spolii): The claim of the 
Church, the clergy, or secular rulers to a share in 





the estates of deceased ecclesiastics. The Church 
persistently adhered to the Roman law until late in 
the Middle Ages, but made an excep- 
The Claim tion in regard to the laws of property, 
of the which in the Roman code had been 
Church, developed with a rigid consistency. 
When, at least in later times, burial 
refused to laymen who had bequeathed noth- 
; to the Church (cf. E. Friedberg, Definium inter 
et civitatem regundorum fudicio, p. 187, 
nc, 1861), it is not strange that the Church con- 
itself heir of the clergy and as mother as- 
sumed the heritage of her own children, the priests. 
According to the older church laws the right of 
ecclesiastics to dispose of their possessions was not 
restricted; but bishops were early required to make 
a will, and they were subject to penalty if they did 
not devise in favor of the Church or of blood-rela- 
tions. Theodoeiiis II. (408-450) awarded to the 
Church all possessions of ecclesiastics which had 
not been disposed of by will. In course of time the 
obligation to make a will was extended from the 
bishops to all holders of benefices. But strong ob- 
stacles continually met the desire of the Church to 
become sole heir of clerical possessions. Ecclesias- 
tics disregarded church ordinances and seized the 
possessions of deceased colleagues. Various coun- 
cils and synods condemned the right of spoils and 
prescribed severe punishments, but without avail. 
Ecclesiastics at times did not wait for the death of 
a brother, and the right of spoils was extended even 
to the estate of the pope. To do away with these 
abuses, Charlemagne appointed ctconomi for the 
administration of church possessions, but without 
success. A capitulary of Charles the Bold issued in 
844 seems to have been more successful. 

The laity also tried to obtain a share in the estates 
of deceased churchmen. As long as the clergy lived 
according to Roman law, their right to dispose of 
their property by will was acknowledged by the 
State; but when they were subjected 
Claims of to the law of the country, they could 
Secular make their wills only under the same 
Rulers, restrictions as laymen. If they left 
no will, their property did not go to 
their relatives or to the Church, but the manor- 
lords, later the church-patrons, claimed it; and after 
Frederick I., the German kings claimed the estates 
of the bishops. It is true, Frederick I. threatened 
with severe punishment all those who tried to cur- 
tail the liberty of ecclesiastics in making a will, but 
neither he nor his successors regarded their own 
laws and promises. Even after the emperors had 
renounced the right of spoils, it was maintained by 
the German princes. Conditions were not differ- 
ent in England, Scotland, Sicily, and France. The 
right of spoils was practised in France especially. 
Hie Church there complained that the rulers de- 
layed to fill episcopal seats in order to enjoy their 
revenues so much the longer. Gradually the same 
abuse started anew within the Church itself. Ab- 
bots claimed the possessions of priors and regulars; 
bishops the estates of their canons, priests, and other 
clergy, even the estate of whole churches; priors 
and chapters the estate of bishops; and all this in 
spite of the continued prohibitions of councils and 

popes. The liberty of making wills, which had been 
granted by the State to ecclesiastics, was now re- 
stricted anew by the bishops. And even after it 
had been granted again, there still remained of the 
right of spoils the Ferto (fourth of a mark), which 
the clergy had to leave to the bishop and this was 
customary in some German states as late as the 
nineteenth century (cf. E. Friedberg, Kirchenrecht, 
p. 562, Leipsic, 1903). 

Even the popes, who had so zealously opposed 
the robbery of churches, claimed the right for which 
they had envied the bishops. In France the kings 
shared with the pope the spoil of churches and eccle- 
siastics. It was in vain that the Uni- 
The Claim versity of Paris denounced such abuses. 
of the The leaders of the protesting party 
Popes, were thrown into prison, and fear and 
terror led others to keep silence. But 
when the consequences of these abuses clearly 
showed themselves, when bishops were regarded as 
the worst debtors since their estates offered no se- 
curity to creditors, Charles VI. ordered, in 1385, 
the abolishment of the papal right of spoils for 
monasteries and bishoprics. After a few years, how- 
ever, the Council of Constance was forced to oppose 
the same abuses, also in vain; but in France at least 
the reintroduction of the right of spoils failed, 
owing to the rigid opposition of the French kings. 
In 1643 Louis XI. repeated the ordinances of 
Charles VI. and emphasized his edict by threats 
of severe punishment. But even the resistance of 
secular princes, which found the willing support of 
the Church, did not induce the popes to deprive the 
apostolic treasury of the lucrative spoils. As late 
as 1560 Pius IV. forbade all ecclesiastics to make a 
will without the permission of the apostolic seat, 
and did not hesitate to declare future donations in- 
valid, while Pius V. (1567) and Gregory XIII. (1577) 
reasserted the old claims. It is true, however, that 
these were the last phenomena on a large scale of an 
abuse that had been practised for centuries by lay- 
men and ecclesiastics with equal rapacity, which 
abuse in Italy even yet has not been abolished. 

(E. FriedbergI".) 

Bibliography: L. Thomassin, Vettu et nova ecclesia dis- 
ciplines, III., ii., chaps. 51-57; Zeitschrift far Philosophic 
ttnd kcUholiache Theologie, parte 23-25; S. Sugenheim, 
Staatsltben dee Klertu im Mitielalter, i. 207 sqq. ( Berlin, 
1839; A. Friedberg, De finium inter eccleeiam et civitatem 
reoundorum judicio, pp. 220 sqq., Leipsic, 1861 ; E. Fried- 
berg, Lehrbuch dee . . . KirchenrechU, $ 179, Leipsic, 
1903 (useful for references to late literature); KL, xL 

DE SPONDE): French Roman Catholic convert, 
church historian and bishop of Pamiers; b. at 
Mauleon (25 m. s.w. of Pau), Gascony, Jan. 6, 1568; 
d. at Toulouse May 18, 1643. He was brought up 
in the Reformed faith and studied at the College at 
Orthez and the Academy of Geneva. He practised 
law at Tours and won such distinction that Henry 
IV. appointed him maitre des requites for Navarre. 
On Sept. 21, 1595, he renounced the Reformed 
tenets, and through the influence of Cardinal 
Jacques Davy du Perron (q.v.) he obtained a 
canonry. In 1600 he went to Rome, where he be- 
came a close friend of Caesar Baronius (q.v.), whose 


Annate* he continued to 1622, and was there or- 
dained pries! tin M:ir. 7. IfMMV S|iuih!iiiuis remained 
at Rome until 1626, when Louis XIII. noiniiLitcd 
him bishop of Pamiers, in which capacity he mani- 
fested the utmost diligence in the extirpation of 
heresy. In 1639 failing health obliged him to resign 
bis see, and, after devoting himself to literary labors 
at Paris, he finally retired to Toulouse. His wri- 
tings were as follows: Dffencc de la declaration du 
sieur de. Spondc par Henry dr Sponde son frere centre 
fal BMittoWow* iles minisires Bonnet et Souis (Bor- 
deaux, 1597); Les Cimitieres sacra (1598; Lat. ed., 
much enlarged, Paris, 1638); Annates ecchnio.'tiii 
Cardinalis Baronii in epitomen redaeti (Paris, 1612); 
Annates sacri a mundi creatione ad ejusdem redemp- 
lionem (1637); and Annalium Baronii continuatio 
ab anno 1127 ad annum 1622 (1039). 


BiBuooSAPRr : There is « biography by P. Friwn prefixed 

tiro: E. and t. Haas, l-o France prottManle. ix. 316, Puis. 
185B; Ligbtenbcrger, ESR. id. 683-604. 

SPORTS, BOOK OF; A royal proclamation drawn 
up by Bishop Morton for James I., issued by that 
king in 1618; republished by Charles I., under the 
direction of Laud, in the ninth year of his reign. 
Its object was to encourage those people who had 
attended divine service to spend the remainder of 
Sunday after evening prayers in such " lawful rec- 
reation " as dam-ing. archery, Imping, vaulting, May 
games, Whitsun ales, Morris dances, and setting of 
M;iv-poles. The proclamation was aimed at the 
Puritans, and Charles required it to be read in every 
parish church. The majority of the Puritan minis- 
ters refused to obey, and some were in consequence 
suspended. See Puritans, Posit anibm, S 13. 

Bibuoorapht: D. Wilkins, Concilia Magna Britannia, Iv. 
483, London, 17:17; W. Hcnhiun. Diclianarv a} Religion, 
pp. 089-«90. ib. 1887: W. H. Hutton, The Englith Church 
(1626-17H), pp. 107-108. ib. 1903. 

of Glasgow; b. at Mid-Ca!der (12 m. s.w. of Edin- 
burgh) 1565; d. in London Nov. 26, 1639. He 
studied at Glasgow University (M.A., 1581); suc- 
ceeded his father as pastor at Calder, in 1583, when 
only eighteen; in 1601 accompanied the duke of 
Lennox as chaplain in his embassy to France, and 
in 1603 went with James VI. to England; in 1603 
was made archbishop of Glasgow, and in 1605 
privy-councilor for Scotland; was transferred to St. 
Andrews in 1615, so that he became primate and 
metropolitan; on June 18, 1633, crowned Charles 
I. at Holyrood; and in 1635 was made chancellor of 
Scotland. He was at first opposed to the intro- 
duction of the liturgy into the. Church of Scotland. 
but, seeing that it was inevitable, he resolved to 
further the royal wishes, and personally led the 
movement. Owing to the opposition offered he 
tried to modify the policy of the king, but in 1638 
the covenant was signed, and he was forced to re- 
move to Newcastle for his safety, and in Hi;'.!' went. 
to London, where he died. He wrote The History 
of the Church of Scotland (203-1828) (London. 1655; 
best ed,, 3 vols., with life of the author, Edinburgh, 

BiiiuoaupHT: A life of the author «ss prefixed to the 
original ed. of The HiMBm. and another (by M. ItuwUi 
to tba Edinburgh ed.. ut aup. Consult further: J. F. 8. 
Gordon. Scotichnmicon, i. :i8U-flie. flhiagow. 1S67; DXB. 
Uii, 412-415; and the literature on the Church of Scotland 

SPRAGUE, sprcg, WILLIAM BUELL: American 

Presbyterian, pulpit orator, and biographer; b. b 
Andover, Conn., Oct. 10, 1795; d. at Flushing, N. Y, 
May 7, 1876. He was graduated from Yale College 
in 1815 (A.M., 1819); was private tutor for about 
a year; was graduated from Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1819; and was immediately ordained 
pastor of the Congregational Church in West Spring- 
field, Mass., as a colleague of Joseph Latbxop; on 
the death of Lathrop, Sprague was left sole pastor, 
1820-29; was pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Albany, 1829-69; he then removed to 
Flushing, N. Y., where he died. 

Sprague attained very high eminence as a preacoet 
and speaker, and was besides a voluminous author. 
More than 150 of his sermons and occasional di»- 
courses were published by request. He published 
more than a dozen other separate works, among 
which may be mentioned Letters from Europe in 
1828 (New York, 1828); Lectures on Revivals ef 
Religion; with an introductory Essay by L. Woods 
(1832); Life °f Bev. Or. E. D. Griffin (1838); The 
Life of Titnotiiy Dvriaht (1844); Aids to Early Re- 
ligion (1847); Words to a Young Man'* Conscienet 
(1848); Visits to European Celebrities (1855); Mem- 
oirs of ... J, McDowell. D.D., and . . . W. Me- 
DoweU (1864); Life of Jedidiah Morse, D.D. (1874). 

The great literary work of bis life was the An- 
nals of the American Pulpit: Notices of America.!, 
Clergymen to 1865 (vols, i.-ii., Trinitarian Congre- 
gationalists, iii.-iv., Presbyterians, v., Episcopa- 
lians, vi., Baptists, vii., Methodists, viii., Unitarians, 
is., Lutherans, Reformed, Associate, Associate Re- 
formed, and Reformed Presbyterians; 9 vols., 
1858-61). The manuscript of the tenth and con- 
cluding volume was completed for publication be- 
fore his death; it included Quakers, German Re- 
formed, Moravians, Cumberland Presbyterians, 
Freewill Baptists, Swede nborgians, and Univer- 

SPRECHER, sprek'er, SAMUEL: Lutheran (Gen- 
eral Synod); b. near Hagerutown, Md., Deo. 28, 
1810; d. at San Diego, Cal., Jan. 10, 1896. He 
studied at Pennsylvania College and Theological 
Seminary, Gettysburg, Pa., 1830-36; was pastor 
at Hurrishurg, Pa., Martinsburg, Va., and Cham- 
bersburg, Pa., 1830-49; president of Wittenberg 
College, Springfield, O., 1849-74; and from 1874 
was professor of systematic theology there. He 
was the author of Groundwork of a System of Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Theology (Philadelphia, 1879). 
Dm mm IK I P. O. B«U, PurtraitHre e/tht Lifcaf Samud 

Sprechcr. Philadelphia, 1907. 

SPREMG, SAMUEL PETER: Evangelical As- 
sociation; b. in Clinton Township, O., Feb. 11, 1853. 
He was educated at Northwestern College, Naper- 
ville, 111. (A.B. 1875), and, after holding various 
pastorates in his denomination and being presiding 
elder from 1875 to 1887, was elected, in the latter 
year, editor of The Evangelical Messenger, the offi- 


rial organ of the Evangelical Association, a position 
which he still retains. He was likewise president 
of the Missionary Society of the Evangelical Asso- 
ciation In 1894-95 and secretary of the same body 
in 1904-07, and a member of the committee to re- 
vise the discipline of his denomination in 1895-99, 
white he has also been book editor since 1887, and 
president of the Young People's Alliance of the 
Evangelical Association since 1895. In theology he 
ia " an Arminian of the Evangelical type," and has 
written Rays of Light on the Highway to Success 
(Cleveland, O., 1885); Life and Labors of Bishop 
John Seybtrt (1888); History of Ox Evangelical As- 
sociation (New York, 1894); and The Sinner and 
his Saviour: or, The Way of Solvation made Plain 
(Cleveland, 1906). 

SPRHIG, GARDINER: American Presbyterian; 
b. at Newburyport, Mate., Feb. 24, 1785; d. in 
New York Aug. 18, 1873. He was graduated from 
Yale College, 1805; taught in Bermuda, 1805-07; 
was admitted to the bar, 1808; abandoned law for 
theology, and studied at Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, 1809-10; was ordained pastor of the Brick 
(Presbyterian) Church, Aug. 8, 1810, and held the 
position till his death. The first four years of his 
ministry were years of steady, quiet growth, but 
from 1814 to 1834 there were frequent revivals. He 
took part in the formation of the American Bible 
Society (1816), American Tract Society (1825), and 
American Home Missionary Society (1826). His 
congregation first met in Beekman Street, but in 
1856 removed to Fifth Avenue and Thirty-sixth 
Street. After 1861 he had a colleague. His minis- 
try was remarkable both for length and power. His 
principal publications were Essays on the Distin- 
guishing Traits of Christian Character (New York, 
1813); Memoirs of the Rev. S. J. Mills, Late Mis- 
sionary to the Southwestern Section of the United 
States (1820); An Appeal to the Citizens of New 
York, on Behalf of the Christian Sabbath (1823); The 
Attraction of the Cross; designed to illustrate the lead- 
ing Truths, Obligations, and Hopes of Christianity 
(1846); The Bible not of Man; or, the Argument for 
the divine Origin of the sacred Scriptures, drawn from 
the Scriptures themselves (1847); First Things. A 
Series of Lectures on the great Facts and moral Les- 
sons first revealed to Mankind (2d ed., 2 vols., 1851); 
The First Woman (1852); Pulpit Ministrations; or. 
Sabbath Readings. A Series of Discourses on Chris- 
tian Doctrine and Duty (1864); Personal Reminis- 
cences of the Life and Times of Gardiner Spring (2 
vols., 1866); and occasional sermons and collections 

Bterj bob .irny : Bandes hie Personal Reminitcencei, ut sup., 
oonmlt the Manorial Diteourtc ot J. O. Murray, New York. 
(1873); and 8. Knapp, Bit, of Uu Brick F r-i g t ut tm 
Chun*, tt. Y.. New York. 190B. 

SPRING, SAMUEL: American theologian; b. 
at Northbridge, Mass., Feb. 27, 1746; d. at New- 
buryport, Mass., Mar. 4, 1819. He graduated at 
Princeton College in 1771; studied theology under 
John Witherspoon, Joseph Bellamy, Samuel Hop- 
kins, and Stephen West (qq.v.). In 1775 he be- 
came a chaplain in the continental army, joining a 
volunteer corps under Benedict Arnold, with which 

he marched to Quebec. He was ordained to the 
ministry Aug. 6, 1777, and became pastor of the 
Second Congregational Church at Newburyport, 
Mass., which he served for over forty-one years. 
He was one of those wbo gave a powerful impulse 
to the cause of theological education, culminating 
in the founding of Andover Theological Seminary. 
He also assisted in the organization of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society and the American Board 
of Commissioners of Foreign Missions, lie was an 
editor of The Massachusetts Missionary Magazine. 
His most memorable theological treatises are: Dia- 
logue on the Nature of Duty (1784); and Moral Dis- 
quisitions and Strictures on the Rev. David Tappan's 
Lectures (2d ed., 1815). 

Bibuoqsapht: W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American 
Pulpit, ii. 85-aB. New York. 1S50; W. Walkerin American 
Church History Stria, iii. 323. 332. 349-351. ib. 1804; 
Idem, Ten Mm England Leutert, passim, ib. 1901; A. E. 
Dunning, CongrecaiionalisU in America, pp. 286-288, ib, 

SPRINZL, sprin'zl, JOSEF: Roman Catholic; 
b. at Iinz (100 m. w. of Vienna), Austria, Mar. 9, 
1839; d. at Prague Nov. 8, 1898. He studied in the 
priests' seminary at Iinz, 1857-61; was ordained 
priest, 1861; studied in the priests' iii.-uituU' at 
Vienna, 1861-64; became professor of theology in 
the Lin* Seminary, 1864; professor of dogmatics 
at Salzburg University, 1875; ordinary professor 
of the same at Prague, 1881; spiritual councilor to 
the bishop of Linz Feb. 23, 1873, and of the prince- 
bishop of Salzburg Jan. 28, 1880. He published Die 
'iltfaitliolitclic. Hrutgung im LiclJe des k-atholixchen 
Glaubens (Linz, 1872); Handbuch der Fundamental- 
theologie (Vienna, 1876); Die Theologie der apos- 
tolischen Voter (1880); Compendium summarium 
(lwi)k«ptr dogmatical in ustim praiectionum academir 
carum concinnalum (1882). 

SPROULL, spraul, THOMAS: Reformed Presby- 
terian (Old School); b. near Freeport, Pa., Sept. 
15, 1803; d. in Pittsburg, Pa., Mar. 20, 1892. He 
was graduated from the Western University of 
Pennsylvania, Pittsburg, 1829; was pastor of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Congregation of Allegheny 
and Pittsburg, 1834-68; professor in Reformed 
Presbyterian Western Theological Seminary, 1838- 
1840; in the united Eastern and Western Semi- 
naries, 1840-45; again from 1856; and professor 
emeritus from 1875. He edited The Reformed Pres- 
byterian, 1855-62, and The Reformed Presbyterian 
and Covenanter, 1862-74, both published in Pitts- 
burg, Pa. Besides sermons, he wrote Prelections on 
Theology {Pittsburg, 1882). 


English Baptist; b. at Kelvedon (40 m. n.e. of 
London), Essex, June 10, 1834; d. at Mentone (13 
m. n.e. of Nice), France, Jan. 31, 1892. His father 
and grandfather hitd been Independent ministers. 
From the age of seven to fifteen he was educated in 
a school at Colchester; he spent a few months in 
an agricultural college at Maidstone in 1842; and 
in 1849 became usher in a school at Newmarket, 
kept by a Baptist. As a youth he was subject to 
inner restlessness and conflict and dated his con- 
version from Dec. 6, 1850, attnecbapelof the Primi- 




tive Methodists in Colchester, on which occasion he 
was deeply stirred and greatly relieved by a sermon 
preached by a layman on Isa. xlv. 22. However, 
the study of the Scriptures brought further mis- 
givings and he was not content until he was im- 
mersed. This took place in the Lark at Ialeham 
May 3, 1851, and he then united with the Baptist 
communion. In 1851 he became usher in a school 
at Cambridge, and entered the lay preachers 1 asso- 
ciation in connection with the Baptist church meet- 
ing in St. Andrews Street, Cambridge. Forced by 
circumstance he preached unprepared his first ser- 
mon in a cottage at Teversham near Cambridge, at 
the age of sixteen. His gifts were recognized at 
once and his fame spread. He preached in chapels, 
cottages, or in the open air in as many as thirteen 
stations in the villages surrounding Cambridge, and 
this after his school duties for the day were past. 
In 1852 he became pastor of the small Baptist 
church at Waterbeach, and in 1854, after preach- 
ing three months on probation, he was called to the 
pastorate of the New Park Street Church, South- 
wark, London. Only 100 persons attended his first 
service; but before the end of the year the chapel 
had to be enlarged, and he preached in Exeter Hall 
during the alterations. When the enlarged chapel 
was opened it proved at once too small, and a great 
tabernacle was projected. Meanwhile, in 1856, 
Spurgeon preached at the Surrey Gardens music- 
hall to congregations which numbered 10,000 peo- 
ple; and at twenty-two he was the most popular 
preacher of his day. In 1861 the Metropolitan Tem- 
ple, seating 6,000, was opened and there he min- 
istered until his death, retaining his popularity and 
power as a preacher to the end. 

Beside preaching, other enterprises made their 
demand upon his energy. In 1855 he accepted his 
first student for the ministry; soon a class assem- 
bled in his house every week for instruction in the- 
ology* pastoral duties, and other practical matters. 
This work was assigned mainly to a tutor. Out of 
it grew the Pastors' College, located first in his house; 
under the Tabernacle, 1861-74; and, after 1874, in 
the New College buildings. The local mission work 
of these students in the slums formed the nuclei of 
new Sunday-schools and churches, a circle of which 
banded around the central church. Its internal 
needs were provided by a number of auxiliary asso- 
ciations. Spurgeon was president of a society for 
the dissemination of Bibles and tracts employing 
the service of ninety colporteurs. The Stockwefi 
Orphanage was incorporated in 1867 with an en- 
dowment of £20,000 given by Mrs. Hillyard. It 
grew to a group of twelve houses and accommodated 
500 children. 

The figure of Spurgeon was a composite one. 
Methodist by conversion, Baptist by profession, he 
was fundamentally Calvinistic by descent and is 
sometimes called " the last of the Puritans." He 
was minded to carry his obduracy even to the ex- 
tent of disunion among the churches. In 1864 he 
invited a controversy with the Evangelical party in 
the Church of England by a powerful sermon, Bap- 
tismal Regeneration, a doctrine which he opposed; 
300,000 copies were sold, and numerous pamphlets 
written in reply, the most important was by a Bap- 

tist, B. W. Noel, Evangelical Clergy Defended (1864), 
in which Spurgeon was censured for introducing 
needless divisions among men of like faith. He, 
however, ended by withdrawing from the Evan- 
gelical Alliance. He also watched with misgivingB 
the growth among Baptists of what seemed to him 
indifference to orthodoxy, deploring that not enough 
stress was laid on Christ's divine nature. He op- 
posed what he called the " down-grade " movement 
of Biblical criticism; and, not being able to win the 
Baptist Union to his view, he withdrew in 1887, 
remaining independent until the end of his life, air 
though still a stanch Baptist. Personally unam- 
bitious and unselfish, industrious in his exacting 
parish service and incessant Biblical study, human 
in sympathy and sane on social questions, demo- 
cratic in temperament, he was ever zealous in the 
gospel of grace and redemption, and fearless in de- 
nouncing evil and upholding what he deemed true 
and right. As a preacher his early success was due 
to the sensation of his youth, his spontaneous humor, 
the fervor of his appeals to the conscience, but most- 
ly to his natural gift of oratory. With a clear sym- 
pathetic voice and easy gesture, he knew how most 
effectively to present his appeal for salvation, pro- 
jected from a shrewd comment on contemporary 
life and sustained upon his characteristic expository 
treatment of Scripture derived from the old Puritan 
divines. He was in later life a great sufferer from 
gout, and frequently was obliged to leave his 

The results of Spurgeon's literary labors had an 
enormous circulation. He conducted The Sword 
and the Trowel, a monthly church magazine; and 
published more than 1,900 sermons, including, from 
1855, a sermon every week, contained in The Metro- 
politan Tabernacle Pulpit, continued after his death 
(49 vols., London, 1856-1904). Other works were, 
The Saint and hie Savior (London, 1857); Morn- 
ing by Morning; or Daily Readings for the Family 
or the Closet (1866); Evening by Evening (1868); 
John Ploughman's Talk (1869); and John Ploughs 
man's Pictures (1880). Famous also is Our Own 
Hymn Book, with paraphrases of Psalms (1866). 
His most important work was The Treasury of David, 
an exposition of the book of Psalms (7 vols., 1870- 
1885). In view of his own lack of higher training, 
he was dependent in Biblical work upon the research 
of his assistants for scientifical material and on the 
Puritan divines for method and point of view; and 
his commentaries are practical and homiletical 
rather than scientific. Shortly before his death he 
completed The Gospel of the Kingdom, a popular 
exposition of Matthew (1893). 

Bibliography. Besides Spurgeon's Autobiography, Com* 
piled from hit Diary, Letter; Records, by hie Wife and hi* 
Secretary, 4 vols., London, 1897-1900, there are biogra- 
phies by: G. H. Pike, new ed., London, 1887; R. H. 
ConweU, Philadelphia, 1892; J. D. Fulton, Chicago, 1892; 
O. C. Lorimer, Boston, 1892; R. Shindler, From the 
Usher's Deak to the Tabernacle Pulpit, New York, 1892, 
H. L. Wayland, Philadelphia, 1892; J. J. Ellis, new ed.. 
London, 1902; C. Ray, ib. 1903, cf. the same author's 
A Marvelous Ministry, ib. 1905. Consult further: J. 
Femandes, Nonconformity in Southwark, London, 1882; 
W. Williams, Personal Reminiscences of Charles H addon 
Spurgeon, New York, 1895; W. M. Higgs, The Spurgeon 
Family, London, 1906. 



SPURGBOH, THOMAS: English Baptist; b. in 
London Sept. 20, 1856. After studying at the Pas- 
tor's College of the Metropolitan Tabernacle, Lon- 
don, as well as in South Kensington, he visited Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania in 1S77 and again in 187S, and 
from 1881 to 1889 was pastor of a Baptist church 
in Auckland, New Zealand. He was then an evan- 
gelist of the New Zealand Baptist Union until 1893, 
when he succeeded his father, Charles Haddon 
Spurgeon (q.v.), as minister of the Metropolitan 
Tabernacle. He resigned this position in 1908, in 
consequence of ill-health, and him ninct- been presi- 
dent of Pastor's College and of Stockwell Orphan- 
age, London. Besides a volume of poems, Scarlet 
Thruid* and Bits of Blue (London, 1892), he has 
published several collertions of sermons: The Gospel 
of the Grace of God (1884), Down to the Sea (1895), 
Light and Love (1897), God Save the King (1902), and 
My Gospel (1902). 

of England; b. at Handsworth, Birmingham, Dec. 
13, 1868. He received his education at King Ed- 
Ward VI. 's School, Birmingham, and Gonville and 
Gains College, Cambridge (B.A., 1891; M.A., 1895; 
B.D., 1903; DD., 1907); was made deacon, 1893, 
and priest, 1894; was curate of St. Matthew's, Wal- 
sall, Sheffield, 1893-95; vice-principal of Lichfield 
Theological College, 1895-97; lecturer in theology 
M SeJwyn College, Cambridge, since 1897, and tutor 
since 1907, being also curate of St. Mary the Less, 
Cambridge, 1898-1906, examining chaplain to the 
bishop of Lichfield since 1905, and general secretary 
of the Central Society for Sacred Study. He has 
published The. Epistles of St. Ignatius, Translated 
vith Introduction and Notes (2 vols., London, 1900); 
fend The Catechetical Oration of St. Gregory o' Nyssa 
(Cambridge, 1903). 

STABAT MATER. See Jacopone i 


STACKHOTJSE, THOMAS: Church of England; 
b. at Witton-le-Wear (10 m. s.w. of Durham), Eng- 
land, 1677; d. at Beenham (8 m. w.s.w. of Reading) 
Oct. II, 1752. He studied at St. John's College, 
Cambridge; was head master of Hexham grammar- 
school, 1701-04; ordained priest in London, 1704, 
becoming curate of Shepperton in Middlesex; was 
minister of the English Church in Amsterdam from 
1713; curate of Pinchley, 1731; and in 1733 was 
relieved from extreme distress by an appointment 
to the vicarage of Beenham. He is remembered for 
bis New History of the Holy Bible, from the Begin- 
ning of the World to the Establishment of Christianity 
(2 vols., London, 1737; best ed., 6 vols., Edinburgh, 
1767); he was also the author of Memoiret of the 
Life. Character, Conduct and Writings of Dr. Francis 
Atterbury, Late Bishop of Rochester, from his Birth 
to his Banishment (2d ed., London, 1727); A Com- 
pute Body of Divinity . . . Extracted from the Best 
Ancient and Modern Writers (1729; best ed. 1765); 
A Defence of the Christian Religion from the Several 
Objections of Modern AnKscripturists; wherein the 
Btfral Sense of the Prophecies contained in the Old 
Testament, and of the Miracles recorded in the New, 
is explained and vindicated, in which is included the 
whole Slate of the Controversy between Mr. Woolston 

and his Adversaries (2d ed., 1733); A New . . . 
Exposition of the AposUes M Creed (1747); The Life 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. With the Live* 
of the Apostles and Evangelists (1754). 
BmunoBAPHi: J. Nichols. Literary Amcdotta of tht ISA 

Century, u. 393-390, 9 voli.. Loudun, 1312-15; DNB. 

lili. 442-M3. 

STADE, shta'de, BERN SARD: German Protes- 
tant; b. at Arnstadt (20 m. s.w. of Weimur) May 
11, 1848; d. at Gieasen Dec. 7, 1906. He was edu- 
cated at the universities of Leipsie (1M17-69; Ph.D., 
1871) and Berlin (1869-70), and in 1871 became 
assistant in the library of the former institution, 
where he was also privat-doeent in 1873-75; pro- 
fessor of Old-Testament exegesis at the I'nivi -rsity 
of Giessen (1875-1906), and rector in 1882-83, and 
1896-97; after 1894 he was overseer of the theo- 
logical students at Giessen. In addition to his work 
as editor of the Zeitschrift fur alttestamentliche Wis- 
senschaft, which he founded in 1881, he wrote 
Ueber den Ursprung der mehrlautigen Tatviarter dcr 
Ge'eieprache (Leipsic, 1871); De Isaia; vatidniis 
Mthiopidt (1873); Ueber die aUtestamendichen Vor- 
steUungen vom Zustande nach dent Tode (1877); 
Lehrbuch der hebrtiischen Sprache, vol. i. (1879); De 
populo Javan parergon (Giessen, 1880); Ueber die 
Lage der evangelischen Kirehe Deutschlands (1883); 
Gesehichte des Votkes Israel (2 vols., the second half 
of the second volume in collaboration with O. Holts- 
mann; Berlin, 1887-88); Hebr&isches Handworter- 
buch zum Allen Testament (in collaboration with C. 
Nii'KfrU'l; Leipsic, 1893); Die Reorganisation der 
thedogisehen Fakult&t zu Giessen (Giessen, 1894); 
Ausgewahlte akademische Reden und Abhandlungen 
(1899); The Books of Kings in The Polychrome Bible 
(in collaboration with F. Schwally; New York, 
1904); BMische Theologie des Allen Testaments, 
vol. i. (Tubingen, 1905); and Einst und jetzt. Rack- 
blicke und Ausblicke (Gieasen, 1905). 

STAEHELIH, shte'e-lin, J0HAH1I JAKOB: 
Swiss theologian; b. at Basel May 6, 1797; d. at 
Langenbruck (15 m. s.e. of Basel) Aug. 27, 1875. 
His entire active life was passed as docent or pro- 
fessor in the University of Basel. He came under 
the pii ii_-itic influences of the WQrttemberg school, 
and devoted himself as a scholar to Siinitic studies. 
His literary activity began in 1827 with a disserta- 
tion which discussed the Blessing of Jacob. In Pen- 
tateuchal criticism he issued Kritische Unlersuch- 
ungen Hber die Genesis (Basel, 1830), in which he 
advocated the application to Bible study of histor- 
ical linguistic work and the comparison of Biblical 
literature with other oriental writings. This was 
followed by Kritische U ntersuchungen Hber den Pen- 
tateuch, Josua, Richter, Samuel, und KBnige (Berlin, 
1843), in which he anticipated in certain respects 
the results of more recent critics. The last work of 
this character was Das Leben Davids (Basel, 1866), 
an interesting account of the different phases of 
David's career. A second series of Stahelin's wri- 
tings is concerned with the Hebrew prophets, for 
example, Die messianisehe Weissagungen (Berlin, 
1847), in which he cast some light on the relations 
of these prophetical texts to the New Testament; 
and his Die Propheten des Alien Testaments (1867). 


For many years Stahclin devoted hia attention to 
the Psalms, the results or which he printed mainly 
in ZDMG. Hia chief work, however, is Spezidle 
l-'ii.!iiha,ij in die kanonischen BUcher des A. T.a (El- 
berfeld. 186*2), though hia presentation of the sub- 
ject lacked form and attraction, and this interfered 
with the popularity and usefulness of hia work. 
Moreover, he had an insufficient sense of proportion ; 
the material point* are often thrust in the back- 
ground in favor of philological observation. Yet the 
value of his contributions to the critical and relig- 
ious investigation of the Old Testament can not be 
questioned. (E. StAhbun.) 

STAEHBLIH, RUDOLF: Swiss Protestant theo- 
logian; b. at Basel Sept. 22, 1841; d. there 

Mar. 13, 1900. He studied at the gymnasium 
of his native city, also at the university there 
and at Lausanne, Berlin, and Tubingen. He 
undertook pastoral duties at Stein-on- the- Rhine 
in 1806, and the next year at Arlesheim. Sickness 
compelled a rest from duties in 1871, which he 
took in Sicily, and this resulted in his Reisebrie/e 
aus /fatten (Basel, 1903). Upon his return he set- 
tled in his native city as a private teacher in the 
Itn-Hitnuirul faculty and was soon after appointed to 
the chair of church history, becoming regular pro- 
fessor in 1875. After declining a call to succeed Har- 
nack at Marburg, he was seised by a disease of the 
eyes, which threatened to stop his work on the biog- 
raphy »f Zh ingli, but by the help of his wife and of 
hMndfl I' 1 - 1 was able to bring out the two volumes, 
BvtdrtbA Zteingli f,lM5-*7>. The rest of Stiihelin's 
works are in part preparatory studies for this chief 
production, partly studies out of the liistory of Hu- 
manism and of the Reformation, some of which ap- 
peared in various serial or university publications. 

In a period of theological and ecclesiastical change 
S t : ; 1 1 ,  1 1 r i kept aloof from all extremes, and main- 
tained as a moderate the respect and admiration of 
all by hia sincerity, nobility of manner, and regard 
for the feelings of others. (O. Kirn.) 

Bibuoorapbt: E. Stockmeyer. S. Ststhtlin. Biuel, 1901; 
idem, in A. Bettelheiia's Biuaraphitcha, Jahrbuch. v (1903). 

STAEHLIH, ahte'lin, ADOLF VOH: German 
efrli--i-]-tir:i! administrator; b. at Schmahingcn in 
the deaconry of NSrdlingen (f>0 m. e. of Stuttgart) 
Oct. 27, 1823; d. at Munich May 4, 1887. He en- 
tered the University of Erlangen in 1840, and later 
spent two years in the Seminary at Munich. He 
was assistant pastor at Wiodsbaeh and other places 
until, in 1850, he was placed as pastor at Tauber- 
acheckenbach, whence ho went to Rothenburg in 
1860, and to Nordlingen in 1864, where he became 
first pastor, and also a leader in the matter of re- 
form of the schools, writing on this his first produc- 
tion, Zur Schnlre/orm (Nordlingen, 1865). In 1860 
be was called to Ansbaeh as consistorial councilor, 
and during his activity there of thirteen years wrote 
among other thinga, Das landesherrliehe Kirchen- 
regiment und ueifi Zu&ammcnhang mit Volkskircheri- 
tum (Leipsic, 1871). In 1879 he was called to the 
upper council of Munich, and in 1883 to the head of 
the government of the church in Bavaria, which 
brought him into relations with the civil power aa 

councilor. la all these relations 

and wise thought fulness distinguished his actions. 

(T. Kolde.) 
Bibuoorapht: T. Kolde, AdotJ von StoMin, ErUngen. 1807; 

O. Stihlin, Obtrkontiilonatprnndtnl D. Adolf khi SuUin, 

Munich. I8B8. 

Testament scholar; b. at Berlin Dec. 15, 1866. He 
received his education at the universities of Berlin 
and Marburg, 1887-92; was engaged in various 
places in the teaching office, 1804-1903; became 
privat-docent for Old Testament at Jena, 1905, ex- 
traordinary professor, 1908, and ordinary professor, 
1909. He has issued Dos Deuteronomium, sein In- 
holt und seine luerariache Form (Leipsic, 1894); 
Studien ear Religion und Sprachgeachichte des alien 
Testament (2 vols., Berlin, 1899); Uebtr den Ur- 
sprung der GraUegtnde (Tubingen, 1903); Die Eat- 
stehung del alien Testament (Leipsic, 1905); Sonde 
und Gnade naeh der Voretellung dee alien Judentums, 
beeandere der Dichter der sogenannten Busspsalmen 
(Tubingen, 1905); Neutestamentliche Zeitgeachichu 
(2 parts, Leipsic, 1907); an edition of Jesaias 
Diehtungen (1907); Die jtidiseh^xram&ischen Papyri 
von A*ruan, sprachlieh und sachlich erklart (Bonn, 
1907); an edition of Amos, Nahum, and Habakkuk 
(leipsic, 1908); Das assyrische WeUreich im UrteU 
der Propheten (Gottingen, 1908); and AramSistht 
Urlcunden tur Geschiehte dea Judentums im VI. und 
V. Jahrhundert iw Christum (Bonn, 1908). 

ologian; b. at Stuttgart July 25, 1761; d. at 

( nit tingen JulyB, 1826. He studied philosophy and 
theology, particularly exegesia and oriental lan- 
guages, at Tubingen, 1779-84 ; and waa professor of 
theology at Gottingen, 1790-1826. He lectured in 
almost all the departments of scientific theology. 
He published, Geschiehte und Geist des Skeptieismus 
(2 vols., Leipsic, 1794); Grundriss der Tugend- und 
Rdigionslehre (Gottingen, 1798-1800); Philosopfd- 
ache und biblische Moral (1805); and Neues Lehrbuck 
der Moral fur Theologen (1815). In these works he 
[i:iv-e.l from :< speculative- and critical to a more em- 
pirical and authoritative point of view. He was the 
first to attempt a history of ethics, 1794-1812 and 
later. His Geschiehte der Sittenlehre Jtsu (4 vols., 
1799-1822) he did not complete. He confined 
himself later to the preparation of Geschiehte der 
chrinllirhen Moral aeit dem Wiederaufiebm der Wis- 
aenschaften (1808). In addition appeared, Qtschiehts 
der philosophischen, hebrOiachen und chriatlieten 
Moral (Hanover, 1806); and Geschiehte der Moral- 
philosophic (1823). In church history he left Uni- 
veraalgeschichU der chrisUichen Kirehe (Hanover, 
1806); Geschiehte der thealogisehen WissenscJiaften 
(2 vols., GGttingen, 1810-11); Geschiehte des Ra- 
tionalismus und Supranaturalismus (1826); and 
Geschiehte und Lilteratur der Kirchengeackxehte (Han- 
over, 1827). (J. A. WAGENMANNt.) 
RiHEJonhArHY: The chief source lb the StJbitbiooraphir. ed. 

J. T. Henuen, Oftttin*™, 1828. Consult further O. W. 

Frank, lachichlr drr praletlaniinfirn Thtolooit, iii. 293 

■qq., Leipsic, 1875; ADB. xxxv. SIS eqq. 




STAFFORTIAH BOOK: The name of a confession 
of Baden-Duriach in the seventeenth century. After 
the religious peace of Augsburg, the Margrave Karl 
II. introduced in 1556 the Lutheran church order. 
After his death in 1577, the guardians of the three 
sons subscribed to the Book of Concord (q.v.); 
but when they had attained to the government in 
1584, the eldest, Ernst Friedrich, who received 
as his share the lower part including the cities of 
Durlach and Pforzheim, manifested his dissatis- 
faction with the Lutheran confession, and intro- 
duced Calvinistic theologians at the school at Dur- 
lach, and attempted to introduce by force the 
Reformed faith in his dominion. A printing-press 
was established at the castle at Staffort, 1599, and 
the Staffortian Book was issued. In the shorter 
edition, covered by pp. 359-555 of the larger, only 
the articles are treated on which the adherents of the 
Augsburg Confession (q.v.) differed. Caution is 
prescribed against the new Semipelagians who 
accept foreseen faith as the cause of election. Rep- 
robation is very guardedly touched upon. Earnest 
protest is raised against the doctrine of ubiquity 
and the confusion of natures. Appeal is made to 
the Augsburg Confession and Apology in behalf of a 
doctrine of the sacrament that does not coerce faith 
out of its proper position. Regeneration is repre- 
sented as the redemptive gift of baptism, and 
spiritual sustenance of the " essential body and 
blood of Christ, together with all his treasures and 
merits/' is claimed for believers only. The larger 
edition, ChrMiches Bcdencken und erhebliche woU 
fundierie Motiven, attempts (pp. 1^358) a criticism 
of the text of the Formula of Concord (q.v.). The 
effort to enforce it raised a stubborn conflict. At 
Pforzheim the recalcitrant clergy were dismissed; 
for weeks there were no pastors; and the new Cal- 
vinistic preachers met with organized civic resist- 
ance. Ernst Friedrich prepared to move against 
the city by force of arms, when his death (1604) 
ended the strife. His successor returned to Luther- 
anism. (E. F. Karl MCller.) 

Bduogbaphy: C. A. Salig, VoUst&ndiae Hietorie der attar- 
burgiechen Confession, pp. 748 eqq., Halle, 1730; J. C. 
8evchs, Einleituna indie Oeechiehteder Markoraveehaft . . . 
Baden, iv. 252 sqq., Cariaruhe, 1770; K. F. Vierordt, Ge- 
MehichU der evangeliechen Kirche in dem Oroeehertoathvm 
Baden, n. 29 sqq.. ib. 1856; E. F. K. M Oiler. Die Bekennt- 
nieeekriften der re/ormierten Kirche, Leipsic, 1903. 

ecclesiastical jurist and statesman; b. at Munich 
Jan. 16, 1802; d. at Bruckenau (50 m. e.n.e. of 
Frankfort-on-the-Main) Aug. 10, 1861. He was of 
Jewish parentage, but embraced Christianity in 
his seventeenth year. He studied jurisprudence at 
Wuraburg, Heidelberg, and Erlangen; and was 
professor at Erlangen, 1832; at Wurzburg, 1832; 
and at Berlin, 1840. In Berlin he gathered crowded 
audiences, not only of juridical students, but of men 
of all ranks; as when, in 1850, he lectured on Die ge- 
genwdrtige Parteien in Stoat und Kirche (Berlin, 
1863). He also held the highest positions in the 
state government of the Church, and took an active 
part in Prussian politics. His brilliant parliamen- 
tary talent soon made him one of the most prominent 
leaders of the conservative party, both in political 
and ecclesiastical affairs. His ideas are clearly de- 

fined in Die PkUosophie dee Reekie (vol. L, Ge- 
echickte der Rechtephiloeophie, Heidelberg, 1830, vol. 
ii., Reekie- und Staatdekre, 1833; rev. ed., 1847). Of 
the fundamental problems of human life, he con- 
sidered two solutions as possible, both philosoph- 
ically and juridically, — one on the basis of pan- 
theism, and one on the basis of faith in a personal 
God who has revealed himself to man; one giving 
the absolute power to the mass of the people, the 
majority, and one organizing the State after the idea 
of the highest personality, as a sphere of ethical 
action. What lay between those two extremes 
he despised as destitute of character. But his 
own choice he expressed in " No majority, but 
authority I " In Die Kirckenverfaeeung nach Lehre 
und Reiki der Protestanien (Erlangen, 1840), he 
aimed at a restoration of the old Protestant doc- 
trine of church constitution. He held that the 
three systems, episcopal, territorial, and collegia!, 
represented different views of the nature of church 
government, and were the outgrowths of the pre- 
vailing sentiment of three epochs of development; 
respectively, the orthodox, the Pietistic, and the 
rationalistic. Stahl advocated the Episcopal order. 
In his Die lutkeriscke Kirche und die Union (1860) 
he opposed a formal union of the two Protestant 
churches. Among his other works are Der christliche 
Stoat und eein VerhdUnise zu Deismns und Juden- 
tkum (Berlin, 1847); and DerProtestantismusals poli- 
tisckes Princip (1856). (Rudolph K6GEi/f.) 

Bibliography: P. A. S. van L. Brouwer, Stahl redivivus. 
The Hague, 1862; Perniee, Saviany, Stahl, Berlin, 1862 

STAHR, star, J0H5 SUMMERS: Reformed 
(German); b. at Appiebachsville, Pa., Dec. 2, 1841. 
He was educated at Franklin and Marshall College 
(A.B., 1867), with which he has been connected 
ever since, being tutor in German and history (1867- 
1868), assistant professor of the same subjects (1868- 
1871), professor of natural science and chemistry 
(1871-89), acting president (1889-90), and president 
(since 1890). After studying theology privately, he 
was ordained to the German Reformed ministry in 
1872 and assisted Benjamin Bailsman, later supply- 
ing the pulpit of the First Reformed Church, Read- 
ing, Pa. He has been a member of the International 
Sunday-school Lesson Committee since 1890, and 
has also been a consulting member of the editorial 
staff of the Standard Dictionary, a member of the 
eighth Council of the Alliance of Reformed Churches 
held at Liverpool in 1904, and president of the East- 
ern Synod of the Reformed Church. In theology he 
is a progressive conservative, " holding to the fun- 
damental verities of the Christian faith and doctrine 
in the sense that our apprehension of them is ad- 
vancing with the progress of human experience and 
scholarship." He has been an editor of The Re- 
formed Church Review since 1905, and translated J. 
Grob's Life of Zwingli (New York, 1883). 

STALKER, JAMES: United Free Church of Scot- 
land; b. at Crieff (17 m. w. of Perth), Perthshire, 
Feb. 21, 1848. He was educated at the University 
of Edinburgh (M.A., 1869), New College, Edinburgh 
(1870-74), and the universities of Berlin (1872) and 
Halle (1873). He held pastorates at St. Brycedale's, 



KirkciiUIy (1874-87), and St. Matthew's, Glasgow 
(1887-1902), and since 1902 has been professor of 
church history in the United Pree Church College, 
Aberdeen. He was Lyman Beecher lecturer on 
preaching at Vale in 1891, Cunningham lecturer in 
New College, Edinburgh, in 1899, and in 1901 was 
Gay lecturer in Louisville Baptist Seminary and 
also lectured at Richmond Presbyterian Seminary. 
In theology he " rests his faith on the threefold 
foundation of Scripture, tradition, and personal ex- 
perience, with emphasis on the third." He has 
written The Life of Jesus Christ (Edinburgh, 1879); 
The New Song: Sermons for Children (1883); The 
Life of St. Paul (1884); Imago Christi (London, 
1889); The Preacher and hi* ModeU (1891); The 
Four Men (1892); The Trial and Death of Jesus 
(1891); The Two Saint Johns (1895); TheChristol- 
ogy of Jesus (1899) ; The Seven Deadly Sins (1901) ; 
The Seven Cardinal Virtues (1902); John Knox, hie 
Ideas and Ideals (1904); The Atonement (1908); 
The Ethic of Jesus according to the Synoptic Gospels 
(London, 1909). 

STALL, SYLVAHUS: Lutheran; b. at Eliaaville, 
N. Y., Oct. 18, 1847. He was educated at Pennsyl- 
vania College, Gettysburg, Pa. (A.B., 1872), after 
which he studied theology there and at Union The- 
ological Seminary for two years. He held pastorates 
in his denomination at Cobleskill, N. Y. (1874-77), 
Martin's Creek, Pa. (1877-80), Lancaster, Pa. 
(1880-88), and Baltimore, Md. (1888-1901). In 
1901 he retired from the active ministry to be- 
come the head of bin newly established Vir Publish- 
ing Company, Philadelphia. He edited Stall's 
Lutheran Year Book and Historical Quarterly (1884- 
1888), while from 1890 to 1901 he was associate 
editor of The Lutheran Observer. He has prepared 
Pastor's Pocket Record (Albany, N. Y., 1875); 
Minister's Handbook to Lutheran Hymns in the Book 
of Worship (Philadelphia, 1879); How to pay Church 
Debts (New York, 1880) ; Methods of Church Work, 
Religious, Social, and Financial (1887); Five 
Mhi-dr Object Sermons (1894); Talks to the King's 
Children (189(1); Bible Selections for Daily Devotion 
(1896); Whata YoungBoy ought to ffnom (Philadel- 
phia, 1897); What a Young Man ought to Know 
(1897); What a Young Husband ought to Know 
(1899); What a Man of Forty-five ought to Know 
1901); Faces ttnoard the Light (1903); The Social 
Peril (1905); and Parental Honesty (1905). 

CESC0: Unitarian; b. at Mantua, Italy, in 1501; 
d. at Stobnitz, Poland, Nov. 12, 1574. He entered 
a religious order, and evidently underwent a sys- 
tematic training in theology, since his method, 
for in-himv. in hi* first theological work, Detrinilatc, 
is si'liokistic in type. Stancari appeared promi- 
nently first in 1543, when he lived in Chiavenna; 
at Basel, in 1546, he issued a Hebrew grammar. 
In course of the shifting life that was especially 
common with Italinn fugitives, he was later found 
at Cracow, whence, after seizure as a heretic, he 
escaped to Konigsberg, there to teach in the high 
school. But becoming involved in strife with 0"j*tt> 
der, only three months elapsed before be requested 
feis dismission. Afterward, at Fronifort-on-the- 

Oder, he continued the controversy in his Apologia 
contra Osiandrum, and the elector of Brandenburg 
intervened, while Melanchthon, in 1553, published 
a Responsio de eontroversiis Stancari (Cft, xxiii. 87). 
He then went to Poland, Hungary, and Transylvania, 
but returned to Pinczow in 1558. He there asso- 
ciated with such men as Lismanini and Blandrat* 
(q.v.); and contended for the proposition that Christ 
is a mediator with God only in hia human nature. 
The dispute reached beyond the borders of Poland; 
Calvin answered in a " Response " of the Genevan 
Church (Tractatus theologici, p. 682) ; while in & 
further message {Epistolce et responsa, p. 290) 
Zurichers made answer, also through Josias Sinner's 
Responsio ad malcdicumFr. Stancari libetlum (1563). 
Both new and old material on the subject has been 
compiled by Wotschkc in letters and other docu- 
ments, in Briefwechscl der Schweizer mit den Polen 
(Archiv fur Reformatums-Geschichte, Erganiungs- 
band iii., 1908). In several of these documents, 
Lismanini protests against the theology of Stan- 
cari, which was combated in Poland as being 
Nestorian. Yet it had significance in the history of 
dogma, as in opposing it the attempts of the 
Lutheran theologians to carry the point of their 
Communicalio idiomatum (q.v.) gained special conse- 
quence. Wigand {De Stancarismo, 1585) and SchlQs- 
selburg (Catalogus haretieorum) were opponents of 
Stancari. K. Beneath. 

Bibliography; Sources am: The letters of Calvin, in fail 
Opera in CR; S. Orachotmki. Rointani Chinarn: tire it 
StanraH /unufa retina Folonia tecio. Cologne, 1363; On- 
cheviana, ed. J. Koracniownlri, pp. 722 iqq„ Cracow. 1801 
(contoiiuirixletlenbyStaacflri). Consult further: Boyle, 
Dictionary, v. 230-233 (quotes extensively from sources); 
S. Lubienski. HiMoria reformationit Potanicat, Freiilsdt, 
16S5; C. Hartknoch, PrcuuwAa Kirttien-Hittoria, L 330 
sqq., Frankfort. 1888; Q. J. Planck, Geechic/Ut . . . ih- 
teret protettantite.hen Lehrbeorifft, iv. 440 sqq., 6 vols-, 
Leipsic, 1781-1800; H. DrJtou, Johanna a Latoo, Goths. 
1881; and Wotichke. in AUpreuttiMfe .UonatocWf, 

STAHFORD, CHARLES: English Baptist; b. 
at Northampton (45 m. w. of Cambridge), England, 
Mar. 9, 1823; d. in London Mar. 18, 1886. He 
commenced preaching, 1839; entered the Baptist 
College at Bristol, 1841 ; became minister at Lough- 
borough, 1845; Dcniges, 1847; co-pastor in London 
of the Denmark-place Church, Cambcrwell, 1858, 
and was sole pastor from 1861 till his death. He 
was the author of Central Truths (London, I860); 
Joseph AUeinc: his Companions and Times; a Me- 
morial of " Black Bartholomew," 188S (1861); In- f 
IWihbi "'"I Strength; Thoughts for Students and Pas- 
tors (1862); Home and Church (1871); Homilies 
on Christian Work (1879); Voices from Calvary; 
a Course of Homilies (1881); From Calvary to Olivet. 
Being a Sequel to " Voices from Calvary" (1884); 
The Alternatives of Faith and Unbelief (1885) ; The 
Krciiiuij of Our Lnrd's Ministry, being Preludes to 
" Voicesfrom Calvary." A Course of Homilies (1886); 
together with a collection of sermons, and many 
smaller works. 
BlBuooHiPRv; Chart** Stanford. Mtmorwt and Lettrri.eA, 

his wife. London, 1889; Baptix Handbook, 1887, pp. 1)0- 

J.'J, DNB, m. 47B-479, 



STAHUE, CARL: German Protestant; b. in 
Hamburg Mar. 3, 1870. He was educated at the 
universities of Halle and Gbttingen (1888-92) and 
St Leipsic (1893-94), became privat-doccnt at Halle 
in 1895, extraordinary professor of systematic the- 
ology in the University of Kdnigsberg in 1903, and 
professor of the same at Greifswald in 1904. He has 
Written Die chrisiliche Ethik in ihrem VerhdUnis zur 
tnodemen Ethik (Gottingen, 1892); Die systematic 
sxhen Ptintipien in der Theologie des Johann Musdus 
(Halle, 1897); Dai Dogma vnd seine Beurteilung in 
der neveren Dogmengescliiehte (Berlin, 1898) ; Einleit- 
ttng in die Ethik (2 vols., Leipsic, 1901-02); Der 
Gedankengang der Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1902); 
lulliers Olteste ethische Dispvtotionen (1904) ; Heits- 
btdeutungdesGeseUes (1904); Was ist schriftgemiisst 
(1904); Theologische AufsOtze (1905); and Da» 
Frdmmiqkettsidcal der modemen Theologie (1907). 

STANISLAUS, stOn'is-les: Thenameof twosaints. 

1 . Bishop of Cracow, and patron-saint of Poland ; 
b. near Cracow (210 m. n.e. of Vienna) July 28, 
1030; d. there May 8. 1079. After studying canon- 
ical law at Gnesen and Paris be entered the clerical 
profession at Cracow. He was a stern ascetic, dis- 
tributed his patrimony amongst the poor, anil boldly 
denounced the cruelty and licentiousness of Boleslas 
II., king of Poland, whom he finally nMttnuj- 
Cated. In revenge, the king murdered Stanislaus 
while he was celebrating mass near Cracow. Mir- 
acles are ascribed to the bishop before and after his 
death. In 1253 Innocent IV. canonized him. Many 
altars and churches were built to his memory in 
Poland. Hia day is May 7. 

S. Jesuit; b. at Kostcou (50 m. c. of Breslau, 
Germany), Poland, Oct. 20, 1550; d. in Rome Aug. 
15, 1568. In his fourteenth year he went to Vienna 
where he was an ohject of admiration because of his 
exemplary life and his remarkable progress in stud- 
ies; he bid there a vision of two angels and the Vir- 
gin Mary, who urged him to become a Jesuit; after 
Seeking admission to the order at Vienna, which was 
refused on account of his father's aversion to the step, 
he finally went to Rome, where he was admit ted Oct . 
28, 1567. He predicted the day of his death, and on 
account of bis severe ascetic practises was beatified 
bv Clement X., 1670, and canonized by Benedict 
Xffl, 1728. His day is Nov. 13. 

BiiutmBAprn : On 1: The Vita by Johimnea Longinua 
(Dlugoeeh) with other matter snd commentary i* in ASH, 
Mar.ii. 198-Z80. Other account* an J details an i:. HOB, 
Bail*., xxii (1802). S04-517. A Carmen SapphieHm in 
vitam olorvniiixBimi martyrix SlanilAai. by P. Callimachufl. 
in printed at Cracow in 1611. Consult further: R. 
Roepcll. Oaehwhlt Polrm, i. 100 «iq.. Hamburg. LB40; 
H. Zewberg, Die potnitdte Gtiehiilitaelireibuno da Mittrl- 
oUn. pp. 71. 82-00. 266-263, Leipsie, 1873. On 2; The 
Ftloby ITrhsii'. l>.;,l.lijii i.eivr.n in Analrrla BoUandiana, 
ix (ISOO), 360-378, xi (1802). 416-467, with abundant 

England; b. at Alderley Rectory (32 m. e.s.e. of 
Liverpool) in Cheshire, Dec. 13, 1815; d. at London 
July 18, 1881. He was the grandson of Thomas 
Stanley, sixth baron of Alderley Park, and the son of 
Edward Stanley, bishop of Norwich. At Rugby 
(1829-341 he became attached by an idea! friend- 
ship to Thomas Arnold (q.v.), attended by an ad- 
miration and affection which served to shape the 

motives and activities of all his life. He entered 
Baliol College, Oxford, 1834; became a fellow of 
University College, 1838; and was ordained, 1839. 
In 1840-41, he made the first of many journeys 
abroad, his interest in foreign lands being en- 
tirely historical, while he was indifferent to sce- 
nery. He became college tutor at Oxford, lS-l,'t-.">l ; 
and select preacher there, 1846-47. Ttifm iHpniWIHWi. 
Sermons on the Apostolic Age (Oxford, 1847), 
marked a crisis in his career, at a point of transition 
between the old and the new at Oxford. They 
showed a divergence from the views of both ec- 
clesiastical parties; acknowledged obligations to 
Arnold and German theology, and demanded nwo 
inquiry in the matter of Biblical study. Stanley was 
appointed secretary of the Oxford University I om- 
mission, 1850, the report of which was mainly his 
work; and canon of Canterbury, 1851. A journey 
to the Holy Land and Egypt in 1852 resulted in the 
publication of Sinai and Palestine (London, 1850). 
Memorials of Canterbury (1855) exhibits the develop- 
ment of his for (■ocleHLiMical landmarks, and 
illustrates his gifts for dramatic, pictorial narrative. 
He was professor of ecclesiastical history at Oxford, 
1856-64, to which was attached a canonry ot Christ 
Church, in which he was installed, 1858. At the 
same lime he was appointed examining chaplain to 
Archibald Camplx-H Tail (q v.), then bishop of Lon- 
don. To this period belong Three Introductory Lec- 
tures on the Study of Ecclesiastical History (Oxford, 
1857); Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church 
(London. 1861); and Lectures on the History of the 
Jewish Church (3 vols., 1863-76). 

Through the lecture-room, pulpit, and in social 
life he exercised a remarkable influence over the 
young men at the university, but he was not an 
intellectual leader among his elder colleagues. He 
eschewed party spirit, and his sense of justice and 
championship of freedom led him to defend J. W. 
Colenso, although regretting his work {The Penta- 
teueh, London, 1862 sqti.) ; and, likewise, in the con- 
troversy caused by the Essays and Reviews (1860), 
while disapproving of some of the essays, he pleaded 
against the unfairness of indiscriminate censure. 
His courage to battle against inert cmTlniilHi Imn 
and his moderately stated consideration (if all sides 
of a problem, secured him, as champion of liberal 
ideas, a growing support from men of the press, 
science, and society as a whole. 

In 1864 he was installed dean of Westminster, a 
position which he made conspicuous until his death. 
A year before, he was married to Lady Augusta 
Bruce, daughter of the fifth earl of Elgin and 
friend of the queen, and hie married life was re- 
markably filled with happiness, so that when his 
wife died in 1876, he was deeply affected and did 
not long survive her. In 1862 he accompanied the 
Prince of Wales to the East. These events issued 
in unrivalled opportunities, so that by the further 
extension of political, literary, scientific, and ec- 
elesiast.ical connections, facilitated by his charac- 
teristic savoir-faire and his brilliant social relations, 
he obtained that extraordinary influence which, 
for more than a decade, made him one of the most 
prominent figures in the English capital, West- 
minster Abbey afforded the material embodiment 



oF his catholic ideal of a national church, reconciling 
-under the spell of its vast and silent historical per- 
spective every variety of creed and promotive 
activity. He endeared its historical memories and 
lessons to the people by the work Memorials of 
Westminster Abbey (London, 1868); enhanced the 
attractiveness of its worship for throngs representing 
sill classes, placing his pulpit at the disposal of clergy- 
men of every shade of opinion and of laymen, and 
admitting even Unitarians to the communion. 
At certain hours he conducted parties through the 
aisles of the sacred edifice, communicating his rich 
treasures of information as well as his enthusiasm. 
He wove the charm of his personality about the high 
and the low, gathering even the poor, sick, and 
disconsolate from the most wretched quarters of the 
city in the garden festivals of the deanery. 

On account of the character of his personal in- 
fluence the leadership of the Broad-church party 
devolved upon him unsought. He published ad- 
dresses and brochures on the most important relig- 
ious and social questions of the day; showed his in- 
terest in the Old Catholics (1872); favored a move- 
ment for the reunion of the Anglican and Oriental 
Churches; and used his influence for the return of 
the dissenters into the State Church. In his Biblical 
and historical methods Stanley was the grateful 
pupil of Arnold, to whom he erected a glorious 
monument of loyalty, The Life and Correspondence 
of Thomas Arnold (London, 1844), a work that as- 
sured him his position at Oxford and in the world of 
letters. His friends admit that his Biblical work was 
neither profound nor exact; but he won the soul of 
the people as the interpreter of the great rector of 
Rugby. In the depreciation of d«;jiin, however, he 
opposed Arnold, and he was also governed thereby 
in his ecclesiastical principle. The Church, being 
rational, may not close her doors to any member of 
the nation, and must represent all views ami aspira- 
tions of the nation. His time he regarded as a period 
of transition. The first task of the modem theo- 
logian, as he conceived it, is the study of the Bible 
for the sake of its content. The Biblical scholar must 
subordinate all the immaterial, temporal, and 
secondary to the essential and supernatural ele- 
ments. He represented as a churchman a broad 
catholic tolerance, emphasizing the character of the 
formulae of the Anglican Church assumed to be 
universal and mediating. He was enthusiastic in 
the recognition of the truth that binds all Christian 
bodies. He advocated the union of Church and 
State more and more positively. This he under- 
stood to subsist (1) in the recognition and promotion 
of religious faith in the community on the part of 
the State, and (2) the subjection of religion thus 
formulated to the control and conduct of the 
Church at large by the authority of law. With such 
views he was at variance with both of the great 
church parties. From the evangelicals he was 
estranged by his contempt of dogma, by his 
views on Biblical criticism, inspiration, justifica- 
tion, and the punishments of hell, and by toler- 
ation of ideas svi'll-nifli Human Catholic. From 
the High-churchmen he differed on fundamental 
principles, disagreeing essentially even where there 
waa formal accord on outward doctrine and practise. 

The extravagances of ritual, such as vestments, in- 
cense, and the posture of head and hands, he treated 
with amused contempt. By the combination oft 
pious interpretation with an honest truth-searching 
criticism, Stanley was the sagacious and inspiring 
advance combatant of a new order of Biblical and 
historical study. He visited the United States in 
1878, and, as a result, there was published Ad- 
dresses and Sermons Delivered in tlie United Stales 
and Canada (New York, 1879). Other works are a 
commentary on the epistles to the Corinthians (2 
vols., London, 1855); Questions of Church and 
State (1870); Lectures on the History of the Church 
of Scotland (1872); Addresses Delivered at St. 
Andrews (1877); and Christian Institutions (1881; 
new ed., 1906). 

Bibuoqiufbt: Tbo indispensable works ore: H. E. Pn> 
tharo, Life and Correspondence of Dean Stanley, 2 Tola* 
London. 1893, new ed., 1909; idem. Letter* and Verm of 
Dan Stanley, lb. 1896. Consult further: J. G. Hogen, 
Anglican Church Portraile, Edinburgh. 187S; G. G. Brad- 
ley, Recollections of A. P. Stanley, London nod New York, 
1832; A. J, C. Hare. Biographical Sketches, London. 1S95; 
F. Locker-Lampoon. My Confidences, ib. 1806: E. Abbott 
and L. Campbell. Benjamin JotwU, 3 vols., ib. 18S7-W: 
Julio Wedgwood, Nineteenth Century Tcachm, ib. 1909; 
DNB, hV. 44-4S. 

land; b. at Victoria, Hong-Kong, June 1, 1846. 
He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge 
(B.A., 1870; M.A., 1873), and was ordered deacon 
in 1872 and ordained priest in 1874. Since 1872 he 
has been fellow of his college, of which he was junior 
dean (1874-76), senior dean (1870-84), and tutor 
(1884-89), and divinity lecturer (1882-89). Since 
1889 he has been Ely professor of divinity in Cam- 
bridge University and canon of Ely. He was uni- 
versity extension lecturer in IMiiJ, select preacher at 
Cambridge in 1874-78 and at Oxford in 1896-88, 
Hulsean lecturer in 1879, Cambridge Whitehall 
preacher in 1880-82, and examining chaplain to 
the bishop of Ely from 1875 to 1905. He has writ- 
ten The Jewish and the Christian Messiah (Lon- 
don, 1887); The Place of Authority in Matters of 
Religious Belief (1891); and The Gospels as Histori- 
cal Documents, parte 1 and 2 (Cambridge, 1903-09). 

STAFFER, shtap'fer: The name of a distinguished 
family of Bernese theologians. 

1. Johann Friedrich Stopfer: The best-known 
of the elder generation; b. at Brugg (17 m. n.w. of 
Zurich) 1708; d. at Diessbach (a village near Thun, 
16 m. s.s.e. of Bern) 1775. After studying at Bern 
anil Marburg and traveling in Holland, he was 
military chaplain in 1738—10 and private tutor at 
Diessbach in 1740-50, while from the latter year 
until his death he was pastor at Dieasbacb, declining 
no less than four calls to Marburg. His first great 
work was bis Institutiones theological poiemica uni- 
versal (5 vols., Zurich, 1743-17), followed by his 
Grundlegung zur wahren Religion (12 vols., 1746-53). 
The latter work, which was mainly dogmatic in 
character (the Institutiones being largely symbolic), 
was supplemented by the much inferior SittenUhre 
(6 vols., 1757-66} and was abridged by the author in 
two volumes (1754). His theological position was 
one of orthodox rationalism of the mild Reformed 


9. Johannes Siapfer: Brother of the preceding; 
b. at Bragg 1719; d. at Bern 1801. He was pastor 
<rf Aarburg, and in 1756 he was appointed professor 
of dogmatic theology at Bern, where he was pro- 
fessor of didactic theology from 1776 until his re- 
tirement from active life in 1796. He was a popu- 
lar preacher, and his sermons were collected in 
•even volumes (Bern, 1762-1806). He collaborated 
in the revision of the Bern Psalmenbuch and wrote 
Thmtlogia analytica (Bern, 1763), a systematic 
presentation of the chief tenets of faith. 

8. Daniel Stapfer: Brother of the preceding. 
After being pastor at Murten, he was called, in 
1766, U> the cathedral in Bern, and attained the 
reputation of being one of the best pulpit orators 
of bis time. 

4. Philipp Albert Stapfer: Elder son of the pre- 
ceding and the most distinguished of the family; 
b. at Bern Sept. 23, 1766; d. at Paris Mar. 27, 1840. 
He was educated at Bern and GOttingen, and then 
visited London and Paris, being in the latter city 
during the early part of the French Revolution. 
Returning to Bern, he was appointed, in 1791, 
deputy professor to Johannes Stapfer (see above), 
likewise being a teacher of languages at the acad- 
emy. On bis uncle's resignation in 1796 he 
wis made his successor. The events connected 

lrith the overthrow of the old Sua-.- fonfi'i lent ion. 
however, entirely changed the course of Stapler's 
life, who, being in sympathy with the new govern- 
ment, was sent on an embassy to Paris, in 1798. 
While there, he was appointed by the Helvetic 
i)u*ctory minister of sciences, arts, buildings, bridges, 
Mid streets, a position which he accepted after some 
hesitation. Here he rendered valuable service in 
stemming the tide of irreligion then prevalent in 
Switierland, and accomplished still more tangible 
results in the organization of schools and charities. 
In 1 900-03 he was ambassador to Paris, but on the 
till of the Helvetic Republic in the latter year be 
retired to private life. In 1806 he removed to 
Fnw«, where the remainder of his life, except for 
les and less frequent visits to Switzerland, was 
P«aed, his residence at first being Belair, near Paris, 
fd liter Talcy, near Mer. During these latter years 
he worked quietly but effectually in behalf of French 
Protestantism, upon which, while himself Incoming 
steadily more orthodox, he brought to bear the in- 
fluence of German theology; nor should his labors 
m all philanthropic causes be forgotten. Among 
his works mention maybe made of his De philosophin 
Samtk (Bern, 1786); Einige Bemerkungtn fiber 
d"i Ziutand der Religion und Hirer Diener in Hcl- 
*™m (1800); and Melanges phQosophiques, lit- 
•wuirei, hiitoriquet el religieux (2 vols., Paris, 1844; 
MMsinB a biography by Vinet). 

!■ Friedricb Stapfer: Younger brother of the 
feeding; d. at Meikirch (a village near Aarberg, 
12 i m. Q.w. of Bern) 1840. In the early years of 
tteHelvetie Republic he was assistant to his brother 
"t the University of Bern, where he was appointed 
Professor of didactic theology in 1801. Being tm- 
WtMsgfnl as a teacher, he became, in 1805, pastor 
tt Keabach, near Thun, but in 1818 was recalled 
to Bern as professor of Biblical studies. On the 
*"tary of the Liberals and the reorganization of the 


university in 1833 he again resigned, spending 
the remainder of his life as pastor at Meikirch. 
(W. Hadorn.) 

Bulioorapst: C. Msusel. Kirddichtt Handlmhm, part 
55, pp. 301-382, Loipsio. n.d.; H. J. Leu, AUaemeina Hrl- 
urtHcAa . . . Latum, *vii. 513 sew., supplement v. 005 
aciq., 20 vols., Zurich. 1747-85; ADB, mi. 450 aqq.; 
R. Liunnbikhl, Ph. Alb. Stopfer, Ba..,-]. 1»7 l.mrmn'ilil 
ed. in Quetien dtr tchwcUrriKhcn Gttchichlc, xi.-.iii. uml ;,., 
ArcMt do hulorindun Vtrein. Barn, vol. xiii.. the lorre- 
■pondeucB of Philipp Albert Stapfer. 

STAPFER, EDMOND LOUIS: French Protestant; 
b. at Paris Sept. 7, 1844; d. at Paris Dec. 13, VMS. 
He was educated at the Lycee Bonaparte, Paris, ami 
the theological faculty of Montauban (1864-48), 
and also studied at the universities of Tubingen and 
Halle (1869-70). He was pastor of the Reformed 
church in Tours (1870-76); was raaitre de confe- 
rence in llie Protestant theological faculty at Paris 
(1S77-LM}); professor of New-Testa me nt exegesis in 
the same faculty (1890-1906) of which he was 
dean (1901-06). In addition to making a French 
transition of the New Testament (Paris, 1889), he 
wrote Jtsus de Nazareth el le developpemcnt de sa 
penaie par lui mime (1872); Lee Idtes religieuses 
en Palestine au temps de Ji&us-Christ (1876); Lc 
Palestine au temps de Jfaus-Christ (1884; Eng. 
transl. by A. H. Holmden, Palestine in the Time 
of Christ, London, 1886); Le Chateau de Laley 
(1888); Jisus-Chrisl, aa personne, son autoritf (.'( 
vols., 1895-98; Eng. transl. by Mrs. L. S. Houghton, 
3 vols., New York, 1896-98); La Mart tt la resur- 
rection de Jt'#i:s~Christ ( I Nits ); a volume of sermons 
(1904); and De Vital aeluel da protestantisme en 
France (Paris, 1908). 

STAPHYLUS, shtu-foi'lus, FRTEDRICH: Lu- 
theran theologian, subsequently Roman Catholic 
polemist; b. at Osnabriick (70 m. w. of Hanover) 
Aug. 27, 1512; d. at Munich Mar. 5, 1564. He 
studied at the University of Cracow, and later at 
Padua. About 1533 he returned to Danzig, but in 
1536 went to Wittenberg where he remained about 
ten years. In 1541, at the recommendation of 
M.'l mi hllion, he became private tutor of Count 
Ludwig of Eberstein and Neugarten. In 1545 he 
itccepiod a call from Duke Albrecht of Prussia to 
the newly founded university of Konigsberg. In 
the very beginning he involved himself in a con- 
troversy willi ' luli.lmn- I i 1 1 : i j . 1 1 1  i n .-, i Ki ill "is ins, q.v.), 
who as a teacher and lecturer of the y was 
accused by Stanliylus of leaning toward Anabaptist 
views; by continual ailacli.- Siaplsylus finally drove 
Gnapheus away. After the resignation of (icon; S.;i- 
binus (Aug,, 1547), Siaphylus became rector of the 
university, but as such did not justify the hopes of 
the duke and of his friends at Wittenberg; in 1548 
he gave up his theological lectures anil served the 
duke as councilor. In the controversy with Osian- 
der he still represented the Lutheran position, but 
the general instability caused by continual dog- 
matic dissensions induced him to adhere more 
closely to the dogmatic consensus of the Roman 
Catholic Church and in this way he gradually ar- 
rived at an un- Evangelical conception of tradition 
which aftflrhis removal to Danzig in Aug.. 1551, led 
him to oppose the Protestant norm of the perspicuity 



of Scripture and to advocate the authentic interpre- 
tation of the Church. The decisive step was taken 
by him at Breslau, whither he had gone from Dan- 
zig, where, during a severe illness toward the end of 
1552, he received the Lord's Supper after the 
Roman rite and confirmed his rehabilitation as a 
Roman Catholic by confession. He then removed 
to Neisse, the seat of Bishop Promnitz, in whose 
service he erected a school and was active in other 
directions. Hand in hand with Canisius, he aided in 
the restoration of Roman Catholicism in Austria and 
Bavaria. Being elected superintendent of the Uni- 
versity of Ingolstadt toward the end of 1 560, he under- 
took a reformation of that demoralized institution. 
He hailed the idea of a general council, but thought 
that it should be preceded by negotiations between 
the emperor and the Protestants in order to win 
their consent. A great advantage, according to him, 
could be derived from the inner discord of the Prot- 
estants. In 1562 Emperor Ferdinand requested 
Staphylus to extract from the opinions of different 
theologians a definite statement of what in the name 
of the emperor should be presented to the council as 
a program of reform. It appeared as Consultatio 
imperatoris Ferdinandi I. iussu instituta de attic, ref. 
in Cane. Trident, prop. Staphylus published also: 
Synodus sanctorum patrum antiquorum contra nova 
dogmata Andrea Osiandri (Nuremberg, 1553); 
Theologian Martini Lutheri trimembris epitome (1558) ; 
Scriptum coUoquentium August. Conf. . . . cum 
oppositis annotationibus (1558); Historia et apologia 
. . . de dissolutions coUoquii nuper Wormatice in- 
stituti (NissD, 1558). In these polemical works 
against the Protestants he criticized especially the 
idolatry of Luther and opposed to Protestant sub- 
jectivism the objective norms of tradition and the 
consensus of the Church. His last work was, Vom 
letzten und grossen AbfaU, so vor der Zukunft des 
Antichrist geschehen soil (Ingolstadt, 1565). By 
AbfaU, " apostasy/' he meant Lutheranism. 


Bibliography: His Opera were digested into a single vol- 
ume, Ingolstadt, 1613, and selections are in Q. T. Strobel. 
MisceUaneen literarischen Inhalts, i. 219 sqq., ii. 225 sqq., 
6 vols., Nuremberg, 1778-82, and in J. G. Schellhora, 
Amatnitates histories ecclesiastical et literarics, i. 611 sqq., ii. 
664 sqq., 2 vols., Erfurt, 1737-40, as well as in the same 
author's Ergotzlichkeiten, ii. 136 sqq., 337 sqq., 469 sqq., 
Ulm, 1763. Sources are the sketch by his son in the Opera, 
ut sup.; that by Strobel, Miscellaneen, ut sup., i. 3-4; 
C. Hartknoch, Preussischen Kirchen-Historia, pp. 295 sqq., 
Frankfort, 1686. Consult further: C. A. Salig. Vollstand- 
ige Historie der atiosburgischen Konfession, ii. 902 sqq., 
3 vols., Halle, 1730-35; M. Toppen, Die GrVndung der 
Universitat zu Ktinigsberg, passim, Kdnigsberg, 1844; W. 
Mdller, Andreas Osiander, 309 sqq., et passim, Elberfeld, 
1870; P. Tschackert, Urkundenbuch zur Reformations- 
Oeschichte des Herzogtums Preussen, i. 294 sqq., and vol. 
iii., Leipsic, 1890; ADB, xxxv. 457 sqq. 

psychology of religion; b. at Bridgeport, Ind., 
Feb. 20, 1866. He received his education at In- 
diana University (B.A., 1890), Harvard University 
(M.A., 1895), and Clark University (Ph.D., 1897); 
was professor of mathematics in Vincennes Uni- 
versity, Ind., 1891-93; assistant professor of edu- 
cation in Leland Stanford Jr. University, CaL, 1897- 
1903; professor of education in Earlham College, 
Ind., 1904-06; and of philosophy in the State Uni- 

versity of Iowa since 1906. His interest for theol- 
ogy lies in his contributions to the psychology of 
religion, among which may be noted: PsychoLogj 
of Religion (London and New York, 1899; Germ, 
transl., Leipsic, 1909); a series of studies on "The 
Child Mind and Child Religion " in The Btoicd 
World, Jan., 1907-08; and on, " Reinforcement to 
the Pulpit from Modern Psychology " in The Horn- 
letic Review, 1907-09. His theological position is 
that of monistic idealism. 

man author; b. at Hildesheim (18 m. s.e. of Han- 
over) Oct. 10, 1680; d. at Frankfort^m-the-Miin 
July 17, 1756. While at the University of Gieaea 
he was greatly influenced by the hours of devotion. 
After being preacher at the home of the poor and 
orphans at Frankfort, he became deacon of the Ger- 
man church at Geneva, 1709-1 1 ; pastor at Sachsen- 
hausen 1715, and at Frankfort, 1723; and member 
of the consistory 1742. Starck represented a mild, 
practical Pietism after the model of Spener, and his 
career of thirty years at Frankfort was marked by 
private meetings for devotion after the Sunday 
afternoon services, interest in maintaining the 
sacred observance of the Sabbath, the seeking of 
souls, and personal charity. He exerted a far- 
reaching influence by his numerous devotional 
writings. His principal work, which made hia a 
household name in all Evangelical Germany, is Tty- 
liches Handbuch in guten und bdsen Tagen (4 parts, 
Frankfort, 1727; 6 parts, 1731; latest ed., 1907; 
Eng. transl., Daily Handbook, Philadelphia, no date). 
The work is composed of long prayers, introduced by 
a brief instruction based on a passage of Scripture to> 
induce a devout attitude on the subject of the peti- 
tion. The prayer is followed by a hymn written by 
Starck. Some of his sermons were published as 
Sonn- und Feettags-Andachten Ober die Evangelic* 
(Reutlingen, 1854); the same Ober die EpMn 
(Stuttgart, 1845; Nuremberg, 1881). He was the 
author also of GUldnes Schatek&sUein (Frankfort, 
1857). (Hermann Beck.) 

Bibliography: The current editions of the Handbuch con- 
tain a sketch. The fundamental source is the account 
furnished by himself in E. F. Neubauer's Nackrichtm to* 
den jeUtlebenden Theologen, ii. 884-898, Zullichau. 1764. 
Consult further: J. M. H. Ddring, Die geUkrten Theologen 
Deutschlands, iv. 307-311, Neustadt, 1835; E. E. Koch* 
Oeschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesanges, iv. 643- 
549, Stuttgart, 1876; C. Oroase, Die alien TrdsUr, pp. 
335-370, Hermannsburg, 1900. 

STARKE, shtor'ke, CHRISTOPH: German exe- 
gete; b. at Freienwalde (33 m. n.e. of Berlin) Mar. 
21, 1684; d. at Driesen (64 m. n.e. of Frankfort) Dec. 
12, 1744. He studied at Halle, coming under the 
influence of Spener and Breithaupt (qq.v.); became 
pastor and teacher at Nennhausen near Rathenow, 
1709; first preacher and military chaplain at Driesen, 
in 1737, where the rest of his life was passed. He 
wrote in German a well-known theological-homileti- 
cal commentary upon the Bible under the Latin 
title Synopsis Bibliotheca exegeUcce in V. et N. 
Testamentatum (9 vols., Leipsic, 1733-41). The 
parts on the Psalms, the writings attributed to 
Solomon, and the major prophets were contributed 
by his son, Johann Georg. See Bibles, Annotated, 
I., 5 5. 





I. In the Old Testament. 

Gcneval Conceptions in the Old Testament (| 1). 
Fixed 8ta»; Constellations (f 2). 
Significance of Stan for Hebrews (f 3). 
Hebrew Star-Worship (f 4). 
H. Star-Deities. 

General Aspects of Star-Worship (| 1). 
In Babylonia (f 2). 
In Egypt (| 3). 
China and Japan (| 4). 

L In the Old Testament: In the general mention 
of stars in the Bible nothing unusual appears. Men 
of their innumerability (Gen. xv. 5), bril- 
(Dan. zii. 3), lordship (Wisdom vii. 29), and 
height above the earth (Isa. xiv. 13); 
x. General stars also figure in dream (Gen. xxxvii. 
Conceptions 9) and prophecy (Num. xxiv. 17). Of 
in the a scientific knowledge of the stars there 
Old are no traces in the Old Testament, 
Testament though Wisdom vii. 19 attributes to 
Solomon knowledge of the position of 
the stars during the course of the year; nevertheless 
ekse observation of the heavens by the Hebrews is 
to be assumed, especially in connection with the 
seasons and agriculture by way of observing the 
days when certain constellations either disappeared 
or appeared in connection with the sun. Of course 
the Hebrews observed the changing course of the 
planets, though this does not receive specific men- 
tion; Jude 13 probably refers to comets. Two planets 
receive specific mention, Saturn (see Remphan) and 
Venus. The latter appears in II Peter i. 19 as the 
announcer of the coming day, Christ appears Rev. 
xxii. 16 as " the bright and morning star/' and re- 
ceiTes (Rev. ii. 28) the morning star (i.e., its bril- 
liancy) as the prize of victory, while the high priest, 
Simon, is compared with the morning star (Ecclus. 
L 6). Venus is the symbol of a brilliant humanity 
(ha. xiv. 12), where the Hebrew held (or helal) is 
probably the morning star. Indeed it may also 
mean the moon, since its derivation from the verb 
toW, " to give light," might give rise to designation 
of either, but the waning moon only is visible in 
the morning. 

fixed stars appear to be mentioned in Amos v. 
8 (the Pleiades); Isa. xiii. 10, where the English 
"constellations " adequately represents the Hebrew 
"Orions "; Job he. 9, the Bear or Arcturus, Orion, 
the Pleiades, and " the chambers of the south "; 
Job xzxviii. 31-32, the Pleiades, Orion, the signs of 
the Zodiac, and Arcturus or the Bear, 
a. Fixed Two pairs of Hebrew words occur, kesU 
Stars: and kimah, of which the first probably 
Consteua- is Orion and the second the Pleiades; to 
tions. this as the meaning of kesil the Septua- 
gint testifies, as well as the Syriac and 
the Targum. The Hebrews saw in the constellation 
of Orion a human form, a giant chained to the 
heavens, and post-Biblical tradition called him 
Nimrod. The Septuagint also testifies to the Pleiades 
as the rendering of kimah. Bar Ali (Gesenius, The- 
savrus, p. 665) confirms this, though he points out 
other meanings for the word and many Syrians un- 
derstood by it Arcturus. The Talmud's use sLows 
that kimah is not to be understood of a single star 
(cf. Job xzxviii. 31), and the conception seems fre- 

quent that the Pleiades were bound together by 
bonds, and were spoken of as a rosette or a nose- 
gay, while the Talmud (in Berachoih 58b) speaks of 
the Pleiades as of 100 stars. Stern has supposed 
that kimah is Sirius, i.e., that the stars of Job ix.' 9 
are all in the same declination of the heavens. In 
that case, since kesil is surely Orion, the other names 
in the passage designate Sirius, the Hyades, and the 
Pleiades. Hoffmann, who in general agrees with 
Stern, then makes the " sweet influences " (Job 
xxxviii. 31) refer to the overflow of the Nile, pre- 
ceded by the early rising of Sirius. But this must 
be rejected as impossible; no Hebrew could have 
understood " canst thou bind the refreshings of 
Sirius? " This and like interpretations are shattered 
on the imperative conclusion that kimah must mean 
a group of stars. The Arabic equivalent of this 
word means " heaps "; the Assyrian cognate kimtu 
is used for " family." Many, with the Syriac ver- 
sion, find mention of Orion and the Pleiades in Job 
xv. 27b, but this must be rejected. In Job ix. 9 
and xxxviii. 32 there is mention of a constellation 
— Hebrew l ash or 'ayw^, Syriac Hyuiha, Septuagint 
Hesperos, Vulgate Vesper — which is definitely iden- 
tified either as the Hyades or as the chief star there- 
in, Aldebaran, and this is confirmed by the Talmud 
{Berachoih, 58b), although the latter would also lead 
to an identification with Aries. The identification 
of this with the Great Bear, attempted by some, has 
practically no support. The " chambers of the 
south " of Job ix. 9 is probably to be explained by 
the many bright stars in Argo, the Cross, and the 
Centaur visible on the southern horizon in the regal 
period of Hebrew history, out of which, however, 
definite figures had not been made. The Hebrew 
mazzaroth of Job xxxviii. 32 is probably a scribal 
error for the mazzaloth of II Kings xxiii. 5, though 
it may represent a different pronunciation of the 
same word. It is of Assyrian origin, and denotes 
" position," i.e., of astral deities, and then the dei- 
ties themselves. The passage in Job is best explained 
by thinking of the zodiacal constellations, that in 
Kings by the planets in general; the rendering 
" Hyades " offered by Stern and Hoffmann does not 
recommend itself, nor does the Syriac rendering 
" Great Bear." 

The Hebrews had no clear notion of the nature of 
the stars; in Gen. i. 16 they are called " lights " set 
by God in the heavens, only in poetic literature do 
they appear as living beings. But that to them was 
ascribed a causal relation in connection 
3. Signifi- with the course of nature as they arose 
cance of or set may be plausibly suspected. It 
Stars for was a fast assumption that God was 
Hebrews, their creator (Gen. i. 14-18; Ps. viii. 
3-4), that he appointed for them their 
rigidly appointed courses (Jer. xxxi. 35), and that 
they are in subjection to him (Isa. xl. 26). Expres- 
sions like that in the last-cited passage to the effect 
that God calls them by name do not imply that 
they were conceived as living beings, while Job 
xxxviii. 7 is only a literary figure, as is that in 
Judges v. 20; Isa. xxiv. 21, " the host of the high 
ones," has nothing to do with the stars, as there is 
no connection immediately between verses 22 and 
23 (see Sabaotb). Prophetic declarations of par- 



ticipation of the heavenly bodies in the events of 
great world crises is also poetic diction or expres- 
sions which deal with fateful appearances in the 
heavens (e.g., Joel ii. 10). With the significance of 
the constellations men did not so concern themselves 
that there resulted a science of the stars in Israel; 
the references in the Old Testament to an art or 
science of this sort imply such among the Babyloni- 
ans, however (Isa. xlvii. 13; Dan. v. 11), though 
in the last passage Daniel appears as leader among 
readers of the stars, and this shows that among the 
Jews of the author's times some had taken up a 
profession which they plied till the Middle Ages. 
This art of astrology flourished in Babylon, Egypt, 
Rome, during the Middle Ages in Christian circles, 
and especially among the Arabs. It was denounced 
by Cicero, Tacitus, and the Christian Fathers, yet 
flourished not only among the ignorant but even 
among the better informed. An event in the 
heavens contemporary with some mundane happen- 
ing was related to the latter as cause, in the general 
ignorance of the course of nature. Hence astrology 
was by pious people not regarded as opposed to 
true faith in God, while it was considered also that 
the signs read in the heavens were given by God 
himself and so astrology was discriminated from 
Sorcery (q.v.). 

The star of the Magi (Matt, ii.) was probably a 
conjunction, in the sign of the fish, of Jupiter and 
Saturn in the year of Rome 747, a coincidence 
which Abarbanel states was regarded by Jewish 
astrologers as an indication of the Messiah. Cal- 
culations of the appearance of definite 
4. Hebrew constellations for certain countries 
Star- were made by the Babylonians. In an 

Worship, assumed significance of the stars is one 
root of star-worship, though the two 
developed very differently. Even in Babylonia there 
was great difference between the mythological and 
the astrological significance of the stars. But star- 
worship is an old heirloom of the Semites, found 
among all branches. Especially was this developed 
in Babylonia, where the entire pantheon had rela- 
tion to the stare; and this suggests that the Su- 
merian religion, adopted by the Semites, was largely 
astral, though perhaps the Semites had already de- 
veloped it. It does not follow that with the Semites 
star- worship was the original form of their religion; 
even the Babylonians, whose deities were so closely 
related with the stars, knew that the gods and the 
stars were different beings. Nothing proves that 
the Yahweh religion of Israel had anything to do 
with worship of the stars. The Astarte and Baal 
worship apart, star-worship comes in during the late 
regal period. The cults which Amos denounced 
were idolatries of his period, not Mosaic in deriva- 
tion. Before him there is no trace of this worship 
in Israel, and to this refer such passages as II Kings 
xxi. 3, 5, and the prohibition of Deut. iv. 19, xvii. 
2-3. In Judah Manasseh probably introduced the 
cult, and Josiah attempted to destroy it (II Kings 
xxiii. 4-5) though it arose again (Jer. vii. 18, xix. 13). 

(W. Lorz.) 

IL Star-Deities: Actual adoration of the stars as 
such is not so easily established as common opinion 
would lead one to suppose, though that it took place 

is hardly open to question. The basis of this cult 
was primarily the animistic conception of stars as 

living beings due to the fact of their ap- 

x. General parent motion, combined later with the 

Aspects of assumption that they influenced the af- 

Star- f aire of earth. Thus Cicero (De natura 

Worship, deorum) testifies to the existence of 

a belief in the divinity of the con- 
stellations. The accounts in classical mythology 
and poetry of the origin of constellations and stars, 
such as the story of the Pleiades or of Cassiopeia, are 
not to be mistaken for worship; they are merely the 
exercise of a rude philosophy attempting to account 
for origins or of the pleasing fancy of the poetic im- 
agination. The comparative insignificance of star- 
worship is easily accounted for by the vast number 
of the stars, which made individualization (one of 
the first steps to worship) difficult except in the case 
of the planets which, by their motion, seemed to em- 
phasize their several degrees of importance, and of 
a few fixed stars whose superior brilliance marked 
them out or whose position made them remarkable, 
such as Sinus and the North Star. 

What closely resembled star-worship and perhaps 
involved it existed in Babylonia. Indeed the ideo- 
graph for star is the sign of deity thrice repeated 
(of. P. Jensen, Kosmologie der Babylonter, pp. 43- 

44, Strasburg, 1890). In the Marduk 

2. In Baby- cycle of myths that deity is said to have 

Ionia. set the courses of the planets and to 

have assigned guardianship of them to 
certain deities (cf. translation of part of a tablet 
accessible in DB, i. 191). Thus he himself assumed 
as his charge Jupiter, gave Venus to Iahtar (Ishtar 
was also associated with Sirius), Saturn to Ninib, 
Mars to Nergal, and Mercury to Nebo. These deities, 
possibly as representative of the planets, are charac- 
teristically pictured as riding on certain animals, 
some of them mythological, and in this form received 
homage (such a representation is easily accessible in 
A. Jeremias, Dae alte Testament im Lichte dee alien 
Orients, fig. 5, p. 11, Leipsic, 1906). This order of 
assignment was not universal in Babylonia, since 
both Nergal and Kaiwan are known to have been 
associated with Saturn, and Ninib and Nergal with 
Mars, while a deity Gud-bir had Jupiter. Marduk, 
Ninib, and Nergal, with Shamash, are in another re- 
lation regarded as representing the sun and con- 
trolling it at critical points of its diurnal and annual 
motions. Similarly, and perhaps consequently, Jupi- 
ter, Mars, Mercury, and Saturn took the same prom- 
inence in their nightly places as the sun in its corre- 
sponding positions, and were compared with that 
body in its relative importance. The Pleiades (Sir 
bitti, " the Seven ") were worshiped in Babylonia, 
and the name occurs in incantation texts as that 
of a group of demons (Schrader, KAT, pp. 413, 
459), possibly represented in Canaan by Beer- 
sheba; in this case the word is wrongly etymolo- 
gized as " well of swearing " (Gen. xxi. 30, xxxi. 
33). The sun, moon, and Venus were thought of 
as in control of the zodiacal signs, and so of all the 
influences that effect on the earth increase and 
decay, light and darkness, cold and heat, life and 
In Egypt star-worship was, in historical times, 




not that of the star itself but of the divinity con- 
ceived as animating it. That this is a developed 
conception is at once evident, and points to the 
earlier belief in the life and divinity of 
3. In the heavenly body itself. The fact of 
Egypt a certain type of star-worship is estab- 
lished by the figuring of the deities of 
Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Mars, and Venus as 
mounted on their boats (this fixes their divine char- 
acter, as it is the Egyptian method of representing 
the journeyings of the gods and corresponds to the 
Babylonian method referred to above, where deities 
are riding various animals), and making their prog- 
1 reas under the guidance of Orion and Sinus (E. Le- 
f ebure, Les Hypogees royaux de Thebes, part 4, plate 
i xxxvi., Paris, 1886). So there was a Sothis or Isis- 
[ 8othis, the deity of Sirius or the Dog Star. But the 
[ notice of such divinities is rare, and invocation of 
\ them is not frequent. 

■r In China among the objects of imperial worship 
I at the capital are the Pleiades, the five planets, and 

the constellations, as well as the starry 
4. China heavens as a whole. The high cere- 
tnd Japan, monies of this worship take place at 
the winter solstice at the Temple of 
Heaven situated in the southern part of the Chinese 
city of Peking. There are tablets to the souls of these 
bodies, as well as to the sun and the moon, which 
last are included in the worship. In the common 
or popular religion these bodies have either a far 
lea prominent place or none at all, though certain 
heavenly bodies which superstition connects with 
wind and rain receive special attention. These 
bodies are supposed to be the agents of the Yin and 
the Yang, the male and female elements of the uni- 
verse. The star-cult in Japan, so far as early testi- 
mony (the Nihongi) is concerned, is confined to the 
star-deity Amatsu mike hoshi (" dread star of 
heaven ") or Ame no Kagase wo (" scarecrow male 
of heaven "), a malignant god who was vanquished 
in the cosmic battle between forces malign and be- 
njgn (for control of man), and to Vega and the 
North Star, whose worship came from China (W. Q. 
Aston, Shinto, p. 142, London and New York, 1905). 
Hie worship of the malign deity was probably avert- 
ive. Similarly in India the worship of Saturn is 
that of a malignant and dreaded deity, who is pro- 
pitiated by sacrifice. 

The indications of star-worship among primitive 
peoples are elusive and unsatisfactory, and the most 
that can be said with certainty is that much of the 
material is rather that of folk-lore and mythol- 
ogy than of ritual. Yet it may be noted, for exam- 
ple, that the Berbers offer worship to Venus, the 
Pleiades, Orion, the Great Bear, and the Little Bear. 
For some details of folk-lore, cf . J. G. Frazer, Golden 
Bough, ii. 19 sqq. (London, 1900). 

Geo. W. Gilmore. 

Bibliography: J. G. Rohde, V or such uber das Alter des 
Tia kr e ti e s und den Ursprung der Sternbilder, Breslau, 
1809; M. A. Stem, in ZeUschrift fur Wissenschaft und 
Leben dee Judentums, iii (1864-65), 258-276; E. von 
Btmsen, Einheit der Religion, Berlin, 1870; idem, Die 
PUjaden und der Tierkreie, ib. 1879; G. Hoffmann, in 
ZATW, iii (1883), 107-110; C. Ploix, La Nature dee dieux, 
Paris, 1888; P. Jensen, Kosmologie der Babylonier, Stras- 
burg, 1890; R. H. Allen, Star-Names and Their Mean- 
was, New York, 1899; R. Brown, Researches into the 

Origin of the Primitive Constellations of the Greeks, Phoeni- 
cians, and Babylonians, 2 vols., London, 1900; C. Thom- 
son, Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh 
and Babylon, London, 1900; F. Hommel, Der Geetirn- 
dienst der alien Araber und die altisraeUHsche Ueberliefer* 
ung, Munich, 1901 ; L. Frobenius, Das Zeitalter des Sonnen- 
gottes, vol. i., Berlin, 1904; G. Schiaparelli, Astronomy in the 
Old Testament, chaps, iii.-v., London, 1905; A. Jeremias, 
Das alte Testament im Lichte des alien Orients, 2d ed., Leipsic, 
1906; idem, DasAlUrderbabylonischenAstronomie, Leipsic, 
1908; F. Wilke, Die astralmythologische Weltanschauung 
und das Alte Testament, Lichterfelde, 1907; H. Grimme, 
Das israelitische Pfingstfest und der Plejadenkult, Pader- 
born, 1907; Schrader, KAT, pp. 620 sqq.; Smith, Sem- 
ites, passim; Bensinger, Archdologie, pp. 159, 165-166, 
186, 391, et passim; DB, i. 191-194, iv. 613; EB, iii. 
3354-57, iv. 4779-86; JE, xi. 527-528. For details of 
worship in separate countries recourse must be had to the 
literature under the articles on Arabia, Assyria, Baby- 
lonia, China, India, and the like, and to some extent to 
that under Compabativb Rbuoion. 

STATION: A word having several significations 
in liturgical and historical theology. 

1. Stations as Fasts: Fasting was a practise of 
the early Christians derived from Judaism, which ob- 
served Monday and Thursday (cf. Luke xvii. 12). 
With the early Christians these days were super- 
seded by Wednesday and Friday. In the time of 
Hennas (III., v. 1) these fasts were already 
known as " stations/' being compared with the 
sentry duty of soldiers (cf. Paul's frequent use of 
military metaphors and similes; Tertullian, " On 
fasting/' xiv.; " On prayer," xix.; Eng. transl., 
ANF, iv. 112, iii. 687). At first optional and not a 
precept, the observance of stations became obliga- 
tory in the pontificate of Innocent I. (402-417). 
" The two stational days were also marked by meet- 
ings for worship. But these were held in different 
manners in different localities. In some places the 
liturgy, properly so called, was used; that is, the 
Eucharist was celebrated. This was the custom in 
Africa at the time of Tertullian, and at Jerusalem 
toward the end of the fourth century. In the 
Church of Alexandria, on the other hand, the sta- 
tion did not include the liturgy " (L. Duchesne, 
Christian Worship: its Origin and Evolution, p. 230, 
London, 1904). Duchesne thinks that the usage at 
Rome was like that of Alexandria as described by 
Socrates (Hist eccl., V., xxii.; Eng. transl. in NPNF, 
2 ser., ii. 130-134). It is certain that the mysteries 
were not celebrated on Fridays either at Alexandria 
or at Rome. Nothing is known of the Wednesday 
service, and it was abandoned in the West, a fact 
which scandalized the Greek Church and became 
one of its grievances against the Latin Church. 

The observance of stations is clearly indicated in 
the Gregorian Sacramentary . " The place of the sta- 
tion is always expressly indicated, unless the name 
of the saint alone is sufficient to designate the 
Church at which the festival was held. For in- 
stance, it was not deemed necessary to say where the 
station was on the days of St. Marcellus, St. Agnes, 
St. Sylvester, etc. But for the days of Lent, for the 
festival of the Holy Innocents, and for that of St. 
Felix of Nola, the Church is indicated. There are 
sometimes even two indications, when the station 
is preceded by a general procession. In that 
case the Church is denoted from which the proces- 
sion starts, and that also wherein Mass is celebrated. 
Similar indications are given when there are several 




stations on the same day, or several stopping-places 
in a procession, as, for instance, at the festival of 
Christmas, on the day of the Greater Litany, and at 
Vespers in Easter Week" (Duchesne, ut sup., pp. 
122-123). Liturgical stations for Monday and 
Thursday were instituted later, but the early Church, 
with the exception of Wednesday and Friday, rec- 
ognized no other station except Maundy Thursday. 
Saturday is sometimes erroneously called a station 
day, but the service for that day is really the Easter 
Vigil anticipated. 

2. Stations of the Cross: This practise, familiar 
to every one who enters the Roman Catholic Church, 
is of modern origin. It is said that Alvar of Cordova 
(q.v.), upon returning from Palestine, caused various 
oratories to be constructed in the Convent of St. 
Dominic, forming " stations " where the chief in- 
cidents of the passion were portrayed. The idea 
was no doubt suggested by a reminiscence of the 
crusades, during which period indulgence was 
granted those who in person visited the Holy 
Sepulcher. The Franciscans, who were the eccle- 
siastical custodians of the holy places in Jerusalem, 
borrowed the idea and developed it into the " Road 
of the Cross" (Via cruris) with fourteen distinct 
stations. The practise obtained but slowly in the 
church. It was not until late in the seventeenth 
century that the stations were officially recognized 
by the popes — Innocent XI., 1686; Innocent XIL, 
1694; Benedict XIII., 1726; Clement XIL, 1731. 
Each of the fourteen stations recalls some particular 
incident of the passion, but not all of them are to be 
found recorded in the New Testament, for example 
that which has to do with St. Veronica. Each 
station is marked by a cross which alone secures in- 
dulgence; pictures are not necessary, though they 
are commonly found. The fourteen stations are as 
follows: (1) The judgment of Pilate; (2) the taking 
of the cross; (3) Christ's first fall; (4) Christ's 
meeting with his mother; (5) The bearing of the 
cross by Simon of Cyrene; (6) the wiping of Christ's 
face with a handkerchief by St. Veronica; (7) 
Christ's second fall; (8) Christ's word to the women 
of Jerusalem, " Weep not for me "; (9) Christ's 
third fall ; (10) Christ stripped of his garments ; (11) 
the crucifixion; (12) Christ's death; (13) the de- 
scent from the cross; (14) the burial. An unauthor- 
ized innovation sometimes added is a fifteenth, 
the discovery of the true cross by St. Helena (see 
Cross, Invention op the). 

The stations may be within or without the church 
edifice. The privilege of instituting them pertains 
to the Franciscan Order. Bishops not belonging 
to this order and even simple priests, when duly 
authorized, may, however, establish stations of the 
cross within churches, but not without. 

3. In French Usage: In France, until the recent 
dissolution of the concordat of 1801, the word 
•' station " had a particular application. The 
fifteenth article of the Articles Organiques, of 
eighteenth Germinal, year X (1801), provided that 
" Solemn preachings, called sermons, and those 
known under the name of Stations, at Advent and 
Car&ne shall not be made save by such priests as 
have received special authorization of the Bishop." 

James Westfall Thompson. 

Bibliography: L. Thomaarin, TraUi kietorique et dogmdiym 
eur divert ponU de la discipline de rtgtise, put iL, ch ip. 14 
Paris, 1682-83; Bingham, Orioines, XIII., be 2, TTI^ 
iii.; Duchesne, ut sup.; H. Liemke, Quadragesimal-Fedm 
dor Kirche, Padeibom, 1864; H. Thuratoo, The SUeumej 
the Ctom, their Hist, and Purpose, London, 1906; DCA, i. 

representation of the progress and state of theChurch 
within given periods by the collation and claai- 
fication of religious data. For a long time [in 
Germany] the church registers furnished the prin- 
cipal material for all statistics, and hence it is that 
theologians have taken a prominent part in the 
development of this science. But perceiving that 
private studies in this respect are not sufficient, in 
more recent times the authorities of State and 
Church engage in the periodical publication of 
official tables, thus making possible more accurate 
and complete statistics. In the German Empire 
the quinquennial census includes also ecclesiastical 
data. The state church authorities make a tabu- 
lated report of their districts annually, and these 
are collated by a statistical committee under the 
German Evangelical auspices. These results an 
supplemented by those of societies and private 
labors, and official experts in empire, states, and 
cities, by improved methods, carry them to further 
results and conclusions and combine them with 
those pertaining to other vital interests. Statistical 
year-books appear also in most countries. The In- 
ternational Statistical Institute of London assembles 
every two years a special congress for the mutual 
promotion of statistical labors. The statistics of 
missions provides a comparative survey at the time 
being of Christianity and the non-Christian religions. 
Besides, denominational statistics has at the present 
time obtained a prominent place, not only in de- 
termining the relative losses and gains but also in 
the study of significant problems. Specially valu- 
able are these methods for the unbiased tabulation 
of such items as theological growth and congrega- 
tional offerings. An application to the concrete 
conditions and relations of the church life of the 
present has been made by P. Drews, Evangd&edkt 
Kirchenkunde. This presents, among other results, 
the increase and decrease of communicants in the 
state churches, the ratio of baptisms to births, of 
sacred ceremonies to marriages, of burials to deaths, 
the number of members who vote for the governing 
board of the church, as well as conclusions from the 
numbers of those entering and leaving the churches. 

(F. W. Dibeuus.) 

In the United States of America the decennial 
census now includes materials upon religious de- 
nominations, and under the general law regarding 
the census, dated May 23, 1850, in the censuses 
taken since that year the government has been 
approaching more nearly the idea of completeness. 
The publication of the special report on Religious 
Bodies, 1906, issued by the Department of Com- 
merce and Labor, Bureau of the Census (2 vols., 
Washington, 1910) makes available to the general 
public the latest governmental tabulation of statis- 
tics, and affords a review almost exhaustive of all 
matters which are institutionally connected with 
religious life. Other data (annual) are furnished by 



the handbooks of the various denominations, in 
most cases these being the result of compilation by 
central officers or authorities in each religious body. 
GRUHBACH): First authoress of the German 
Reformation; b. before 1490; d. at Zeilitzheim in 
Lower Franeonia, 1564. She received an unusually 
good education; under Duke Albreeht of Bavaria 
(d. 1506) she became lady-in-waiting to Duchess 
Kunigunde, and probably while at court married 
Friedrich von Grumbaeh of Franconia. She early 
adopted the doctrine of Luther, with whom she was 
on terms of friendship after 1522, and became a 
■ealous student of the Bible. Her first step in 
literary activity was induced by the condemnation 
of Arsacius Seehofer (q.v.). On Sept. 20, 1520, 
on the ground that no one else had protested against 
forcing Seehofer to deny the Gospel, she addressed 
to the rector and University of Ingolstadt a protest, 
which was printed and widely circulated. The 
religious edict of Bavaria of Mar. 5, 1522, against 
all Lutheranism did not change her attitude and 
she declared that " One must bow to authority, 
but concerning the Word of God neither pope, em- 
peror, nor prince has the right to command." When 
ihe continued her literary activity, the authorities 
ol the university would not deign to answer a 
woman, but requested the duke to punish her. 
Chancellor L. von Eck advised to depose her hus- 
band and to send her into exile. Her husband was 
deposed, but no further steps can be proved, while 
tie medieval contempt of woman makes it probable 
thai no further notice was taken of her. Although 
she won ceased to write, she continued to take a 
lively interest in the Reformation and maintained 
ber intercourse with the Reformers. 

(T. Koldk.) 

Bduootupht: G. C Rieger. Lebtn der Araula von Omm- 

*•* Stuttgart, 1787; tr. V. Lipon-sky, Anrula boh Grum- 

kirt, Munich, 1801; H. A. Pistoriuj, Frau Argula run 

Gnmbah unj Or Kampf mil der UmvertWti InaolHodt. 

Hitdtburg, 1845; E. En<telhu.rdt. Aratda von Qrumbach, 

IMfllil Tabta. Nuremberg. I860; C. Pranti, (n AM A, 

III. KUw. vol. ivii.: 8. Rietler. QiKkichte Bayemt, iv. 

Hiqq., Golba. 1899; T. Kolde. iu Beiiraae ear bai/eritehta 

OucMlc, vol. d.. Erlaogen, 1905. 

STAUPITZ, shtou'pitz, JOHAHH VON: Augus- 

tiniin vicar-general and friend of Luther; d. at 

Safrfmrg (156 m. w.s.w. of Vienna) Dec. 28, 1524. 

He came of a noble family, but the earliest certain 

dale in his life is that of his matriculation at Leipsic 

in 14S5 as Johannes Stopilz de Muttorwitz, the hist 

word of this entry appearing to give his biri hpl-ice. 

which may be Motterwitz near Leisnig (25 m. a.e. of 

Leipsic) or Moderwits near Neustadt-on-tho-Orla 

(24 m. s.e. of Weimar). A further notice in the 

university records of Leipsic mentions that Oct. U0. 

1489, N. Stopits, " Master of Arts of Cologne," was 

received into the faculty of arts; if this entry relates 

to the subject of this sketch, it implies a period of 

study at Cologne. In 1497 as master of arts and 

reader in theology he was received into the Augus- 

tinian monastery at Tubingen, where he became 

prior; on Oct. 29, 1498, baccalaureus biblicus, on 

Jan, 10, 1499, sententiarius, proceeding to licentiate 

and doctor in theology in 1510. His maiden essay, 

Decisio question™ de audiencia mis&e in parocJtiali ec- 

clenia dominicis rl /isticin iliebus, appeared at Tub- 
ingen Mar. 30, 1500, and in three subsequent issues 
there was appended a outer helical effort. By 1503 
Staupitz was prior of the monastery at Munich, and 
openly advocated in addre-sos the positions taken 
in his first publication, in the direction of purifica- 
tion of monastic life, but was opposed by the Fran- 
ciscan Kaspar St- ha tzgeyer. He was next called 
by Frederick the Wise to tlic direction of the newly 
founded University of Wittenberg, becaming first 
dean of the theological faculty; and in 1503 he was 
made vicar-general of the Augustine Observanl.Lst 
congregations in Germany. In the latter office his 
first care was the codiliciti i'>n and publication of (lie 
constitution, printing it in 1501. One note in this 
constitution was. the recommendation of Bible study. 
He w-as concerned also for the strengthening and 
spread of the order and for the ran' of the individual 
houses; to the rebuilding of the Wittenberg cloister 
he gave much attention, and received tin-rein Mai tin 
Luther (150S), with whom lie came into contact at 
Erfurt during one of his visitation journeys. Him 
Luther afterward praised as having led him into a 
knowledge of the grace of God, and it was Staupiti 
who incited Luther to aspire to the doctorate in 

Even after Staupitz settled in South Germany, he 
remained in essential concord with Wittenberg. 
An evidence of this is the letter of introduction 
given by Spalatin to .lohann Lang addressed to 
Staupitz. in which the last-named was enthusias- 
tically greeted as a friend of Conrad Mutian and Of 
Rcurlihn (ef. thllert, Der lirirfte-vchsel des ConraduM 
Mutiaaus, i. 170, ii. 151, etc., Halle, 1890). Carl- 

stadt opened his ex pi; lions of Augustine's De 

tpirilu it lilrra (1519) with a preface (dated Nov. 
IS, 1517) in which he spoke of Staupitz as a " pro- 
moter of Bincere theology and a distinguished 
preacher of the grace of Christ " (cf. II. Barge, 
Andrea* Boilcristrin run Curlslnill, i. 90 sqq., )i. 533 
sqq., Leipsic, 1905). Staupitz was often engaged in 
long p 'lirnrys of visitation to ! he religious houses of 
his order — like that of 1514, when he was in the 
Netherlands, and that of the summer of 1510 to the 
Lower Rhine and Belgium. When not on these 
tours of duty, he lived in Munich, Salzburg, and 
especially in Nuremberg, where he was in close 
touch with such men as Christoph Scheurl (q.v.), 
Ilieronymus Holzschuher, Lazarus S[j-nglcr, Wili- 
l>a!d I'irkhcimot' (qq.v.), and Albreehl Dilrer. In- 
deed. Staupitz was universally beloved. Erasmus 
said: "I indeed greatly admire Staupitz" (A. 
Horawitz, Erasmiana, ii. 597, Vienna, 1879). 

Light is thrown upon the relations of Luther and 
Staupitz after 1518 by the researches of P. Kal- 
koff {Forachungen Z't romisrhim Protest, 
pp. 44 sqq., Rome, 1905). Following the direction 
of Leo X., in February of 1 51 S the promagisler of 
the order, Gabriel, notified Staupitz that 
Luther had been denounced to the pope as a heretic 
and urged him to call Luther to account. StaupiW 
notified Luther of the bad impression hi.- teaching 
was making; I he latter on March !>1 replied that the 
charge was unjustified ami declined to alter his be- 
havior. But Luther at Heidelberg set forth hefore 
associates of his order an explanation of his posit ion 



and promised to justify himself to the pope through 
the vicar-general by a detailed exposition of his i 
dulgeaee theses. Thereafter Staupiti was under 
suspicion of the Curia as a follower of Luther. 
StaupiU advised Luther to withdraw to a cloister 
and bo relieve his superiors, spiritual and temporal, 
from the embarrassment he was causing them, and 
later suggested a retirement to the University of 
Paris. His dealing with Luther at this juncture 
whs not that merely of superior officer, but of friend 
and like-minded thinker. He wished also to relieve 
the order from the danger of sharing in Luther's 
fortunes. On Aug. 20, 1520, StaupiU laid aside his 
office as vicar-general. 

The next activity of Staupiti came through a call 
of the cardinal-bishop Matthfius Lang as court 
preacher to Salzburg, but the pope required of him 
a sworn statement of non-participation in Luther's 
articles. Staupitz refused on the ground that he 
would not take back what he had never advanced; 
in this Luther with some right saw a half-lie. In 
order totally to part Staupiti and Luther, Lang 
made Staupiti abbot of the old wealthy Benedictine 
abbey of St. Peter in Saliburg. Staupiti had now 
become frightened because of the new attacks of 
Luther in the matter of monastic vows and the' mar- 
riage of priests, the abolishing of the mass, and the 
exit of monks and nuns from the houses. In his 
office as abbot he devoted himself to religious in- 
struction and the service of souls with a singular 
seal. Two deliverances of Staupiti are of impor- 
tance here. In one, of the year 1523 (printed in 
C. Gartner, StdzburgUrhe gelehrte Unterhandlungen, 
ii. 67-72, Salzburg, 1812), he mildly reproached 
Stephan Agricola (q.v.) for opposing his subjective 
opinion to the decisions of the Church. The second, 
later in the same year, was sharper, and advanced 
the propositi i) ns that heretics must be punished since 
the sheep must be protected from the wolves, that 
the adherents of Luther were by the pope's bulls 
and the emperor's edicts placed in the position of 
heretics, that a single proved point of heresy was 
sufficient to convict, and that Agricola was guilty in 
many points. On Dec. 28 Staupitz had a stroke of 
apoplexy which brought him to his end. 

Of his printed works the following may be named: 
the Decitio qucestionis, ut sup.; Von tier Nach/olg- 
ung det wiliigen Sterbens Christi (Leipsic, 1515); 
Libellus de executions (sterna prosdestinationis (ed. 
Scheurl, Nuremberg, 1517); Von tier Liebe Gottes 
(Leipsic, 1518); and Von dem heiligen ehristlichen 
GUviben (n.p., 1525). (O. Clemen.) 

Bjbuoqrapht: Tbe German writings of Staupiti were ed- 
ited by J. K. P. Knaake, Potsdam, 1H87. A life, using a 
rich fund of new sources sod autiquaUug earlier accounts 
is T. Kolde's Die drutsche Auaustinerkonarfoatum and Jo- 
harm son StaupiU, Goths, 1ST9. For readers of English 
the best consecutive account is in C. VUmuui. Refornert 
before the Reformation, ii. 234-253. Further literature is 
by L. Keller, Die Reformation und die alteren Reformpar- 
tcicn in threat Zusammenhanoe dargettelh, Leipsic, 1885; 
idem. Johann von StaupiU und die Anfnnae der Reforma- 
tion, ib. 1888 (cf. T. Kolde in ZKO, vii., 1885. pp. 428 
sqq.J: A. Ritschl, Die chHMIiche Lthre von dtr Rechtfer- 
tiouno una Veriohnuna, i. 124 sqq.. 3d ed., Bonn, 1886. 
Eng. transl. of earlier ed.. Critical Ilia, of the Christian 
Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation, Edinburgh. 
1872; E. Favre. in Libre Chretien, vi. 17-34. Valuable 
periodical literature is indicated in Richardson, Encyela* 
ptzdia, p. 1041; the reader is also directed to the liten- 

STAVE, std've, ERIE ERIKSOH: Swedish 
Protestant; b. at Gustafs (a village of Dalime) 
June 10, 1857. He wag educated at the UniveniQr 
of Upsala (1880-89), where he became pri vat-decent 
for exegesis in 1889, and was substitute professor is 
the same university for exegesis, dogmatics, sod 
moral theology (1892-99). In 1899 he was ap- 
pointed associate professor of exegesis at Upssli, 
and since the following year has been full professor 
of the same subject. Since 1901 he has been editor 
of the quarterly Bibt&forskaren, and has written On, 
aposteln PauH forhaUande till Jesu historitkt lif od 
idra (Upsala, 1889); Sj6n Qennesar* oth den 
narmaste omgifningar (Stockholm, 1892); Gtnom 
Palestina, Minnen fr&n en rtsa v&rtn 1881 (1893); 
Daniels bok Overtoil och i koHhet fdrklarad (Upstla, 
1894}; Ueber den Einfluss da Parsismus auf dot 
Judenlum (Haarlem, 1898); Bitder Jr&n land&e- 
foUcningene lif i Palestina (Upsala, 1899); Mat 
teus-evangeliet utlagdt /Or bibelldsare (1900); BiUer 
fr&n folkets lif i PaUitina (Stockholm, 1901); On 
Gamla Tesiatneniets messianska profetior (Upssls, 
1903); and Bibliska fbredrag fdr ungdom (1904). 

gregation ali at; b. at Newburyport, Mass., Mar. 
10, 1847; d. at Bangor, He., Feb. 9, 1892. He waa 
graduated from the College of New Jersey, Princeton, 
N. J., 1867; studied at Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, 1869-70; in the universities of Berlin and Leip 
sic, 1870-71; was graduated from Union Theological 
Seminary, New York, 1871-72; was pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church of Norwood, N. J., 1873-76; 
professor of history and belles-lettres, Albion College, 
Albion, Mich., 1876-79; from 1880 professor of sys- 
tematic theology in the Bangor Theological Semi- 
nary. He was the author of Evidence of Christian 
Experience: Ely Lectures for 1890 (New York, 1890) ; 
Henry BnyrUan Smith (1892); and the posthumous 
Preterit-day Theology; with biographical Sketch, by 
0. L. Prmttu (1893), Just before his death he de- 
clined on conscientious grounds a call to the chair 
of systematic theology in Union Theological Semi- 
nary, New York. He was one of the most promising 
of American theologians of his day. 

Baptist; b at Bath, Me., Oct. 20, 1817; d. in New- 
ton Centre, Mass., Apr. 20, 1893. He was graduated 
from Waterville College, Me., 1840, and from New- 
ton Theological Institution, Mass., 1846; was in- 
structor in Hebrew there, 1846-47; pastor at 
Southbridge, Mass., 1847-54; Newark, N. J., 1854- 
1855; Newton Centre, Mass., 1855-68; and from 
1868 was professor of Biblical interpretation of the 
Old Testament in Newton Theological Institution. 
He translated Sartorius' The Perton and Work of 
Christ (Boston, 1848); was author of A Syllabus of 
the Messianic Passages in the Old Testament (1884); 
and Introduction to the Books of the Old Testament; 
with Analytet and Illustrative Literature (1888). 

evangelist; b. at East Carlton, N. Y., Feb. 28, 1S46. 
He was educated at Albion Academy, Albion, N. Y. 


(graduated, 1866), and after studying music in 
Rochester, Chicago, and Boston, was director of 
■Bit in the First Baptist Church, Chicago (1870- 
1874). He then occupied a similar position at the 
Oueodon Street Baptist Church and Tremont 
temple, Boston (1874-76), and was associated with 
D. L. Moody and I. D. Sankey in their evangelistic 
writ (1876-99), touring Great Britain and the 
United States. He likewise spent a winter in India 
in evangelistic work with G. F. Pentecost, and in the 
tone work has made other extensive toure In Egypt, 

C Palestine, and Europe. Since 16S0 he has been con- 
ductor of music at the Northfield Conferences, 
Korthfield, Maas. Besides being one of the editors of 

 ftupd Hymns, nos. *-6, New York, 1877-91 (in 
collaboration with I. D. Sankey and J. McGrann- 
tan), and other popular collections of hymns, he has 
compiled The Northfield Hymnal (1904). 

STOCK, shtec, RUDOLF: Swiss Protestant; Bern Jan. 13, 1842. Be was educated at the 
adversities of his native city, Jena, and Heidelberg, 
ud, titer being pastor at the Reformed Church in 
Dresden (18(17-81), was appointed in 1881 to his 
present position of professor of New-Testament 
eiegesis ut Bem. In theology he belongs to the 
eitreme critical school; he is a member of the 
twins Geschichtsforschende (Sese Use haft. He has 
written Galaterbrief, tiath aeiner Ecbiheil unlerwucht 
(Beriin, 1888) ; Die Pticatorbibel und Hire Einf&hrung 
w Bern im Jahre 1684 (Bem, 1897); Der Berner 
Jitttrprmest, 1507-1509 (1902); Akten des Jetzer- 
proaue* (Basel, 1904; and Die ersten Sriten der 
BiU, Schdp/ung, Paradiet und S&ndenfall, Sint- 
M (Bern, 1909). 

STBDOTGERS, THE: Name of the inhabitants 
ol the lowlands on both banks of the Weser near the 
Haft Sea; they were mostly Frisians who retired 
lo these marshlands from the bishopric of Utrecht 
oi the twelfth century. They acknowledged the 
territorial authority of the archbishops of Hamburg- 
Bremen, but actually lived in independence, with- 
Minding the attacks of the counts of Oldenburg 
and of Archbishop Hartwig II. The struggle was 
resumed, however, with great energy by Gerhard 
11.. one of the most prominent archbishops of 
Bsniliurg-Bremen in the thirteenth century. With 
(be aid of his brother Hermann von der Lippe, he 
gathered an army in order to enforce his tithes and 
humiliate the peasants. On Christmas eve, 1229, 
in a decisive battle the peasants won a brilliant 
victory. In order to avenge the death of his brother 
and crush the Stedingers the archbishop sought the 
aid of the Church. He called a diocesan synod at 
Bremen in 1230, and charged them with heresy and 
contempt of the sacrament. By the bull of Pope 
Gregory IX. (1227—11) a crusade was preached 
against them, in order to carry the synodal judg- 
ment into effect. The bishops of Minden, Ltlbeck, 
and Ratieburg, aided by the mendicant friars of 
North Germany, soon succeeded in gathering nn 
army of crusaders; but the first crusade in the 
winter of 1232-33 failed. The Stedingers advanced 
to Bremen and found an important ally in Otto of 
Laneburg. duke of the Guelphs, The wrath of the 
archbishop was only increased by these misadven- 

tures. The pope now requested still other bishops, 
those of Paderborn, Hildesiieim, Verden, Monster, 
and Osnabruck, to preach the crusade against tin: 
.Stedin<rers. At hi* Mistical ion also I here was made 
a solemn compact between the archbishop and the 
council of Bremen (Mar., 1233) against them. In 
June, 1233, the second crusade was undertaken, 
and firet against the East Stedingers. Hundreds of 
men under arms were slain, the captives burnt as 
heretics; the others, including wives and children, 
were reduced to submission by fire and sword, 
murder, spoliation, and rapine. The West Stediii- 
gers repulsed the hostile attacks, although their 
position Ueame more nnd more desperate owing to 
the reduction of the East Stedingers, the failure of 
exjieeted aid from Fries! a od to arrive, ami the deser- 
tion of their ally. At the same time the number 
of the crusaders was increased by a fresh bull, ad- 
vancing them the same indulgence and privileges 
as those extended to the crusaders to the Holy Land. 
Notwithstanding, I lie third crusade under the leader- 
ship of Count Burchard of Oldenburg ended villi 
a defeat of the crusaders and the death of their 
leader at Treffen. The fanatical preaching of the 
crusade on the part of the Dominicans swept over 
all the low countries, and the revolting tales of heresy 
and superstitious horrors were exaggerated. The 
bull of Gregory authorizing medial ion for peace 
came too late. The fanatic hosts of the counts of 
the broad lowlands, variously estimated from 
10,000 to 40,000, assembled against the 2,000 
Stedingers? The decisive battle took place Sunday, 
before Ascension Day, May 27, 1234. at Altenesch. 
The Stedingers were overwhelmed by numbers; few 
resorted to flight; most of them, including women, 
were slain in battle. A small remnant escaped to 
the Frisians, and others remained, in submission to 
the archbishop. The territory was divided between 
the archbishop and the count of Oldenburg. Six 
months after the battle the pope ordered a rededioa- 
tion of the churches and burial-places, arid in 1235 
the anathema upon the Stedingers was removed. 
In memory of the victory a special festival took 
place annually at Bremen, by order of the arch- 
bishop, on the Saturday before Aseension Day, until 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. On the 
six-hundredth anniversary of the battle, in 1834, 
there was dedicated a monument in honor of the 
heroic peasants. (A. Hadck.) 

Biblioqrapht: Sources for history ire to be found in MGR, 
Script., Ivi m.WJ. M17--.SU, isiii (I.-.7II, -.[, 510, I'll,",, 
xxv (1880). 504. nnd ib. Deultehe Chroniken, ii (1877). 
236 sqq, The surlier accounts lire Buppraeded by H. A. 

SrliumiLrhfT, I>ie \.'..f.M7<r. Ttrt-n I.SIi.v Fur rnmriar- 

boo there cany be ennui died: V W. Schirnn ichor. Ratter 
Fri/drtrh II.. i. 22? s-in., tiflttirixcn. lSS'J; Iv WinJinl- 
msna. GtKhit.hlt Kn,„r Frinlrirl,* I! , ii. 4it7 aqq.. Ber- 
lin, 1863; R. Usinuer. Devticltr-dnn<*r>ir (UirhirMe. m>- 
189 »nq.. ib. 1863: <"",. tknin. fitsthirht* ,<r. EribiHum* 
Bremen- Hamburg, ii. Ilfi sqq.. ib. 1K77; J. 1'i-lt i-n . OV.yi.vr 

STEELE, AHNE: English hymn-writer; b. at 
Brougbton (10 m. w.n.w. of Winchester), England, 
1716; d. there Nov. 11,1778. She was the daughter 
of a Baptist minister. Her personal sufferings are 
reflected in her verse, for she was always an in- 
valid. Her Poems on Subjects chiefly B&vnHonel, 


by Theodosia (2 vols., London, 1760) were reprinted, 
to which was added .1 Third Volume Consisting of 
Mi.~i-fl!,n:enus Pieces in Verse and Prose (Bristol, 
1780), with a biographical preface by Dr. Caleb 
Evans; the profits in each case being devoted to be- 
nevolent uses. The whole were, reissued ul Huston. 
Mass., in two volumes, 1808, and again as Hymns, 
Psnlm.1, uiii! Poems. By A. Slide. With Memoir by J. 
Sheppard (London, 1863). Her hymns, to the num- 
ber of Mxty-tive, witl' included in and I'A'ans's 
Collection, 1769, and were accordant with the best 
taste of that period, and remarkably adapted to 
public worship. Dr. Rippon (1787) used fifty-six of 
them, and Dobell (1806), forty-five. To probably a 
majorily of the hymn-books published in England 
and America she in the largest contributor after 
"Watts, Doddridge, and Charles Wesley. Although 
few of her hymns can be placed in the first rank of 
lyrical composition, they are full of genuine Christian 
feeling and are natural and pleasing. She had more 
elegance than force, and was leas adapted to stand 
the test of time than her masculine rivals, though 
a fragment of her hymn, " Father, whate'er of 
earthly bliss," may last as long as anything of Watts 
or Doddridge. 

Biki.i<»!Iui'by; Besides tho preffttofiid memoira noted in 
the text, consult the treatises oa English Hymns given 
under Htmnoiaqt, ppirtk -.jlnrlv s W. l.iuliicld. pp. 638- 
538 ct passim, and Julian, Dictionary, pp. 1080-00; also 
DNB, liv. 128-129. 

STEELE, DANIEL: Methodist Episcopalian; b. 
at Windham, N. Y., Oct. 5, 1824. He was educated 
at Wesleyan University (A.B., 1848), where he was 
a tutor from IS4S to 1850. Ho then held pastorates 
of his denomination in various cities in Massa- 
chusetts until 13(52, when he was appointed pro- 
fessor in Genesee College, Lima, \. Y., a position 
which he occupied until 1871. In 1872 he was 
elected first president of Syracuse University, while 
from 1884 to 1893, when he retired from active life, 
he was professor in the School of Theology of 
Boston University. He has Written a Commentary 
on Joshua (New York, 1873); Binney's Th:>li"iii-iil 
Compend Improved (1874]; Love Enthroned (1875); 
Miksttmc Papers (1878); Commentary on Leviticus 
and Numbers (1891); Half Hours with St. Paul 
(1895); Defense of Christian Perfection (1896); 
Gospel of the Comforter (Chicago, 1897); Jesus 
Exultant (1899); A Substitute for Holiness, or An- 
iiiiominiiiam Revived (181W); and Half Hours With 
St. John's Epistles (1901). 
STEELE, DAVID: Reformed Presbyterian; b. 

near Londonderry, Ireland. Oct. 20, 1827; d. at 
IMiiladelphia June 15, 1906. He was educated at 
Miami University, Miami, O. (A.B., 1857), where 
he was professor of Greek in 1858-59. He was 
licensed 1o preach in IViSD and ordained the following 
year (1H(>1), after which he was pastor of the Fourth 
Reformed Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, until 
bis death. From 1863 to 1875 he was professor 
of Greek, Hebrew, and pastoral theology in the 
Theolnjiir'd Seminary of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia, and after 1S75 was professor 
of doctrinal theology in the same institution, thus 
filling a pastorate of forty-five years in one church 
and occupying chairs in a single institution for forty- 

three years. From 1867 to 1877 he edited The Re- 
formed Presbyterian Advocate, and published severs! 
sermons and addresses, and a History of the Reformat 
Presbyterian Church in North America (in the Jour- 
nal of the Presbyterian Historical Society, 1898). 

STEENSTRA, sten'strfl. PETER HElfRT: Prot- 
estant Episcopalian ; b. near Franeker, Friesland, 
Holland, Jan. 24, 1833; d. at Robbinston, He., Apt. 
27, 1911. He was educated at Shurtleff College, 
Upper Alton, 111, (A.B., 185S), and entered the Bap- 
tist ministry, but became a Protestant Episcopalian 
in 1864 and was rector of Grace Church, Newton, 
Mass. In 1868 he was appointed professor of He- 
brew anil Old- and New-Testament exegesis in the 
Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge, Mass., and 
was professor of Hebrew literature and interpreta- 
tion of the Old Testament in the same institution, 
1883-1907, when he became emeritus. Besides 
translating are I editing Judges and Ruth in tbe 
American edition of Lange's Commentary (New 
York, 1872), he wrote The Being of God as Unity and 
Trinity (Boston, 1891). 

STEIGER, stai'ger, WILHF.LM: Swiss theo- 
logian; b. at Flawil(15m.w.of St- Gall), Switzer- 
land, Feb. 9, 1809; d. atGenevaJan. 9, 1836. He 
studied theology at Tubingen and Halle, where he 
opposed the rationalistic tendency. Returning to 
Switzerland in 1828, he was ordained at Aarau, and 
corresponded for tbe church periodical of E. W. 
H enisle i] berg at Berlin, whither he repaired, 1829, 
as collaborator. In its columns appeared, anony- 
mously, the noted brochure, Bemerkungcn Hbtr dil 
lu.ilii nrhe Stri.itKiirhe und die Frage ob die ctxingelixh- 
en Regierungen gegen den Rationalism us ritOT- 
sehreitenhaben (Leipsic, 1830). This was followed hj 
his first book, Kritik des Rationalismiis in Wegseheid- 
ers Dogmatik (Berlin, 1830). In BibUcal work he 
wrote an excellent commentary on I Peter (]S3J\ 
and at the same time was called as professor of New- 
Testament exegesis to Geneva. There he began to 
publish with H. A. C. Haevemick (q.v.) a journal, 
Milniii/r* ilr thi'.ologie rtformie (1833-34), and com- 
menced fail commentaries on the Pauline Epistles, 
but on account of his untimely death was able to 
finish only die first volume, on Colussians (Erlangea, 
1835). (K. F. STEWBst) 

Roman Catholic; b. at Amorbach (33 m. s.e. of 
Darmstadt), Bavaria, Apr. 4, 1832. He was edu- 
cated at the University of Wiirzburg (D.D., 1859), 
and was ordained to the priesthood in 1855. After 
being a curate at Holders, Heidingsfeld, and 
Schweinfurt, he was instructor in religion at the 
gymnasium in Wiirzburg 1860-65, and was then 
appointed associate professor of moral theology at 
the university of the same city, where he was full 
professor of moral and pastoral theology in 1871- 
1878 and rector magnificus in 1875-76. In 18781k 
was consecrated bishop of Wuraburg, and in 1897 
wtis enthroned archbishop of Munich and Freising. 
He has written I listoriscli-kriliache DarsteUung if 
/uith/il'iyisrhen Moralprinzipien (Vienna, 1871) and 
Suiitii-'i. fiber die Hesy chasten des viertehnten Jaht- 
hunderts (1874). 


HAMES: Lutheran; b. at Potsdam (17 m. s.w. 
«[ Berlin) Aug. 6, 1873. He received hia education 
at the Boster Gymnasium at Magdeburg, and at 
the universities of Ertangen and Berlin; he was 
thena private tutor at Rome and Potsdam; served 
u inspector and next as assistant preacher at the 
othednu in Berlin; was pastor at Erfurt, 1003-08; 
he then became extraordinary professor of practical 
theology in the University of Greifswald. He has 
published Dot Verhdltnis ran Theotagie und Erkennt- 
TM-Theorieen (Leipaic, 1898); Das gdUliche Selbst- 
hnruntsein Jesu nach dan Zeugnis der Synoptiker. 
Sat Untersuchung zur Christologie (1908); nnd 
Do Konfirmandenunterricht nach Stoffwahl, Charak- 
UriadAufbau (1909). 

STSIKDORFF, stoin'derf, GEORG: Egyptc-1- 
ogist; b. at Oeasau Nov. 12, 1861. He was 
educated at the universities of Berlin and ("iiit linden 
(FkD., 1884), and was in Berlin from 1885 to 1893 
is an assistant at the Royal Museum, being also 
phvit-docent for Egyptology at the university 
in 1890-93. In 1893 he was called to Leipsic as 
associate professor of the same subject, becoming 
honorary professor in 1900 and being appointed 
to his present position of full professor in 1904. He 
hia made extensive travels and excavations in 
Egypt, and in 1904 delivered a course of lectures in 
lie United States under the auspices of the Amer- 
ican Committee for Lectures on the History of Re- 
lipots. Besides editing the German translation 
of G. Maspero's U Archiologie igyptienne (LeipBic, 
1889") ; G. Eber's Aegyplische Studien und Vcrwand- 
tet (SUittgart, 1899) ; Baedeker's Mgypten (Leipsic, 
1901); and Urkumlen des Agyptisehen Altertums 
(1901 sqq.); he has written Koptische Oramma- 
fii (Berlin, 1894); Grab/unde de» miBferen Reich* 
is ieit kiniglichen Museen tu Berlin (2 vols., 1897- 
1801); Die Apokalypee des Elias, eine unbekannie 
Aykalyjm and Bmchstucke der Sophonias-Apoka- 
lff» (Lapse, 1898) ; Die Blutheteit des Pharaonen- 
***** (Bielefeld, 1900); Durch die Hbysche W&ste 
«r Amonsoase (1905); and The Religion of the 
Amnt Egyptians (New York, 1905). He is also 
elilor of the Urkunden des Ogyptischen AUertum* 
(190M8), and of the Zeitsehrift fur agyptisehe 
Spraehe und Altertumskunde (in collaboration with 
A. Ennan). 

ratEDWCH CHRISTOPH: German theologian; 
h. at Owen (18 m. s.e. of Stuttgart) Jan. 16, 1706; 
d_it Weinsberg (27 m. n. of Stuttgart) Feb. 11, 
I'll. After studying theology at Tubingen, he 
^Wd Herrnhut and met Count Zinxendorf (q.v.), 
"'"' secured his appointment as court chaplain to 
* count of Reuss at Ebersdorf. He entered with 
M congregation the fellowship of the Unity of the 
Brethren in 1746, but after two years retired from 
" an d returned to WQrttemberg, where he occupied 
•■fan pastoral fields. Steinhofer had a remark- 
my impressive and pious personality. He be- 
™p*i to the WQrttemberg school of Biblical 
^ogy. His aim was to enrich and deepen the 
"rtstian knowledge of redemption, and his inter- 
action of Scripture was conveyed with a warm 

pietistic spirit. His works I 
Hebrews (Schleiz, 17-13 and 1 7-111). Colossians (Frank- 
fort, 1751), and I John (Tubingen, 1762); Tdgliehe 
Nohrung des Gluitbeni nach den wichtigsten Schrijt- 
stelien aua den Leben Jesu in S3 Reden (1764; re- 
issued, with autobiography, Ludwijisl.mrjr, 1859); 
lit-'iiiiiclincher Glaubensgmnd in Prcdigten fiir alle 
Sonn-, Feet- und Feiertage (1753); Evangelischer 
Glaubensgrund in der heilsamen Erkenntniss der 
Leiden Jesu Christi (Ttibingen, 1759); Chri^tiirhe 
Reden nach den Zeugnissen des Briefs Pauli an die 
Rdmer (1851); Christologie (Nuremberg, 1797); 
and Die Hau&haltung des dreicinigen Gottrs (Til- 
bingen, 1761). (Hermann Beck.) 

BiBLioaiu.pni'; B«Hm thp autobiography ia the Taalwht 

Nahruna. ut eup.. consult; C. Grosafl. £)it alien Tetter, pp. 

4B1-488, Humuumaburg. 1900: A. Kaapp. AltwUrtlm- 

bervitche Charokttrt. Stuttgart. 1S70. 

STEINHUBER, stoin'hu-ber, ANDREAS: Jesuit 
and cardinal; h. at Uttlau (15 m. s.w. of Passau), 
Bavaria, Nov. 11, 1825; d. in Rome Oct. 15, 1807. 
He studied first at Passau, then in the Culhtfl 
i K-rmank'it in Rome (1845-54), fitting himself for 
the priesthood. Having returned to Bavaria he 
was a secular priest, and as such catechist to the 
children of Duke Maximilian. In 1854 he entered 
the Society of Jesus, taught philosophy, then 
theology, in the University of Innsbruck, but from 
18G7 to 1880 was rector of the Collegia Germanica 
in Rome. He then became consultant to tin* Propa- 
ganda and Inquisition. In 1894 Leo XIII. made 
him a cardinal deacon, with the title St. Agatha in 
Suburra; and called him to the prefecture of the 
Index. He exerted great influence during the latter 
part of the pontificate of Leo XIII. nnd under the 
present pope. He was sternly upposfd to the ideas 
t'nTi!] ir-i.-ln/mle'.l under Modernism (q.v.) and Urged 
the pope to issue his encyclical Ptmnniti dominici 
gregis (Sept. 8, 1907) condemnatory of it. His 
principal publication is Geschiehte des Cotb'ghitu 
(irrmicuiruni'lluiigarifum in Pom (2 vols., Freiburg, 


LUDWIG: German Evangelical theologian; b. 
at Beeskow (43 m. s.e. of Berlin) Nov. 15, 1811; 
d. at Berlin Feb. 5, 1900. In 1830 he entered the 
University of Berlin where he came into close per- 
sonal contact with Neandcr and was influenced by 

Sriilci.'nnacher's preaching. In 1835 at the Seminar 
at Wittenberg he was permanently won by Kiihard 
Rothe (q.v.) ; he was assistant preacher in the same 
institution, 1837-M); and in 1840 accepted a cull 
as preacher and teacher to the milidiry :ierideiny in 
Kulm; in 1843 he became preacher in Nowawes, 
a colony of Bohemian weavers near Potsdam. In 
1848 he ent.aUi-lii'd hini~<df jis privnt-doccnt at the 
University of Berlin, and in the following year be- 
came also first preacher of the Charity, the famous 
hospital of Berlin. Here his extraordinary gifts of 
jirviHiin;; shewed t lionise] ve.-. the firs] time, :md a 
select congregation gathered under his pulpit. In 
1852 he was called as professor to Breslau where 
he taught exegesis and dogmatics; in ISM he ac- 
cepted a call to Bonn as professor of practical 
theology and preacher to the university, and in 
1858 removed to Berlin us professor of the New 


Testament and of practical theology and preacher 
to the university. Steinmeyer is important in the 
history of preaching. He ia the representative of a 

strictly synthetic method which stands in closest 
■connection with his ritualistic ideal. Starting from 
the idea of Schleiermacher, he regarded the sermon 
as that part of the divine service the function of 
which is to elevate the devotion of the worshiping 
■congregation to adoration. Of his works may be 
ineni iuned: Beitrage turn SchriftversUlndnis in 
Praligten (4 vols., 2d ed., Berlin 1859-66); Apoto- 
getiache Beitrage (4 vols., 1866-73); Beitrage kit 
praktiscken Theologie (5 vols., 1874-79); BeUrage 
xur Christologie (3 parts, 1880-82); Die Wunder- 
taten des Herrn (1884); Die Parabeln da Herrn 
(1884); Die Rede dee Hem auf dem Berge (1885); 
Das hoheprietterliche Gebet (1886); Beitrage turn 
Verstdndttia dee Johanneischen EvangeHums (8 parts, 
IHwl-SM); Studien uber den Brief dee Paulas an die 
Homer (2 parts, 1894-95). After his death several 
rollt-fi iuTi.H of sermons and his lectures on homiletics 
appeared, ed. Beylttnder (Leipsic, 1901). 

(G. Kawekau.) 

Biauooiunrr: E. Hnupt. in Halle ihu du hast, vol. miii.; 

L. Schultie, in Evanaititche Kwtheweiivne. 1901. PP. 97 

Kin., ami la BioaraphMut Jahrturh, t (1903), 34S sojq.; 

J. Bauer, in Monatueknjt Jur die fcimUicA* Pntrit, 1903, 

5TEITZ, stoits, GEORG EDUARD: German 
tln'(.lni;iiin; b. at Frankfort-on-the-Main July 25, 
1810; d.thereJan. 19, 1879. He studied at Tiibinp- 
en, 1829-31, and at Bonn, 1831-33; taught in his 
native city, 1833-42; was pastor at Sachsenhausen 
and Frankfort, 1842-79, and member of the consis- 
tory from 1873. He wrote Dae rSmiache Buss- 
sakrament (Frankfort, 1854); and Die Privatbeichto 
-urn! Privatabeotulion der lutherischen Kirche ant den 
Quell™ dee XV 7. Jahrhundertsaut Luthers Schriften 
uii'l i!i n allt n Kirclicnordnungen dargestellt (1854). 
(H. Dechent.) 

Brirmerwvan . . . 
t, 1879. 

an; b. at Brimiit[.'hiirr-U<!t. Hanover, Germany, Oct. 
2, 1841. He was educated at Concordin College] 
Fort Wayne, Ind. (A.B., 1862), and Concordia 
Seminary, St. Louis, Mo, (1865); was pastor at St. 
Louis, Mo. nsti.-,-o7), and in DcKnlb County, Ind., 
until IMiill. He has held professorships in North- 
western University, Watertown, Wis. (18G9-74), 
and Concordia College (1874-81), and has been 
professor of theology and German in Capital Uni- 
■versity since 1881. In 1894 he was appointed 
preaidi'iil of the university nnd served until I'.XK), 
and since 1903 lie has been dean of the theological 
Hcminary attached to the same institution. In 
IheolajQI lit' is a very conservative Lutheran. He 
-«:,s editor of the Littheriechr Kirckenzeitung (Co- 
lumbus, O.), from 1881 to 18118, except for a very 
brief in t<- rin i ssi on. nnd has edited the Thcoloqixche 
Zeilblattrr since 1882. He is the author of Kurzge- 
Joules Wdrterbueh cum griechischen Neuen Testa- 
ment (Leipsir, 1880); A Brief Commentary on the 
Four Gosfiels for Study and Devotion (Columbus, 
O., 1891); Annotations on the Ada of the Apostles 

(New York, 1896); The Error of Modern Mitsovi 
(Columbus, 1897); Die Pottoralbriefe Paidi tits- 
seta und erkl&rt (G literal oh, 1899); and a commen- 
tary on Romans (1899). 

STELZLE, stelsle, CHARLES: Presbyterian; 
b. in New York City June 4, 1869. He was educated 
in the public schools of his r n tivecity and at Moody 
Bible Institute, Chicago (1894-95), after baring 
been for many years a machinist. He was then 
pastor of Hope Chapel, Minneapolis, Minn. (1895- 
1897), HopeChapel, New York City (1897-99), tad 
Markham Memorial Church, St. Louis, Ho. (1898- 
1903). Since 1903 he has been superintendent J 
the Presbyterian Department of Church and labor, 
a division of the Home Mission Board. Heorganiied 
the Labor Temple in New York City in 1910. Hea 
also director of the department of Christian sociology 
in the Bible Teachers' Training School, New York 
City. He is widely known as a lecturer and his 
written T'A* Workingman and Social Problems (Bin 
York, 1903); Boys of the Street: Hov> to Win The* 
(1904); Messages to Workingmen (1906); Ckrii- 
tianity's Storm Centre: Study of the Modern Cit} 
(1907); Letter* from a Workingman (1908); Prin- 
ciples of Successful Church Advertising (1909); sad ! 
The Church and Labor (1910). 

STEHHETT, JOSEPH: English hymn-writw; j 
b. at Abingdon (6 m. a. of Oxford), England, 1061; \ 
d. at Knaphill, near Hugheuden (16 m. n.e. d 
Reading), July 11, 1713. He received an excellent 
education at the grammar-school of Wallingfoni; 
settled in London as a schoolmaster in 1685; and 
in 1690 he was ordained pastor of a Baptist coo. 
gregation in Devonshire Square, London, which be 
served till his death. He was the author of .4dtw 
to the Young: or, the Reasonableness and Adws- 
Uiges of an early Conversion to God Demoiattaiti 
(London, 1695); Hymns in Commemoration of ths 
Sufferings of . , . Jesus Christ. Composed /or 
the Celebration of His Holy Supper (1697; 3rd ed., 
with thirteen more hymns, 1709); A Version «/ 
Salomon's Song of Songs, together xoith the XLVA 
Psalm (1700); An Answer to Mr. D. Ruuen's Book 
Entitul'd, " Fundamentals without a Foundation, or, 
a true Picture of the. Anabaptist*" . . . (1704); 
Hymne Composed Jot the Celebration of the Hoty 
Ordinance of Baptism (1712); also there was pub- 
lished The Works of Joseph Stennett . . . .To 
which is prefixed some Account of hie Life (4 vols., 
1731-32). Stennett was the author of the hyuu* 
" Another six days' work is done," which in the 
original had fourteen stanzas. 

Bibliography Besides the account in the Works, ut lup. 
consult: Walter Wilson. Hut. and Antiouilia of fti'mut 
ing Churrhet in London, ii. 592 »qq.. 4 vol*.. London. 
1808-M; 8. W. Dufnclil. EnelM Hymn*, pp. 35-30. N«W 
York, 1888; DNB. liv. 150; Julian. Hymnnioav. p. 10BL, 

STEHHETT, SAMUEL: English hymnist; b. in. 
Eseter, England, 1727; d. in London Aug. 24, 1795. 
In 1748 he became assistant to his father as pastor of 
the Baptist Church in Little Wild Street, London, 
and in 1758 his successor, remaining with the church 
till his death. He was a fine scholar, held a very 
prominent position among the dissenting ministers 
of London, enjoyed the confidence of George HI., 





lad had John Howard for a frequent hearer and an 
attached friend. Stennett's works are: Discourses 
m Personal Religion (2 vols., 1769; 4th ed., Edin- 
burgh, 1891); Remarks on the Christian Minister's 
Reasons for Administering Baptism by Sprinkling or 
r\mring of Water (London, 1772); An Answer to the 
Thristian Minister's Reasons for Baptizing Infants 
[1775); Discourses on the Parable of the Sower (1786). 
Sis works were collected as The Works ofS. Stennett 
. . . With some Account of his Life and Writings by 
W. Jones (3 vols., 1824). His best hymns are " On 
Ionian's stormy banks I stand/' " Majestic sweet- 
ness sits enthroned/' " Tis finished 1 so the Saviour 


Bbuoosapht: Besides the Life in the Works, ut sup., con- 
sult: & W. Duffield, English Hymn*, pp. 443-444, New 
Yodc, 1886; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 1001-02; DNB, liv. 


Stenography in Trials of Christians (f 1). 
Collections for the Acta Martyrum (f 2). 
Use by the Church Fathers (f 3). 
Use in Church Councils (f 4). 
Medieval and Modern Disuse (f 6). 

Notarii or independent (non-official) stenographers 
were accustomed to take down the thrilling words 
spoken by the early Christians in the Roman cata- 
combs or in their examination by the magistrates. 
Unn they performed a great service, for these 
worda, circulating thereafter under cover of secrecy, 
were instrumental toward converting those who were 
not yet Christians, in reviving the courage of the 
faint, and were no less transporting to others who 
| were hazarding their lives that they might publicly 
| fear gome expression of their adopted creeds. 
| Inns it was that Christ's teachings became spread 
to the very ends of the Roman world. Nor was this 
the only service rendered by stenography to the new 
religion- For the Church owes to the shorthand art 
the preservation of the Acts of the Martyrs; both 
those records which have been preserved intact, un- 
der the form of legal examinations concluded by 
t verdict, and other proceedings which for want of 
bong stenographed, or else having been distorted in 
•quel to the loss of the originals, have come down 
fugmented by tradition, and adorned with miracles, 
in the shape of tales and legends. 

The proconsular tribunals had their special re- 
corders, in the guise of stenographers, who were 
brown as exceptores, who belonged to the officium, 
ud reproduced the debates which ran their course 
in their hearing. As officials these are 
i. Sten- to be distinguished from the notarii, 
ogntyhy in who had no such rank. The legal ex- 
Trithof animations, once taken down by the 
Christiana, aid of shorthand notes (in a form of 
syllabic abbreviation), were transcribed 
m fall, handed over to the judge, and included in 
tfe brief of the case at issue. The judicial archives 
{*dmun proconsulis) became the depository of 
these court reports, which formed the official eol- 
ation of the public records (acta publico) to which 
**** is frequent reference by various writers, in- 
jj*hng Eusebius, Cyprian, Apollonius, and Jerome. 
"** acts are precious not only because they give 
the family names and Christian names of the ac- 

cused, together with their qualities; for whether or 
not the judge was acquainted with the party ap- 
pearing before him, he was first expected to take 
official cognizance of his identity; but because they 
furnish certain interesting particulars about the 
future martyr and the proconsul's state of mind. As 
an example use may be made here of the dialogue be- 
tween Tatian Dulas and the Governor Maximus, his 
examiner. Dulas says: " My God is the true God. 
He became man, was crucified, laid in the sepulcher; 
he rose again the third day; he sits at the right hand 
of the Father." Answers the governor: " Wretch, 
thou 8eest plainly thou hast two gods." Dulas: 
" Thou errest in speaking of two gods; for I adore 
the Trinity." Governor: " Thou hast then three? " 
Dulas: " I confess and adore the Trinity. I believe 
in the Father, I confess the Son, and I adore the Holy 
Ghost." Astounded by these replies, to which he 
can ascribe no meaning, Maximus then says to the 
accused: " Try to explain to me how, believing in 
one only God, thou canst yet proclaim three? " The 
record from which this passage is taken is evidently 
authentic; such a series of questions and answers 
could hardly be invented. The Christians would 
then seek to obtain copies of the Acts of the martyrs, 
and had to pay dear for them to the people of the 
officium. " It being of moment," as is stated in the 
Acts of Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, "to col- 
lect the evidence bearing on our brethren's con- 
fession, we have obtained for 200 denarii, from one 
of the recorders named Sabastus, the right to copy 
the Acts." The reading of these copies kindled the 
courage and increased the number of the believers. 
Accordingly the Roman magistrates directed their 
attention to the matter, and measures were more 
than once taken to put an end to these secret com- 
munications. When Vincent of Saragossa was ex- 
amined, it was forbidden to commit the debates or 
proceedings of the case to writing. In the history of 
the martyrdom of Victor the Moor, a pagan magis- 
trate, who distrusted the venality of his agents, took 
pains to insure that the " Acts " of the trial should 
not be distributed, or circulated abroad, "Ano- 
linus, the proconsul, even had all the exceptores 
apprehended who happened to be in the palace, to 
satisfy himself that they were concealing no note, 
no writing. These men swore by the gods and the 
emperor's weal that they would secrete nothing of 
the kind. All the papers were brought forward; 
whereupon Anolinus had them burned in his presence 
by the hands of the executioner. The emperor 
highly approved this measure " (L. P. and E. 
Guenin, Hist, de la stenographic dans VantiquiU et au 
moyen Age, Paris, 1908). 

In the year 92, Clement, bishop of Rome (q.v.), 

ordered a compilation of the first Acts of the martyrs. 

In 237, Bishop Anterus (q.v.) continued the work 

of Clement. He made a careful research of the 

Acts of the martyrs among compila- 

2. Collec- tions of the exceptores and the notarii; 

tions for which he then deposited in the custody 

the Acta of the fourteen churches constituting 
Martyrum. Christian Rome. In a painting of the 
underground cemetery of St. Calixtus, 
Arrenghi reports having seen Bishop Anterus repre- 
sented as being surrounded by notarii, who appear 




to be handing him rolls or volumes carried in baskets. 
Prosecuted by the Prefect Maximus, Anterus paid 
with his life for the zeal he had displayed in collecting 
the materials accumulated for two centuries past by 
the proconsul's exceptores. His successor Fabian 
(q.v.) pursued the work with a new ardor. The 
Liber pontificalis [ed. Mommsen in MGH, Gest. pant. 
Rom., i (1898), 27] mentions that this pope reen- 
forced the seven notarii with seven subdeacons who 
collected the Acts intact and referred them to the 
deacons. He suffered martyrdom in the time of 
Emperor Decius (q.v.). All the bishops of Rome, 
for that matter, have concerned themselves with 
compiling the Acts that were so precious to the 
Christians. In a letter to a bishop of Vienne, 
one of the second-century bishops advises the 
collection thereof with no less care than the 
bones of the victims they describe. The Acts 
of the saints, as ultimately compiled by the Bol- 
landists, form fifty-six huge folios, which were 
published from 1659 to 1794 (see Acta Makttrum; 
Bolland, Jan, Bollandists) . When finally, after 
300 years of struggle, the Christians witnessed Con- 
stantino adopting Christianity and abjuring the old 
gods whom his defeated rival had invoked in vain, 
the Church in triumph had then another part to 
play; from a persecuted Church there arose a dom- 
inating Church, and the great men placed at its 
head assured to it the supremacy over civil society 
and over the emperors themselves. 

Christianity owed too much to the spoken word 
and its inseparable adjunct, stenography, not to 
continue employing these two very powerful ele- 
ments of touching the masses with practical effect; 
and the notarii, whose function has been shown as 
it existed at the outset of the struggle between the 
Church and the Empire, still potently aided the 
Christian orators in spreading their 
3. Use by doctrine. In particular, the Fathers 
the Church of the Church had stenographers in 
Fathers, their service, and in the most varied 
conditions [cf. Jerome's chance re- 
mark in Epist., cxvii., Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., 
vi. 220: " my volubility has baffled the expedi- 
ents of shorthand "]; while other notarii, freely 
practising their profession, took down the sermons 
of the Fathers in churches, and sold the copies to 
the wealthy among the faithful who were prevented 
by the condition of their health or other causes from 
coming to hear the sacred word. These great orators 
were not wont to elaborate their works at leisure; 
their discourses were nearly always improvised, 
being homilies pronounced in the church before the 
people; and later these discourses, being collected 
together by the notarii, became books. They thus 
belong to the history of Christian preaching, and 
exhibit its primitive model. A text selected from 
the Bible and commented upon, such is the origin of 
all the pulpit literature of Christianity; while the 
constant themes of these informal efforts were the 
contempt of riches, charity in all its forms, the fear 
of the Lord, the practise of household virtues (see 
Preaching, History of). The pagan rhetoricians 
both shunned and disdained improvising. They 
would have refused to speak at length, without long 
preparation, before emperors and the great of this 

world. On the contrary, among the Christian 
orators, the speaker would have blushed to prepare, 
to refine in advance, the phrases of a homily. A 
Father of the Church entered the pulpit with the 
Gospel or the Old Testament, read a verse therefrom, 
and spoke as his heart and his thought inspired him. 
The notarii, taking down his words, reproduced them 
and spread them abroad to the four winds of heaven. 
Moreover, where would the Christian orator have 
found time to elaborate and polish his discourse!? 
The bishops had not only to speak, as rhetoricians 
might, but they were obliged to baptize, instruct, 
administer the Church, govern the same, contend far 
its interests against princes or magistrates, against 
other and opposing churches; they had the poor 
and captive to look after, and, in critical hours, to 
bear all the burden of persecutions. By this very 
activity, this affluence of speaking and action alike, 
these men carried the palm over the rhetoricians. 
While the latter, devoid of convictions, were shutting 
themselves up in their schools, and laboriously 
fashioning their periods, the often unpolished, hot 
ever living, word of Christian priests was despoiling 
them of the world. 

To stenography, then, and to it alone, is owing 
the enormous bulk of materials, of so much use for 
the history of the Church, and, consequently, for the 
history of society, which antiquity has bequeathed 
us in this department of preaching and spoken dis- 
course. One may mention Tertullian (Opera, Paris, 
1641), Cyprian (Opera, ed. Baluze, Paris, 1726), 
Athanasius, whose " Discourses against the Gen- 
tiles/' " Letters to the Bishops," " Apology against 
the Allans," " Exposition of the Faith," " life of St 
Anthony," and other works, fill four folio volumes 
(Padua, 1778), Origen, the most prolific of either 
sacred or profane writers, who had with him seven 
notarii, writing incessantly under his dictation, be- 
sides the skilled young girls who assisted him as copy- 
ists. This was the Origen of whom Jerome could say 
in his letter to Paula, " Who has ever managed to 
read all that he has written? " (Letter xxix. of the 
Benedictine edition, no. xxxiii. in MPL, xxiL, cf. 
ANF, vi. 46); and in fact, even the slight portion 
of his works transmitted to modern times fills no 
less than fifteen octavo volumes (Wunsburg, 1780- 
1794). One may adduce still further Ambrose, who 
dictated to his stenographers day and night; and 
the works of Basil, which are contained in three 
folio volumes (Paris, 1721-30); two folio volumes 
are to be credited to Gregory Nazianzen (Benedic- 
tine edition, Paris, 1768-1840); thirteen folios to 
John Chrysostom (Benedictine edition, Paris 1718- 
1738); five huge folios to Jerome (Benedictine 
edition, Paris, 1696-1706), the sole remains of the 
6,000 " volumes " which this great orator is sup- 
posed to have dictated according to Isidore of 
Seville (the word volume in this connection is to be 
taken in the sense of its antique use, whereby, for 
instance, each book of the JEneid, or of the works 
of Homer, formed a volume). The writings of 
Jerome afford an interesting study from the pro- 
fessional standpoint. They discover an intensity 
of animation that strikes all who have read them. 
Everywhere is perceived the man of utterance 
whose soul is diffused through his words aglow. 




He style is incorrect; certain expressions appear 
jtauge; the farm sometimes astonishes, yet all to 
id purpose; for, to counterbalance this, everything 
fc alive with intense animation, and all because 
rf "writer's cramp/' which compelled dictation; 
fat of this surely Jerome had no good reason to 
ff»pl"n, if it hindered him from writing himself. 
The fact is, while he improvised and dictated, his 
thought, flowing from his lips, was taken down by 
tkenotarii and immediately " translated " to their 
notes, or from them; and yielded a work for im- 
■ortaKty. As touching Augustine, eleven folio voi- 
re (Benedictine edition, Paris, 1679-1700) are 
aessary for accommodating that part of his works 
vtich has been transmitted, so voluble was he. 

Thus, not one author of antiquity, not Aristotle 
or even Cicero (though he, too, was indebted im- 
mensely to stenography), has left a bulk of docu- 
ments to be compared with what is supplied by 
most of the Church Fathers; leaving out of account 
the appreciable qualification that what the years 
have spared constitutes but a very scanty portion of 
those full tides of eloquence once " taken down " by 
the stenographers on their waxen tablets. (On the 
tablets cf. the work of Gue*nin, ut sup., and La Revue 
k tinograpkie franfaise, June, 1906.) 

To the shorthand art, those who concern them- 
selves with the history of the Church are still further 
indebted for documents of another class. The de- 
bates of most of the councils and synods, and, in 
particular, those of the Synod of 
4* Use in Carthage in the year 411 (on the 
Church synod of Carthage cf. L. P. and E. 
Councils. Guenin, ut sup.; L. P. Guenin, in the 
Proces verbaux of the 8th Inter- 
national Congress of Stenography at Brussels, 
1005; and the Revue de sUnographie fran^oise, May 
and September, 1906) were preserved by stenog- 
raphy. The synod of St. Basil, so called because in 
the basilica by that name near Reims, which con- 
vened on June 17, 991, and pronounced the depo- 
sition of Arnulf , archbishop of Reims, was one of the 
last, if not the last, whose proceedings were thus 
taken down. The stenographer, in this instance, 
vis Gerbert, who became pope under the name of 
8yhester IT. (q.v.). 

Along with the Latin language, the shorthand 
notes, or a system of syllabic writing once applied to 
ktin, become swamped in the medieval darkness 
(cf. E. Guenin, Les Notes Hroniennee et la eUnogra- 
pte tyQabique latine, Paris, 1909); nor does the 
"borth&Dd art make its appearance again until a 
long while afterward, and then it was 
S Media- based upon wholly different principles, 
ill and Neither, in modern times, in France 
Nbdern at least, does the Church account sten- 
Wtuse. ography to be so much as a very useful 
aid, — not to say an indispensable ad- 
junct. Among preachers, there are some who write 
ttair sermons and recite them; others, distrusting, 
doubtless, their oratorical talent and maybe, too, 
*k drill of stenographers, try to avoid the repro- 
duction of what they utter. So in 1851 there was a 
fanal protest against such reports of their discourses 
Bftde by such eminent preachers as Lacordaire and 
De Ravignan: " More than ever do we see the 

spread of enterprises aiming, as they directly an- 
nounce, to publish verbatim issues of sermons, lec- 
tures, instructions, delivered in the churches of 
Paris by the most celebrated preachers; and this 
against the express wish of these preachers, against 
their incontestable rights, and to the prejudice of 
the dignity and liberty of the sacred Word. Con- 
sequently, the priests undersigned, who more than 
others have had to suffer from this lamentable in- 
dustry, avow that not only are they averse to these 
reproductions, but that the same are generally in- 
exact, marred, and even so deformed as to com- 
promise, in outward opinion, the purity of their 
orthodoxy and, to that extent, the authority of their 
mission. They declare, besides, that there has even 
been abuse of their names under cover of attributing 
to them entire discourses which they had not de- 
livered, but which were the work of others, or had 
been drawn from works already printed. 

" Independently of this declaration, which they be- 
lieve it their duty to render public at once, the priests 
undersigned reserve to themselves the right to bring 
lawful action against the authors of these counter- 
feit©, and to have recourse to that ecclesiastical 
authority upon which devolves the punitive control 
of churches; with reference to the stoppage of these 
unworthy abuses." E. GuAnin. 

Considering the amount of writing which the or- 
dfcary preacher has to produce during the year it 
is remarkable that so few employ any of the numer- 
ous systems of short writing which are now pub- 
lished. Many of these are very easily acquired and 
well adapted to his purpose. Shorthand is more in 
use in Great Britain than in America, and still more 
so in Germany. In America shorthand is rarely 
practised by preachers, but not a few in cities dic- 
tate their correspondence and their sermons to 
professional stenographers. But in the eighteenth 
century the non-conformist clergy made extensive 
use of the systems which had been evolved from the 
primitive system called Characterie, invented by 
Timothy Bright, a clergyman of the Church of 
England, and published in 1588. The best known 
of the numerous writers of modifications of Bright 's 
system is Philip Doddridge (q.v.), who not only 
himself wrote Rich's system (1699) but made its 
learning obligatory on all the students of his acad- 
emy (C. Stanford, Philip Doddridge, p. 78, New 
York, 1881). 

Bibliography: J. Westby-Gibson, The Bibliography of 
Shorthand, London, 1887; F. Fauvel-Gouraud, Practical 
Coemophonography, pp. 31 sqq., New York, 1850; R. 
Fischer, Die Stenographic nach Oeachichte, Weaen und 
Bedeutung, Leipsic, 1860; M. Levy, Hist, of Shorthand 
Writing, London, 1862; T. Anderson, Hiet. of Shorthand, 
London, 1882; I. Pitman, Hut. of Shorthand, London, 
1884; H. Moser, Allgemeinc Oeachichte der Stenographic 
vol. i., Leipsic, 1889; M. GiUbauer, Die drei Syateme der 
griechiachen Tachygraphie, Vienna, 1894; K. Faulmann, 
Oeachichte und Litterotur der Stenographic, Vienna, 1895; 
J. W. Zeibig, Oeachichte und Literotur der Geachvdnd- 
echreibkunat, new ed., Dresden, 1899; A. Cappelli, Lexi- 
con abbrevioturarum qua in lapidibus, codidbus et chartia 
praaertim medii-avi occurrunt, Milan, 1899, Germ, transl., 
Leipsic, 1901; F. W. G. Fort, " On Old Greek Tachy- 
graphy." in Journal of Hellenic Studies, aori (1901), 238- 
267 (provides very full bibliography); A. Meister, Grund- 
rise der Qeschichtswiseenachaft, chap, x., Anhang 1. pp. 
124-127, Leipsic, 1906 sqq.; idem, Die Qeheimechrift im 
Dienete der papttlichen Kurie, Paderbom, 1906; A. Mentx, 





Oeechichie und Syeteme der griechiachen Tachygraphie, 
Berlin, 1007. 

GRAMMONT. See Grammont, Obdeb of. 


Lutheran, and originator of the congregation which 
became the nucleus of the Lutheran Missouri Synod; 
b. at Stramberg (130 m. n.e. of Vienna), Moravia, 
Aug. 13, 1777; d. in Randolph County, Illinois, Feb. 
21, 1846. He was of humble parentage, and became 
an apprentice to a weaver. In 1798 he went to 
Breslau, where he soon became intimate with piet- 
istic circles, and entered the gymnasium. From 
1804 to 1809 he studied theology at Halle and Leip- 
sic in a narrow way, but not without energy; and in 
1810 was called to a church in Haber, Bohemia, 
then was appointed pastor of the congregation of 
Bohemian exiles in Dresden. He was -a Lutheran 
of the strictest type, and his success as a preacher 
and an organizer was extraordinary. Though he 
severed his connection with the Moravian Brethren, 
and though the revival movement he started 
bore a decidedly separatists character, his con- 
gregation grew rapidly, and gifted and serious 
men became devoted to him. He maintained 
stations all through the valley of the Mulde, sent 
out young missionaries whom he had educated, and 
found followers even in Wurttemberg and Baden. 
The separatistic tendency, however, of his work, alH 
perhaps, also, the very success of his labor, brought 
him into conflict with the regular clergy of Dresden; 
and certain peculiarities in his personal habits and in 
his arrangements finally brought him into collision 
with the police, and he was suspended from the 
ministry in 1837. In the spring of 1838 the congre- 
gation for which he originally had been appointed 
pastor formally brought accusation against him, 
and in the fall he secretly left the city for Bremen, 
where he was joined by no less than seven hundred 
followers; and at the head of this congregation, 
" the Stephanists," he sailed for America on Nov. 
18. Though his early ministerial life had been 
brilliant and remarkable, uncommendable qualities 
now became apparent that cast a blemish upon his 
early success and character. Before the vessel ar- 
rived at New Orleans, he had himself elected bishop 
and made master of the emigration-fund; and at St. 
Louis, where the colony stopped for two months, he 
gave himself up to a life of pleasure. A tract of land 
was finally bought at Wittenberg, Perry County, 
Mo. ; and in Apr., 1839, the larger portion of the con- 
gregation, and the bishop, removed thither. Hardly 
one month elapsed, however, before new accusa- 
tions came from Dresden, and, as the statements 
made were found to be correct, he was deprived of 
his dignity and excommunicated. But the congre- 
gation, after passing through various vicissitudes 
and troubles, prospered, and became the nucleus of 
the " Missouri " type of High-church Lutheranism, 
which adheres most closely to the symbolical books, 
and has its headquarters in the Concordia College at 
St. Louis (see Lutherans, III., 5, § 1). His writings 
embrace Der CkrMiche Glavbe (a collection of 
sermons, Dresden, 1825); Herdicher Zuruf an alle 
evangelischen Christen (1825); and GabenfUr unsere 
Zeti (Nuremberg; 1834). 

Bibliography: Von Polens, Die Sffcntliche Afeuuuia «ri 
der Potior Stephan, Dresden, 1840; Vebae. Dm 8t*phmi- 
eche AtmoanderuHo nach America, ib. 1840; C. Hock- 
•tetter, Oeechichie der Mieeouri Synods ib. 1886; H. &. 
Jacobs, in American Church Hietory Series, iv. 396 left, 
405, New York, 1803. Scattering references will be food 
in much of the literature under Lutherans. 

STEPHEN: Christian protomartyr, and the fink 
named of the seven who, according to Acts vi. 5, 
were appointed to take care of the poor and to 
"serve tables" (see Deacon, I., §§ 1-2). Hut 
Stephen was a Hellenist is not expressly declared 
but is probable, since the trouble described would 
best be relieved were Hellenists chosen to the office, 
and Acts vi. 9 is thus best explained. Although 
service of the tables was the especial function of 
the seven (verse 2), teaching was not excluded (vene 
9). The testimonies of the apostolic and postopoe* 
tolic age show that while in early times both bishop 
and deacons received and distributed gifts for ' 
charity, the later diaconate grew out of the office 
to which Stephen was elected. 

But the significance of Stephen does not lie in ha 
connection with the seven. He is the first disciple 
whose teaching led to a conflict with Judaism: he 
is the Christian protomartyr. His death was the 
occasion of an outbreak of persecution which led to 
the spread of Christianity. The report given in Acta 
vi. 1-viii. 3 is generally received as essentially his- 
torical, though it contains difficulties. It is Dot a 
unit, the stoning and the charges being repeated 
(vii. 58-59, vi. 11, 13-14); for Stephen's speech 
either two sources or a source edited must be sup- 
posed. Was Stephen the victim of mob law or of 
legal procedure? In the first case the Romans had 
a case against the people; in the second case the 
sanction of the Roman procurator was required, of 
which Acts knows nothing. It has been sought to 
parallel the death of Stephen with that of Jesus, but 
the parallel fails in many particulars. The charge 
against Stephen (Acts vi. 13-14) is that he aft- 
sailed the temple service and the law, saying that 
Jesus would destroy the Temple and alter Mosaic 
customs (Acts vi. 13-14). His speech sets forth that 
God's activity was not restricted to a definite place 
or time, that Israel had always striven against God's 
will, persecuted the prophets, disregarded God's law, 
and had done with Jesus as their forefathers had 
with Jesus's forerunners. Had Stephen really as- 
sailed Jewish institutions, he would not have been 
entrusted with his office as things then were. 
Stephen's proposition had as basis Isa. lxvi. 1 ; note 
also Jesus's declaration in John iv. 20-24, and with 
Acts vi. 14 cf . Mark xiv. 58, xiii. 2. The teaching of 
Stephen links itself with that of Jesus in its inner 
meaning, as when Jesus assailed the externalising 
of service (Mark vii. 6 sqq.) or called the genera- 
tion adulterous (Matt. xvi. 4) or demanded a higher 
righteousness than that of the Pharisees (Matt. v. 
20), while the Jews regarded the ideas of their times 
as identically Mosaic. This latter was the view of 
the Hellenistic Jews (Acts vi. 9, ix. 29, xxi. 27-28), 
illustrated by Philo's declaration (Vita Motie, ii. 3). 
If Stephen took the view of Jesus, to the Hellenists 
the charge would seem correct, he would seem to be 
changing the customs left by Moses. 

Since Schneckenburger the teaching of Stephen 



■ad that of the letter of Barnabas have been re- 
prded m relawd, seeming (wrongly) to point to 
leetipoetolic times. The epithet of " uncircuincised 
n heart and ears " goes back upon prophetic ex- 
HMOn, though a Bpiritualiiing of circumcision is 
adnded by Acta vii. S. Moses' law is to Stephen 
' lively oracles " because Stephen saw in Moses the 
naplete antetype of Jesus, who expressed the full 
lenient of what Hebrews had possessed since Moses. 
in Barnabas J udaism is mere externalism, which is 
jppmed to Christianity as the free religion of the 
jjirit. The representation of Barnabas is totally 
iSereot from that of Stephen, especially in the 
ipificance given to Moses. Similarly in Heb. iii. 
H the religion of the Old Testament is the incom- 
plete antetype of that of the New, Moses being the 
■miit, Christ the Son. While the representation 
at Stephen reminds also of Philo, no connection be- 
tveen Philo and Stephen is to be traced. 

Acts pictures Stephen as the forerunner of Paul, 
India such many still regard him, although it is true 
oar/ in a limited sense. In Christianity Stephen saw 
tin divine revelation of the Old Testament; Paul, 
tiew religion in contrast with it. Stephen saw in 
the law the living divine word; Paul, a mediating 
mflrtunent which could not give life (Gal. iii. 17-21). 
TV mission to the Gentiles was not within Stephen's 
km; for Paul this was the essence of his apostolic 
eta. Yet the persecutors of Stephen rightly felt 
tint there was in his stand danger to the exclusive- 
dob tad absoluteness of the revelation to Israel, and 
the persecuting zeal of the Pharisaic Saul had justi- 
ficitiM therein. It is notable that against Paul 
practically the same charge was brought us against 
Stephen (cf. Acts vi. 13 withxxi. 28). TheChurch 
euh; began to celebrate St. Stephen's day, in general 
•» Dec. 26, though in some places on Jon. 7. The 
Mnidi regarding him are collected in Tillemont, 
Htanrw (vol. ii., Paris, 1701). (P. Feme.) 

Bmrnoajmr: The literature on (he Acta (liven under 
Ubl m the shape of wmmenUnn and introductions 
beam the literary and other feature! of the narrative: 
■WW worlu on the Apostolic Age diaeuss the history. 
Cault: F. Nitssch. in TSK, 1800. pp. 479-502; F. C. 
W, rWw. i. 30-63. Tabinteo. 1806; W. J. Coaybeara 
■ad I S. Honor.. Life, Timet and Tracdt of SI. Paul, i. 
*M7. New York. 1989; E. Zeller. Content! and Origin of 
4*. i. 137-346, ii. [7.1- 1711. I.ondon, 1875: F. W. Fnrrar, 
Hh ad Work of St. Paul. chap. via.. 2 vote., London, 
1I7Q ud often; W. Schmidt. Berieht der A pontrinrechichte 
^•Slefhanut (ProKiamm). 1882; A. Mabntior. The Apot- 
fl"JW.pp. 39-18. London, IS01: K. Schmidt. B«*tu 
feftainnw, 1892, pp. 80-88; J. Weiss, in TSK, 1893. 
».«-»!; C. von Weiasacker. The Apostolic At/t. i. 82- 
'I. H«r York and I/indmi. IV.U; A Ua H cnfe!d. in 2WT. 
"*> pp. 384-412; A. C. McQfffert. Apostolic Att, pp. 
**; New York. 1897; W. M. Ramsay. SI. Poul the 
""•V. pp. 372-377. London, 1897; Kranicnfeld, in 
'SI. 1(00. pp. 541-502: B. W, Bacon, in Biblical and 
y^oiaowt, pp. 211-278. Now Haven. 1903; O. Pflei- 
■w.ftu Vrchrutentum. 3d cd.. Berlin, 1002, Eng. transl., 
™*» CAriationifi,. New York. 1908; R. Schumacher, 
""hokf^suphanue, MQosler. 1910; Soltau. in ZNTW, 
5«3. pp. 142-150; Tillemont, litmoira, ii 11701), 1-23; 
•ii 171-774: DB. iv. 813-616; BB. W. ,787-97. 

STEPHEN, sti'vn: The name of nine popes. 

Stephen L: Pope May 254-Aug. 257. He was 
a twt upon the elevation of the position of the bish- 
"f i" general and of his own position as bishop of 
"** in particular. After certain Spanish bishops, 
"wtliiiea of Emerita and Martialis of Legio and As- 

turica, had been deposed as being Iibellatid (set 
Lapsj), a certain Sabinus was elected bishop of 
Emerita. But the deposed bishops appealed to 
Stephen, and he fell back upon the principle ad- 
vanced by Calixtus that a bishop can not bo deprived 
of office, and would not ac know ledge their di-piwl ion. 
He does not seem to have carried his point, however, 
for the Sjwniards asked the advice of African Chris- 
tians who confirmed the Spaniards in their position. 
Stephen was involved in dispute also with Cyprian nf 
Carthage (q.v.) on the question of the baptism of her- 
etics. Cyprian argued against the pope that convert- 
ed heretics should be rebaptized, which Stephen 
regarded as an offense against the tradition of the 
Roman church, which was based on Peter and Paul 
(see Heretic Baptism, J 1). While Stephen did not 
claim the position of bishop over the whole church, 
whose decisions were to be obeyed everywhere, as the 
successor of Peter he claimed to act as the represent- 
ative of the Roman tradition and required uncon- 
ditional obedience to it. (A. Hauck.) 
BiBuooRiPHi: Sournee nre: Liber pantifieati*. cd Momm- 
aen in MGH, Oat. pair. Rom., i (1898), 33; Cyprian. EpiH.. 
Ixvi., bad tljviii., bnii.; En K . (ratal, in A.VF, r. 387- 
360. 378-370): Eusebius. Hit. ted.. VIII., ii. nqq.. En|- 
tranal. in NPNF. 2 wr„ i. 203 aqo,; JarTe. Hevnta, i. 20. 
Commit further: J. Kmit, Pap* Stephen I. und drr A"«- 
1905: J. Lnnien. C 

<k, Litteralur, i. 

then Kirche. i. 313. Cothn, 1381; Hi 

410, 425, 056, Ii. 2, pp. 82, 348. 358 sqq. ct pan 

Dogma, ii. 87 aqq.. et passim; Bower. Puprt, 

Stephen n.: Pope 752-757. The policy of 
Stephen was conditioned by the relation of Rome to 
the Lombards. After Gregory III. had Bought in 
vain the aid of Charles M artel against I.orni .:i n liu 
aggression, Pope Zacharias bad both inatetalaBd 
peace with his dangerous neighbors and had gained 
the objects of the papal policy without, foreign aid. 
But his death seemed to the Lombards the oppor- 
tune moment to realize their steady aim, the in- 
corporation under their rule of the remainders n( 
Greek dominion in Italy (see Papal States). 
Stephen sent an embassy to King Aintulf in order to 
obtain the maintenance of peace, but Aistulf sum- 
marily rejected all overtures and seems to have 
doubted (possibly with reason) the pope's good faith. 
Stephen, therefore, in 753, after failing in obtaining 
help from Constantinople, sought the aid of the 
Franks. Pippin was inclined to grant the requests 
of the pope, seeing that he owed much of bis power 
to the spiritual authority of Peter's successor. At 
a personal meeting with the pope in Jan., 75-1, after 
(■uij.-idt-ral'le nrjiorialtiin ilifii^li Miii>:i-:-ir.-. Pippin 
agreed to conquer the exarchate of Ravenna and to 
deliver to the pope these territories, and to force 
Aistulf to renounce claim to dominion over Rome. 
The pope himself spoke of placing the Roman 
church and the Roman people under the protection 
of the I raid, i- 1 1 king. 

Stephen remained during the winter in St. Denis, 
and Pippin began to fulfil his promises by senditic an 
embassy to Aistulf requesting him to comply w ' t ' 1 
the Roman demands, but in vain. At the Prankish 
assemblies of Bernaco (Braisne near Soissons or 
Berny-Riviere in Aisne) and Carisiacus (Quieny 



near Laon) in 754 the league between the king and 
the pope was ratified by the nobles, and it was 
decided to send an army against the Lombards. 
The pope showed his gratitude by anointing on July 
28, 754, in St. Denis Pippin and his two sons kings 
and patricians of Rome and binding the Franks 
under menace of ban and interdict never to elect a 
king except from the house of Pippin. Before the 
outbreak of the war Aistulf made an attempt to 
separate Pippin from Stephen, and for this purpose 
in the spring of 754 sent the monk Karlmann, 
brother of Pippin, who since 747 had lived in Italy, 
across the Alps to remind the king of the solidarity 
of the Frankish and Lombardic interests. Karl- 
mann met his brother in Quierzy, but he came too 
late. Pippin put his brother into a monastery at 
Vienne, where he soon afterward died. All en- 
treaties of Pippin and Stephen by other embassies 
to yield peacefully were disregarded by Aistulf, for 
the incorporation of Rome and Ravenna was a vital 
question for the Lombardic kingdom. Here the 
sword had to decide and the decision favored the 
Franks. In the autumn of 754 Aistulf was forced 
to make peace; he promised indemnification to the 
Roman church and the surrender of Ravenna and a 
number of other cities between the mountains and 
the Adriatic Sea. Stephen returned to Rome vic- 
torious; but the joy of victory was short-lived. 
Aistulf broke his promises, and in the winter of 
755-756 marched against Rome and besieged the 
pope. In order to maintain the results of the first 
war of the Lombards, Pippin had to undertake a 
second campaign. He was again victorious; Aistulf 
now surrendered Ravenna and twenty other cities to 
Stephen with a deed of donation, while Rome came 
to be regarded as a province of the Frankish king- 
dom. The death of Aistulf (Dec., 756) delivered 
Stephen from apprehension; he lived to see the 
enthronement of the Frankish protege' Desiderius 
(Mar., 757), and died Apr. 27, 757. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: Sources are: Liber pontificalu, ed. L. 
Duchesne, i. 440, Paris, 1886; the continuation of Frede- 
gar's Chronicon, ed. B. Krusch, in MOH, Script, rer. 
Mierov., ii (1888). 168-193; Jaffe, Regesta, i. 271-272; 
Acta regum et imperatorum Karolinorum, ed. T. Sickel, 
ii. 380-381, Vienna, 1868; the E pistol a in Bouquet, Re- 
cueU, vol. v.; the E pistol a et decreta, in MPL, vol. lxzzix. 
Consult further: A. von Reumont, Oeschichte der Stadt 
Rom, ii. 113 sqq., Berlin, 1867; R. Baxmann, Die Pelitik 
der Papste, i. 233 sqq., Elberfeld. 1868; P. Genelin, Die 
ScKenkungsversprechen und die Schenkung Pippins, Vienna, 
1880; H. Thelen, Die Ldsung der Streitfrage uoer die Ver~ 
handlungen Pipping mit Stephan II., Oberhausen, 1881; 
W. Martens, Die romische Frage unlet Pippin and Karl 
dem Otossen, pp. 6 sqq., Stuttgart, 1881 ; idem, Neue Brbr- 
terungen zur rdmischen Frage, ib. 1882; idem, Beleuchtung 
der neueeten Kontroversen, Munich, 1898; Hirsch, Die 
Schenkungen Pippins und Karl* dee Qrossen, Berlin, 1882; 
J. Langen, Oeschichte der rdmischen Kirche, ii. 649 sqq., 
Bonn, 1885; K. Lamprecht, Die r&mische Frage, Leipsic, 
1889; F. Gregorovius, Hist, of the City of Rome, ii. 272- 
304, London, 1894; G. Schnurer, Die Entstehung dee 
Kirchenstaate, Cologne, 1894; T. Lindner, Die aogenannten 
Schenkungen Pippins .... Stuttgart, 1896; J. A. Ket- 
terer, Karl der Crosse und die Kirche, Munich, 1898; H. 
Lilienfein, Die Anechauungen von Stoat und Kirche, pp. 8 
sqq., Heidelberg, 1902; Hauck, KD, ii. 17 sqq.; Bower, 
Popee, ii. 90-108; Platina, Popes, i. 189-192; Milman, 
Latin Christianity, ii. 417-424; DCB, iv. 730-735. The 
literature under Papal States is of primary importance 

Stephen HL: Pope 768-773. He was a Sicilian 

by birth; under Gregory HI. he came to Rani 
where he entered the monastery of St. Chrysogoma. 
Pope Zacharias took him into his service and con- 
secrated him presbyter of St. Cecilia; he had do* 
relations also with Stephen II. and especially with 
Paul I. This explains his election by the opponenti 
of Constantino II., which signified the intention to 
adhere to the Frankish alliance. The first care of 
Stephen was the entire removal of his predecessor. 
Therefore he asked Pippin and his sons to send some 
bishops versed in Scripture and canon law to Rome, 
so that Constantino might be condemned at a synod 
in their presence. When the papal legate arrived 
Pippin was already dead, but his two sons met the 
desire of the new pope; the intended synod was held 
Apr. 12-14, 769, in the Lateran basilica in the pres- 
ence of twelve Frankish bishops. The most impor- 
tant work of the synod was not the deposition of 
Constantine, but the regulations concerning election 
of popes, which was put into the hands of the clergy, 
the share of laymen being restricted to acclamation 
after the election and to the signature of the proto- 
col of election. The third matter discussed at the 
synod referred to the veneration of images, which 
was confirmed in opposition to the Greeks (see 
Images and Image Worship, II., § 3). 

Stephen appears but a tool of the party which 
elected him, unable to stop the bloodshed of the 
period. The difficulties of Stephen's position arose 
from his relations with the Lombards. The Roman 
leaders Christophorus and Sergius had overthrown 
Constantine with the aid of the Lombards; but it 
immediately appeared that their interests and 
those of the Lombards were not identical. The two 
party leaders now openly opposed the Lombard* 
and became the spokesmen of the demands of the 
Church. But Stephen perceived that the Roman 
and Lombardic powers were too unequal for him 
to venture on a rupture, unless he could oppose 
Desiderius with a superior ally. Thus he turned to 
the Franks. Soon after the Lateran synod be ad- 
dressed a letter to Charles and Carloman in which 
he asked their assistance in his attempt to enforce 
the still unsatisfied claims of St. Peter from King 
Desiderius. But Stephen saw that his design had 
little chance of being carried out. Since the death of 
Pippin the government of the Frankish empire bad 
lacked unity, the relations between Charles and 
Carloman being strained; moreover, since Charles 
had married Desiderata, the daughter of the Lom- 
bard king, the Lombardic and Frankish relations had 
improved and the policy of the Franks had changed. 
In the winter of 770-771 the pope came to an agree- 
ment with Desiderius. Desiderius demanded the 
overthrow of the leaders of the anti-tambardic 
party, while he himself made concessions toward 
satisfying the Roman demands. Christophorus 
and Sergius took up arms for their defense; but 
their resistance was unavailing, and Stephen was 
compelled to sacrifice to his foes the men to whom 
he owed his position. In consequence of the over- 
throw of the leaders of the Frankish party in Rome 
the guidance of the papal policy fell into the hands 
of Lombard partisans. Desiderius broke his 
promises; yet the pope was unable to extract any 
advantage from the breach between Franks and 


Lombards which occurred in 770. Stephen died 
Sept. 24, 772. (A. Hauck.) 

Buliogiapbt: Sources in: Liber pontifical**, ed. L. 
Ducbranc. i. 408, Pari*. 1880: the Epintola in Bouquet, 
fienwil, vol. v., in MPO. vol. xcviii.. and in J. Greteer, 
Vcdumen (pudj/afwti. Opera, vol, vi., 17 vols., Regena- 
boic, 17:t4-W; Eintwrd's Vila Karoli Magni, in MOH. 
Script., ii (1829), 443-403: Jaffe, Reaata, i. 285. Con- 
sult further: A. von B Milium I. Ge*ckiel,te der Sladt Rom, 
iL 121 eqq.. Berlin. 1888; R. Bnxmann. Ois Po/Kit in- 
Papmlt, I. 262 sqq., EJberfeld. 1888; 5. Abel. Jahrbacher 
dr* M«***^«i Reiehe* unter Karl dcm Grown, ed. B. 
Simson. pp. 01 K)q.. Leipsio. 1888; H. Dopffel, KaUtrtvm 
vnd Papilirechiet. pp. 15 sqq.. Freiburg, 1889: F. Grego- 
roviua. Hi*, of the CUu of Romj, ii. 327-343, London. 1894; 
L. Duchesne, in Revue cTKiet. et de tilleralitrt relieieuiet, 
1880, pp. 238 K,q. : j. A. Ketterer. Karl der Grout and 
He Kirch*, pp. 19 too.., Munich, 1898: Hefele. Condlien- 
gttehicMe. lii. 433 sqq.. Fr. tranal.. iii. 2, pp. 727 sqq. 
En*, (ruul.. v. 331 aqq.; Manai. Concilia, v. BBO aqq,: 
Bower. Papa. ii. 114-12S: Planna. Pupa, i. 194-198; 
Miunan. Latin Chrittianity, ii. 433-439: DCB. iv. 736- 
73S; and the literature under CaxsLEiuoNE. 

Stephen IV.: Pope 816-817. He was a Soman 
and of noble birth. Like that of his predecessors, 
his policy involved agreement with the Franks; 
nonsequently after his election he induced the Ro- 
mans to swear obedience to Louis the Pious, whom 
in Oct., 816, he crowned emperor at Reims. On this 
occasion the alliance between the pope and the 
Prankish rulers was renewed. In Nov. he relumed 
to Italy and died Jan. 24, or 25, 817. 

(A. Hauck.) 

Liber pontificalia, ed. L. 
2; Jaffe. Reoetta, " " 

Duchesne, ii. 49. Parta, 1! 
Greteer. Volume* epittolan 
Kctemburg, 1734-40: and 


„ 17 n 

Consult further: 
R. Baxmxna. Die PoliM der PApete, i. 328. Elberfold, 1808: 
J. Langen. Getrhichle der ramirchen Kirch*, ii. 797, Bonn. 
1888: B. Simeon. Jahrbuehcr da friintieehem Reichet, i. 
88. Lapse. 1874; H. Dopffel, Kauertum und Papet- 
•ceeKeei. L 45. Freiburg. 1889: F. Gregorovius. Bin. of 
the City of Rome. iii. 33-t5. London. 1895; Bower, Popm. 
ii. 192-193: Plntine. Pope*, i. 209-210: Milman, Latin 
Christianity, ii. 518-Slfl; Mann. Pope., v. 111-121. 

Stephen V.: Pope 8S5-891. This pope lived in a 
period of decline of the Roman bishopric. In the 
negotiations with Emperor Basil and his son Leo 
VI. concerning Photius he adhered to the Roman 
Standpoint; not to him, however, but to Emperor 
Leo was it due that the derision of Rome was finally 
acknowledged. In the policy toward the newly 
founded Slavonic church he followed his predeces- 
ton, aiming on the one aide to preserve the connec- 
tion of that church with Rome, on the other side 
to concede to it only a small measure of in- 
dependence. But in the relations to the Occident 
be was powerless. The decline of the empire under 
Charles the Fat had an immediate influence upon 
the papacy and the Church. After the deposition of 
Charles in Nov., 887, began the period of the less 
powerful rulers, on whom the popea became more 
and more dependent. Stephen died on Sept. 14, 
801. having previously crowned one of these kings, 
Guido of Spoleto, emperor. Feb. 21, 891. 

(A. Hauck.) 

BrnuoaUAPBT: Source* art-.. Liber pontificalii, ed, L, 
Piiiihiin . ii. 191. Paris. 1892: fragments of dooumenta. 
erf. P. Ewald. in NA. v. 399: Jaffe. Regeita, i. 427: J. M. 
Watterich. Romattorum ponlifieum , , , vita, i, 83. Leip- 
•k. 1803: and the Lpi*tola in Bouquet, Recueil, vol. ix. 

GetchieMe der Sladt 
laimann. Die PalHik 
}; E. Dummler, Oe- 

Conault further: A. von Rem 
Rom. ii. 218 sqq.. Berlin, 1888; 

KhicMe dee a*tfranhi*chen Racket, iii. 248 : 
1888; H. Dopffel. Kai.ertum and Popaiceehtel. p|.. 152- 
153, Freiburg. 1889; J. Langen. Ge-ebkhu- dee r, ■„„»,■>,.-* 
Kirrhe, iii. 280 aqq.. Bonn. 1892; F. Gregorovius, diet, of 
the City of Rome, iii 2118 215, Lou-inn. 1895; Bower, 
Pope., ii. 294-298; Platina, Popet. L 23S-230: Milman. 
Latin Christianity, iii. 105; Mann, Popet, vi. 367-402 et 

Stephen VL: Pope 896-897. After the death of 
loriiioJiis, who had crowned Arnulf emperor, the 
faction of Spoleio elected a pope of their own party, 
Stephen VI., the short pontificate of Boniface VI. 
alone intervening. Siephen's consecration look 
place probably in May, Will. He was one of the most 
violent opponents of Formosus. His short pontifi- 
cate is disgraced by his unheard-of judgment Upon 
Formosus after his death (see Fok.mosvs). The 
horror aroused by this outrage led to a sudden up- 
rising of the people (July, 887) on which occasion 
Stephen was murdered, (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliookapht: Sources are: Liber pontificalii, cd. L. 
Duchesne, ii.. pp. xviii.. 229. Paris, 1892; Jaffe. , fftjlllil i. 
439; J. M. Watlerich, Ponlifkum ffllMWial aw, . . . vita, i. 
36 aqq., Leiusie, Into; tlip Kji.-lol.r. in Bouquet. 
vol. ix.; an.| (he Fjntful.r. -t pruileoia in MPL. vol. exxix. 
Consult further: Maun, Pope*, vii. 78 aqq.; I]. D'llTllr.lir. 
AuxMue und Vubjatiiu. pp. 10 «qq , Leiii-i^. 1MMS: :. |.-rn. 
QcKhickte da ast/rdnA-urArn ti.irh™ t iii 4^K, it.. 1SKS; 
A. ran Rpunmnt. r,r*rhir-M. Jit Slwll fl/m, ii. 22(. lii-l-lrri, 
1888; H. Baxnwnn. flic Politik der Plipete, ii. 71). 
feld. 1809; H. Dopffel. Kaisertum und Papxtwrrhsrl, p. 
167, Freiburg. 1889; J. LniiRrn, CtnhieMe dn r.nwrhcn 
Kirchr. iii. 303, Bonn, 18'J2; F. <;nr B '.ru>iLia. Hi*t. of the 
City of Rum-; iii. L'L'.-.-^'l. l.-.n,ln„. ]>.<>.,; ll,™tr. Pope*, 
fl. 300; Flalinii, Pope*, i. a37-23t>; \iilmnn. Latin Chrit- 
fianilii.iu. 110-111. 

Stephen VIL: Pope 929-931. His pontificate 
fell during the time when Theodora and Marozia 
ruled in Rome. The pope vanished so cinnjileldy 
into the background besi'le his umbil ions iiiisriess.-s 
that information concerning him is very scanty. 
(A. Hauck.) 

Bifliografitt: Liber pnnlificalit, ed. L. Duchpsn. . ii. 242, 

Paria, 1892; J. M. IVattorirh, Pontine*,., It ™„r™ 

. . . vita, i. 33. Leipsic. 1862: Jail*. Ree'tta. i. 463; 

1868; R. Baxmnnn. Me Politit der Paptte, ii. W), l.llicr- 
feld. 1869; J. Langen. Geichichtr der rMkiacAn Kwta*. 
iii. :(33, Bonn. IWI2; V. ("In-Koroviiw. Ifitl. of the Citu of 
Rome, iii. 282, Loudon. 1895: Howrr, Pope*, ii. 311; 
PIfttins, Popes, i. 247-248; Mann, PnjJes, vui. 189-190. 

Stephen VHX: Pope 939-942. His pontificate 

was coincident with the rule of Alberich. the son of 

Marozia, as prince and senator of (he Romans in 

Rome; and his importance was small Camp&nd 

with that of the energetic Alberich, who regarded 

Rome as his property. But before foreign powers 

Stephen upheld the claims of the papacy, Ihreatcn- 

inc France and Burgundy with the ban unless they 

acknowledged l.nnis d'( inlremer us king, which they 

were forced to do. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibuoohapht: Liber ponlifienli*. ed. L. Duchrano, ii. 244, 

Paris, 1892: Jafft, Reatta. i. 157; ,1. M. Wntterich, Pon- 

tificum Romanomm . . . pita. i. 34. Leipsic. 1802; A. von 

Reumont, Gaehichlr der Sladt Hum. ii. 233. Beilin. 1868; 

R. Baxmann. Die Politik the P'ip.-lr. ii . W. I r ,ll ..-rf.-l.]. IMj'.i; 

J. Langen, Grschichtc der r.-miKhen Kin-he. iii. ;;:cl. Himn, 

"" Oregomviua. Hiit. of the City of ~ 

: Ho.ver. 




Stephen IX. (Frederic of Lorraine): Pope 1057- 
1058. He was one of the three sons of Duke Goselo 
of Lorraine. He was educated at liege, and be- 
came archdeacon at the church of St. Lambert. 
Leo IX. induced him in 1049 to go to Rome, where 
he became cardinal deacon, and in 1051 chancellor 
and librarian; in 1054 he was a member of an em- 
bassy to Constantinople, returning after the death of 
Leo and retiring into the monastery of Monte Cassino 
(1055), the abbot of which he became two years 
later. In the same year (1057) Victor II. died, and 
Frecienc was elected in his place. Since the election 
occurred without understanding with the widow of 
Henry III., it implied an open violation of the im- 
perial rights; at the same time it showed that the re- 
form party considered it the right time to abolish im- 
perial control over the papacy. If this was the aim, 
there could have been found no more suitable person 
than Frederic for the papal chair, since his brother 
Duke Godfrey, as husband of Marchioness Beatrix 
of Tuscany, possessed the chief power in Italy. But 
an immediate rupture with the empire was avoided. 
The activity of Stephen was directed in the first 
place to the enforcement of the law of celibacy; but 
more important for the future was his attitude to- 
ward the Patarenes of Milan. By not merely toler- 
ating, but even approving, revolutionary procedures, 
he formed the union between the papacy and the 
democrats of Upper Italy which was so successful 
for both parties. He died at Florence Mar. 20, 
1058. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: Liber pontificali*, ed. L. Duchesne, ii. 278, 
334, 366, Paris, 1892; Jaff6, Regeeta, i. 553 sqq.; J. M. 
Watterich, Pontificum Romanorum . . . vita, i. 188 sqq., 
Leipsic, 1862; A. von Reunion t, Geechichte der Stadi Ram, 
ii. 351, Berlin, 1868; R. Baxmann, Die PoUtik der Papete, 
ii. 262, Elberfeld, 1860; J. Wattendorff, Papal Stephan 
IX., Paderborn, 1883; G. Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbucher 
dee detUechen Retches unter Heinrich IV. und Heinrich V. t 
i. 30 sqq., Leipsic, 1890; J. Langen, Geechichte der rami- 
echen Kirche, iii. 494, Bonn, 1892; F. Qregorovius, Met. 
of the City of Rome, iv. 70-111, London, 1896; Mann, 
Popes, x. 381 sqq.; Bower, Popes, ii. 363-365; Platina, 
Popes, i. 276-277; Milman, Latin Christianity, iii. 279- 
294; Hauck, KD, iii. 669 sqq.; Hefele, ConcUiengeschichte, 
iv. 791. 

SUDAILI): Syrian mystic of the sixth century. 
He lived for a time in Egypt as the pupil of one John 
the Egyptian, and later resided at Edessa and 
finally at Jerusalem. He was a contemporary of 
Jacob of Sarug (q.v.), who addressed a letter to him, 
while Philoxenus (q.v.) wrote certain priests of 
Edessa concerning him. He is said to have taught 
that the punishments of hell were finite, and that 
baptism and the Eucharist were superfluous. He 
receives a special anathema in the creed of Philox- 
enus and in the Jacobite ordination liturgy. Ac- 
cording to Barhebraus, Stephen was the author of 
a work " On the Hidden Mysteries of God," which 
was ascribed to Hierotheus, a disciple of St. Paul 
(MSS. in the British Museum and Bibliotheque 
Nationale, and at Berlin; the British Museum MS., 
cod. Rich. 7189, is evidently the very one used by 
BarhebraBUs). The exact relation of the work to 
Dionysius the Areopagite (q.v.) is not yet entirely 
clear. It is held by A. Merx that not only the medie- 
val mystics of the West, but also the Mohammedan 

Sufis, derived their most fruitful concepts from the 

Syrian mystic, Stephen bar ?udhaile. E. Nestlb. 

Bduoobafbt: Older literature and sources are: AbeV 
farej (Baxhebneus), Hist, eccl., I 221; J. & Assam, 
Bibliotheca orientalis, i. 303, it 30-33, 290; J. Abbtko* 
De vita el scripHs S. Jacobi Bathnarum Sarugi episeeei, 
Louvain, 1867. Consult further: A. L. Frothhighsm, 0» 
the Book of Hierotheus by « -Syrian Mystic of the 6th Cen- 
tury, in Proceeding* of the American Oriental Society, 1884, 
pp. 3C-Tiii.; idem, Stephen bar SudaHi, the Syrian Mystic 
and the Book of Hierotheus, Leyden, 1886 (ef . Load k 
Theoloffieche Literaturzeitung, 1884, pp. 554-665, sad 
B&thgen in the same, 1887, no. 10) ; V. Ryssel Dae " Bid 
dee Hierotheus," in ZKG, x (1887), 156-158; A. Men. 
Die Idee und Grundlegung einer aUgemeinen GeechichU is? 
Myetik, Heidelbezg, 1893; W. Wright. A Short Hisl ef 
Syriac Literature, pp. 76-77, London, 1894; R. Dwnl 
La LitUrature eyriaque, pp. 358-360, 438, Paris, 1891; 
C. Broekelmann, in Litteratur dee Oaten*, viL 2 (1907), ft 


Dominican author; b. at Belleville (24 m. n. of 
Lyons) c. 1100; d. at Lyons c. 1261. He studied 
at the cathedral school in MAcon and at Paris. Id 
1223 he was in Lyons among the Dominicans whose 
first settlement he had witnessed in Paris. He was 
zealous in his attempt to convert heretics; in Ve*> 
lay (Yonne) he preached the crusade against the 
Albigenses; about 1235 he labored in the diocese of ] 
Valence in Dauphinl to convert the Waldenses (q.v.) \ 
and soon afterward was entrusted with the conduct 
of Inquisition against them. The last years of his lib 
he devoted to the book which made him famous, 
Tradalus de divertds maieriie prcedicabilibu*, ordtne- 
tis et distinctis in septem partes secundum scptm 
dona Spirilus Sancti. It was primarily intended to 
be used in the preparation of sermons, and was a 
compilation of anecdotes, illustrations, incidents, 
and the like, taken in part from previous compila- 
tions, in part derived from contemporaneous events 
in his own official life. It is of historical value as a 
source of knowledge of the thirteenth century. 

(Ferdinand Cohrs.) 

Bibliography: J. Quttif and J. Echard, Scriptores ordieit 
pradicatorum, i. 174 sqq., Paris, 1719; Hist. litUraini* 
la France, xix. 27 sqq.; A. Lecoy de la Marche, La Chain 
francaise au moyen-dge, pp. 106 sqq., ib. 1868; idem, A**> 
dotes hietoriques, Ugendes et apologue*, tiri* du recueA is- 
edit f&tienne de Bourbon, ib. 1877; B. Haurtau, in Jew 
nal dee savants, 1881, pp. 591 sqq., 739 sqq.; K. MoDsr* 
Die Waldeneer und ihre eineelnen Gruppen, Gotha, 1865; 
KL, xi. 766-767. 

STEPHEN HARDING. See Harding, Stephen. 

STEPHEN OF TOURNAI: Canonist; b. at 
Orleans shortly before 1130; d. at Tournai in Sept., 
1203. He received his first instruction in bis native 
city, and entered the chapter of St. Evurtius of the 
Congregation at St. Victor. He must have been 
canon and cantor as early as 1 1 52. He then received 
permission to complete his studies in Bologna, 
where he heard Bulgarus on civil law and Rufinus on 
canon law. In 1167 Stephen became abbot of St. 
Evurtius, and ten years later abbot of St. Genevieve 
in Paris, belonging to the Congregation of St. Victor. 
In 1192 he was elected bishop of Tournai. The 
work, completed about 1160, that made his name 
famous, was his Summa on the Decretum GratianL 
It had an important influence upon ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction and canon law in the Middle Ages. 
Stephen was a gifted and enthusiastic preacher, 




bough his sermons betray the exaggerated rhetoric 

f has time. (Ferdinand Cohrs.) 

hmooiinnr: A selection of the Opera was published by 
C da Molinet, Paris, 1679, whence, with a supplement, it 
was reproduced in MiPL, ccxi. 295-502. His " Letters" 
t first published by J. B. Masson, Paris, 1611; then were 
, into the MiPL, ut sup. ; forty of them are in Bouquet, 
six. 282-306; and a new ed. was issued by J. 
Deoflre, Lettrt* tfEtienne de Tournai, Valenciennes, 1893. 
Consult: ¥.M&&aocto,BeitrtyegttrGcschichUderjuriMtischen 
LHtw*t*rde*MtiUlaUer8, Vienna, 1857; J. F. von Schulte, 
QnchickU der Qudlenvnd Litteratur de* kanonisehen ReehU, 
L 133 eqq., Stuttgart, 1875; L. Bourgain, La Chair* fran- 
feiat atf xxi. tUde, Paris, 1879; H. Denifle, Chartularium 
— ■PfTsifalii ParitientU, i. 12 et passim, Paris, 1889; Arehiv 
fir kathdisefum Kirchenrecht, lxvi (1891), 460; DeuUche 
Xmfekrift fitr Kwdunrtcht, III., i (1892), 252 sqq.; KL, xi. 

Mine of a distinguished Parisian family of printers, 
which did most brilliant service in the interest of 
literature, and by their publications promoted the 
cause of the Reformation. 

1. Henry, the first printer of this name, had an 
establishment of his own in Paris from 1503 to 1520. 
Be was on friendly terms with some of the most 
leaned men of the day, Bud6, Brioonnet, and Faber 
Stepulensis (q.v.), and had among his proof-readers 
Beatus Rhenanus. Among his publications were 
Fiber's editions of Aristotle, the Paalierium quin- 
apltx, and his commentary on the Pauline Epistles. 
Henry left three sons, Francois, Robert, and Charles, 
ftanpis published a number of works (1537-17) 
which had no bearing upon theology. His few im- 
pressions, chiefly issues of the classics, were all in 
Latin except PaaUerium and a Uorm Virginia in 
Greek. Charles studied medicine, wrote some works 
on natural history, and gained an honorable position 
both as scholar and as author. In 1551 he assumed 
control of the Paris printing establishment, on 
Robert's departure to Geneva, and printed a num- 
ber of works till 1561, using the title " royal typog- 
rapher " (typography* regius) . One of his works that 
long remained an authority was a DicHonarium 
htino-Gullicum, 1552. He published a number of 
smaller editions of Hebrew texts and targums, which 
were edited by J. Mercier. 

9. Robert, the second son of Henry, and the 

founder of the splendid reputation which the name 

of Stephens still enjoys, was born in Paris, 1503, 

tad died in Geneva Sept. 7, 1559. He early became 

acquainted with the ancient languages, and entered 

the printing-establishment of Simon de Colines, who 

married his mother upon his father's death. He 

corrected the edition of the Latin New Testament of 

1523. This work was the first occasion of the endless 

charges and criminations of the clerical party, 

specially the theological faculty of the Sorbonne, 

•gainst him. In 1524 he became proprietor of the 

press of his father. In 1539 he adopted as his devices 

an olive branch around which a serpent was twined, 

and a man standing under an olive-tree, with grafts 

from which wild branches were falling to the ground, 

*ith the words of Rom. xi. 20, Noli altum sapere, 

*dHm, "Be not high-minded, but fear." The 

tater was called the olive of the Stephens family. 

Id 1539 he received the distinguishing title of 

"Printer in Greek to the king." But the official 

recognition and the crown's approval to his under- 

taking could not save him from the censure and 
ceaseless opposition of the divines, and in 1550, to 
escape the violence of his persecutors, he emigrated 
to Geneva. With his title of " royal typographer " 
Robert made the Paris establishment famous by his 
numerous editions of grammatical works and other 
school-books (among them many of Melanchthon's), 
and of old authors, as Dio Cassius, Eusebius, Cicero, 
Sallust, Csesar, Justin. Many of these, especially 
the Greek editions, were famous for their typograph- 
ical elegance. In 1532 he published the remark- 
able Thesaurus linguce latinos, and twice he pub- 
lished the Hebrew Bible entire — in 1539-44, thirteen 
parts, in four volumes, and 1544-46 in seventeen 
parts. Both of these editions are rare. Of more 
importance are his four editions of the Greek New 
Testament, 1546, 1549, 1550, and 1551, the last in 
Geneva. The first two are among the neatest Greek 
texts known, and are called O mirificam; the third 
is a splendid masterpiece of typographical skill, and 
is known as the Editio regia; the edition of 1551 con- 
tains the Latin translation of Erasmus and the Vul- 
gate, is not nearly as fine as the other three, and is 
exceedingly rare. It was in this edition that the 
versicular division of the New Testament was for the 
first time introduced (see Bible Text, II., 2, § 2, 
III., § 3). A number of editions of the Vulgate also 
appeared from his presses, of which the principal 
are those of 1528, 1532, 1540 (one of the ornaments 
of his press), and 1546. The text of the Vulgate 
was in a wretched condition, and Stephens's editions, 
especially that of 1545, containing a new translation 
at the side of the Vulgate, was the subject of sharp 
and acrimonious criticism from the clergy. On his 
arrival at Geneva, he published a defense against the 
attacks of the Sorbonne. He issued the French 
Bible in 1553, and many of Calvin's writings; the 
finest edition of the Inslitutio being that of 1553. 
His fine edition of the Latin Bible with glosses 
(1556) contained the translation of the Old Testa- 
ment by Santes Pagninus, and the first edition of 
Besa's translation of the New Testament. 

Three of Robert's sons, Henry, Robert, and 
Francois, became celebrated as printers. Francois, 
the second (b. in 1540), printed on his own account 
in Geneva from 1562-82, issuing a number of 
editions of the Bible in Latin and French, and some 
of Calvin's works. French writers identify him with 
a printer by the name of Estienne in Normandy, 
whither he is supposed to have emigrated in 1582. 
Robert, the second (b. in 1530; d. in 1570), began 
to print in Paris on his own account in 1556, and in 
1563 received the title of Typography regivs; his 
presses were busily employed in issuing civil docu- 
ments. He held to the Roman Catholic faith and 
thus won the support of Charles IX., and by 1563 
appears to have fully reconstituted his father's es- 
tablishment in Paris. His edition of the New Tes- 
tament of 1568-69 a reprint of his father's first 
edition, and equal to it in elegance of execution, is 
now exceedingly rare. 

8. Henry, the second, the eldest son of the great 
Robert, and without doubt the most distinguished 
member of the family, was born in Paris, 1528, and 
died at Lyons March, 1598. He displayed in his 
youth a genuine enthusiasm for Greek and Latin; 



and his father took special pains with his education, 
and, as a part of his general training, he undertook 
in his nineteenth year a protracted journey to Italy, 
England, and Flanders, where he busied himself in 
collecting and collating manuscripts for his father's 
press. In 1554 he published at Paris his first in- 
dependent work, the Anacrcon. Then he went again 
to Italy, helping Aldus at Venice, discovered a 
copy of Diodorus Siculus at Rome, and returned to 
Geneva in 1555. In 1557 he seems to have had a 
printing-establishment of his own, and, in the spirit 
of modern times, advertised himself as the " Parisian 
printer" (typographic parisiensis). The following 
year he assumed the title, illustris viri Huldrici Fug- 
geri typographic, from his patron, Fugger of Augs- 
burg. In 1559 Henry assumed charge of his father's 
presses, and distinguished himself as the publisher, 
and also as the editor and collator, of manuscripts. 
Athenagoras, Aristotle, iEschylus, appeared in 1557; 
Diodorus Siculus, 1559; Xenophon, 1561; Thu- 
cydides, 1564; Herodotus, 1566 and 1581. He im- 
proved old translations, or made new Latin transla- 
tions, of many Greek authors. His most celebrated 
work, the Thesaurus lingua grcecct, which has 
served up to the nineteenth century as the basis of 
Greek lexicography, appeared in 4 vols., 1572, with 
a supplement in 2 vols. Of the Greek editions of the 
New Testament that went forth from his presses, 
there deserve mention those of Beza, with his com- 
mentary, 1565, 1569, 1582, 1588-89, and the smaller 
editions of 1565, 1567, 1580. A triglot containing 
the Pcahito appeared in 1569, of which some copies 
are in existence, bearing the date Lyons, 1571. In 
1565 a large French Bible was printed. Henry's 
own editions of the Greek New Testament of 1576 
and 1587 are noteworthy; the former containing 
the first scientific treatise on the language of the 
apostolic writers; the latter, a discussion of the 
ancient divisions of the text. In 1594 he published 
a concordance of the New Testament, the prepara- 
tory studies for which his father had made. Much 
earlier he translated Calvin's catechism into Greek, 
which was printed in 1554 in his father's printing- 

Henry was married three times, and had fourteen 
children, of whom three survived him. His son 
Paul (b. 1567), of whose life little is known, as- 
sumed control of the presses. Two of Paul's sons 
were printers — Joseph at La Rochelle, and Antoine 
(d. 1674), who became " Printer to the king " in 
Paris in 1613. Fronton Le Due's Chrysostom, and 
Jean Morin's Greek Bible (3 vols., 1628) were issued 
from Antoine' 8 presses. His son Henry succeeded to 
the title of " Printer to the king " in 1649, and his 
work closed about 1659. He left no children, and 
was the last of the family who took active interest in 
editing and printing. The high standard that had 
been established by the early Stephens was main- 
tained to the last, and the publications of the later 
publishers were mainly in the division of Greek and 
Roman classics. 

Bibliography. M. Maittaire, Slephanorum historic vita* 
ipsorum ae librae complectens, London, 1709; idem, Hist, 
tvpographorum aliquot Parisensium, 2 vols., ib. 1717; A. A. 
Renouard, Annate* de Vimprimerie des Estienne, ou hist, dt 
la famille des Estienne ct de ae* edition*, 2 parts, Paris, 
1837-38; Q. A. Crapelet, Robert Estienne . . . et U roi 

Francois I., Paris, 1880; L. J. Feugere, Bssoi tut Is* 

et le* outrage* de H. Estienne, Paris, 1853; E. T isms 

Aufsatss sur Geschichts de* BuehhandeU im 16. J*Mm> 
dert, Jena, 1876; P. Schaff, Companion to the Grsm Ta> 
tament and the English Version, pp. 236-237, UMft, 
New York, 1883; F. H. Reusch, Index der twUkmm 
Backer, i. 162, 337, 416, ii. 166. et passim, Bonn, IS* 
Nouveaux document* sur Is* Estienne, im prim eu r* parimtM, 
1617-1666, in Memoirs* of the Paris Society of Hs*sy, 
vol. xarii., Paris, 1895; O. H. Putnam, Books ami A* 
Makers during ths Middle Ago*, ii. 15-100, New Tod, 
1897; idem. Censorship of ths Church of Rome, L 102, XM 
sqq., 296, 238, 411, ib. 1907; P. Renouard, Imprimsm 
parisiens dspuU 1470 jusqu'a la fin du XVI. mod*. Pain, 
1898; A. Claudin, Hist, de rimpr im er i s en Francs em ss. 
et xvi.siede. Park, 1900; L. Radigmir. M attres i 
et ouvriers tvpographes, 1470-1908, Paris, 1903. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS: English Jesuit and 
sionary. See India, L, 4, | 2. 

STERCORANISTS: The name given (from 
stercus, " excrement ") in the Middle Ages to than 
who might possibly hold, as a theoretical position, 
that the body of Christ, received in the Lord's Sup- 
per, was masticated, digested, and finally excreted. 
It was first mentioned as a possible error and re- 
jected by Radbertus Paschasius (De corpar* 4 
sanguine Domini, xx.) in reference to the pseudo- 
Clementine Epistle to James, but Radbertus did not 
assert that it was held by his opponents. Amalanai 
of Mets (q.v.) left the question open whether the 
body of Christ was eaten and digested in a natural 
way, but appealed to Matt. xv. 17. Rabanus ap- 
pealed to the same passage. But after the doctrine 
of transubetantiation had been adopted, the question 
concerning the natural eating of the body of Christ 
no longer permitted discussion. The term " Ster- 
coranist " seems to have been used first by *>H"»^ 
Frederic of Lorraine, later Pope Stephen DC, in his 
Responsio sive contradictxo adversus Niceta Pe> 
torati libeUum, xxii., and thence came into quite 
common use. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: L. d'Aehery, Spicilsgium, iii. 330, Paris, 
1723; C. M. Pfaff, De stereoranisti* medii on, TObingen, 
1750; J. M. Schrockh, Kirchengeschichte, xxiii. 429 sqq., 
35 vols., Leipsic, 1772-1803; J. Bach, Dogmengeschichts 
des Mittetauers, i. 185-186, Vienna, 1873; K. Werosr, 
Gerbert von Aurillac, pp. 165-166, ib. 1878; J. Schwas*, 
Dogmengeschichts des Mittelalter*, p. 630, Freiburg, 1882; 
J. Schnitser, Berengar von Tours, pp. 205 sqq., Stuttgart, 
1892; R. Mdnchemeier, Amalar von Mets, pp. 106 sqq., 
MOnster, 1893; KL, xx. 782-783. 

STERNE, LAURENCE: Church of England, 
clergyman, wit, and novelist; b. at Qonmel (46 m. 
n.e. of Cork), Ireland, Nov. 24, 1713; d. in London 
Mar. 18, 1768. He was the great grandson of 
ard Sterne, archbishop of York, and his father 
an officer in the army, whose death in 1731 left 
Laurence unprovided for. Young Sterne was a 
student at Halifax, but was unsystematic in his 
work; by his uncle he was sent to Jesus College, 
Cambridge (B.A., 1736; M.A., 1740), where phys- 
ical weakness was indicated by a hemorrhage of the 
lungs before he finished his studies. He was ordered 
deacon in 1736 and ordained priest in 1738, this 
step being taken on the advice of his uncle, who had 
sent him to college; but his tastes and tempera- 
ment were not such as really to qualify him for the 
ministry, the work of which was probably always 
irksome to him. He became vicar of Sutton-in-the 
Forest in Yorkshire, 1738; prebend of Givendale 




fa York cathedral, 1740-41; commissary of Picker- 
and PockHngton in the same year; the next 
he married Elizabeth (Eliza) Lumley, who 
possessed of a small patrimony; in 1742-43 
8terne received in addition to his other charges the 
fiving of Stillington; he also at this time attempted 
to add to his income by farming. His first publica- 
tion was a charity sermon (York, 1747). A second 
eommissaryship was awarded him in 1747, and a 
daim by another upon his first office of this kind 
led to Sterne's entrance on the field of satiric humor, 

A Political Romance addressed to , esq. of 

York (1769), often appearing later as The History 
of a Warm Watch Coat. This line of work proved so 
congenial that he continued it, and began to write 
the work which marks his place in English litera- 
ture, Tristram Shandy, the first two books of which 
were published by himself (late in 1759) after the 
work had been refused by a London publisher. The 
work found instant success, a second edition was 
arranged for by the publisher, and its continuance 
was assured upon contract at the rate of a volume 
a year. A volume of sermons was also put through 
the press. In 1760 he became perpetual curate of 
Coxwold, retaining his other charges of Sutton and 
Stillington, which were served by curates. His 
residence at Coxwold was broken by a visit to 
France, where he was lionized, and by frequent 
journeys to London on business connected with the 
publication of the later volumes of Tristram Shandy, 
of sermons, and of his Sentimental Journey. His 
works were first collected in 7 vols., Dublin, 1779, 
then in 10 vols., London, 1780; a late edition is by 
G. Saintsbury, 6 vols., 1894. 

Bduogbaphy: P. Fitigerald, Life of Laurence Sterne, 2 
vob. v London, 1864, 2d ed., ib. 1896; W. M. Thackeray, 
The English Humouriete of the 18th Century, 2d ed., ib. 
1853; P. S. Stapfer, Laurence Sterne, ea pereonne el see 
enters*. Paris. 1870; E. Soberer, Gtudes critiques de lit- 
tinture, pp. 195-221, ib. 1876; H. D. Traill, Life of Sterne, 
new ed., London, 1889; L. Stephen, Hours in a Library, 
m. 139-174, ib. 1892; J. Teste, J. -J. Roueeeau et lee 
origin** du cosmopolitisms litUraire, pp. 337-354, Paris, 
1895; DNB, liv. 199-221. 

STERNHOLD, THOMAS: One of the founders 
of TfoigK«h psalmody; b. either at Southampton, 
England, or on the Hayfield estate near Blakeney 
(20 m. n. of Bristol, England), about 1500; d. Aug. 
23, 1549. He studied at Oxford but did not take a 
degree; was groom of the chambers to Henry VIII. 
and Edward VI. He is said to have versified fifty- 
one psalms, of which nineteen appeared in 1548, 
and thirty-seven the next year, immediately after 
his death (for other data, and developments after 
Sternhold, see Hymnology, IX., § 2). The work 
was continued by John Hopkins of the Woodend, 
Aure, Gloucestershire (B.A., Oxford, 1544; said to 
have held a living in Suffolk). The Whole Booke of 
Psalms Collected into English Metre appeared 1562, 
and was bound up with innumerable editions of the 
Prayer Book; making for two centuries or more the 
only or chief metrical provision of the Church of 
TCnjrlAnH . Since 1700 or so, it has been called the 
" Old Version," in distinction from its rival, Tate 
and Brady. Of its contents about forty-one psalms 
bear the initials of Sternhold (the only notable 
sample of his skill being a few stanzas of Ps. xviii.), 

and sixty-four, those of Hopkins. The rest are by 

Thomas Norton, a lawyer who translated Calvin's 

Institutes, and d. about 1600; William Whittingham, 

b. at Chester, 1524; d. 1589; educated at Oxford; 

married Calvin's sister, and was from 1563 dean of 

Durham; and William Kethe, who was in exile with 

Knox at Geneva, 1555, chaplain to the F,ngliah 

forces at Havre 1563, and afterward rector or vicar 

of Okeford in Dorsetshire. Kethe is memorable as 

the author of the only rendering now much used of 

all these, " All people that on earth do dwell " 

(Ps. c), which has a venerable solidity and 


Bibliography: 8. W. Duffield, English Hymns, pp. 626- 
526, New York, 1886; N. Livingston, The Scottish Met- 
rical Psalter of A. D. 16S6, Edinburgh, 1864; Julian, 
Hymndogy, pp. 860-861, 863; DNB, liv. 223-224. 

STERRY, PETER: Puritan; b. in Surrey; d. 
in London Nov. 19, 1672. He was graduated from 
Emmanuel's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1633; M.A., 
1637; fellow, 1636); was one of Cromwell's chap- 
lains, one of the fourteen divines proposed by the 
Lords in May, 1642, and sat as an Independent in 
the Westminster Assembly almost from the first. 
He was characterized as mystical and obscure, but 
his doctrines of conversion and of religious life, of 
Christian experience, duty, and hope were of the 
usual Evangelical type. Among his works may be 
mentioned The Clouds in Which Christ Comes (Lon- 
don, 1648); four Parliament sermons, The Spirit's 
Conviction of Sinne (1645); The Teachings of Christ 
in the Soule (1648) ; The Coming forth of Christ in the 
Power of his Death (1650); The Way of God with his 
People in These Nations (1657); Englands De- 
liverance from the Northern Presbytery, Compared 
with its Deliverance from the Roman Papacy; or a 
Thanksgiving Sermon on Jer. xvi. 14, 16 (1652); 
Discourse on the Freedom of the Will (1675); The 
Rise, Race, and Royalty of the Kingdom of God in the 
Soul of Man together with an Account of the State of a 
Saint's Soul and Body in Death (1683); The Ap- 
pearance of God to Man in the Gospel and Gospel 
Change, to Which is Added an Explication of the 
Trinity, and a Short Catechism (1710). 

Bibliography: D. Neal, Hist, of the Puritans, ed. J. Toul- 
min, 5 vols., Bath, 1793-97; B. Brooke, Lives of the Puri- 
tans, iii. 347, London, 1813; A. a Wood, Athena Ozon- 
ienses, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 197, 912, 1170. 4 vols., ib. 1813-20; 
D. Masson's Life of Milton, passim, 6 vols., ib. 1859-80; 
DNB, liv. 224-225; and the literature under Wkstminstbb 

German theologian; b. at Esslingen (8 m. s.e. of 
Stuttgart) Oct. 25, 1779; d. at Tubingen Oct. 24, 
1837. He was educated at Tubingen, 1797-1804; 
was vicar at Oberesslingen 1802-06; tutor at 
Tubingen, 1806-08; studied Arabic and Persian 
at Paris, 1808-10; was deacon at Canstatt, 1810- 
1812; after 1812 subdeacon and deacon at Tubing- 
en and professor of theology, 1815-37. In 1822 
he became morning preacher at the principal church 
of the city and after 1826 senior of the faculty and 
assessor of the seminary inspection. His lectures 
at first were on the Old Testament, including later 
oriental languages, and after 1826 dogma and apolo- 
getics. He founded in 1828 the ZeitschriftfUr Theo- 
logie. A rational supernaturalist, Steudel is usually 


ItgHdod as the last representative of the older 
Tubingen School (q. v.). With his writings he op- 
poud Roman Catholic union in 1811-16, and the 
union of the two Protestant churches in 1828. He 
wiole I'ibi r 'Hi Hullbarkeit desGlaubens angcsrhiciit- 
liche Offcnbarung Gottra (Stuttgart, 1814); Glau- 
bensUhre (Tubingen, 1834); and Theologic des Alten 
Testaments (Berlin, 1840). He entered into a 
sharp controversy with D. F. Strauss upon the ap- 
pearance of the latter's Leben Jesu. 

(G. F. Oehlee.1.) 
BlBLioaniPHi: The memorial addraa'by Domer and the 
■ketch of the life by Dctliugcr nro ia Tabingrr ZeiUchrift 
far Theoloeit, 1838, part 1. Consult further M. A. Lsn- 
derer. Niu&tt Dofnengachiihlc, pp. 171) sqq.. Hoilbroon. 

STEDERflAGEL, stoi'er-nu"gel, KAKL; German 
Protestant : b. at HAidegaen (10 ra. n.n.w. of 
Goltiugen] Feb. 17, 1S69. He was educated at the 
University of Halle ( and at the theological 
seminary at Wittenberg, and became privat-doeent 
for I 'Id-Test a im-nt exegesis at Hullo in IS'Jii, and 
extraordinary professor in 1907. Besides editing 
the Zeitschnft des deirfschen PalSatinit-Vereina since 
1903, lie lias prepared the volumes on Deuteronomy 
OSeS] and Joshua (189(1) for W. Nowack's Hand- 
kommentiir zum Allen Testament, to which he has also 
contributed Allijiineine Einlcitung in das Htr<itftich 
(1900), and has written Der Rahmen des Devtera- 
nomiumt (Halle, 1804); Die Entstehung des drutero- 
nomiaehen Gesetzes (IS96); Die Eirannnderung der 
israclitischen Stamme in Kunaan (Berlin, 1901); 
ffcfrdflcAi Gnm.matik (1903; 3d ed., 1909); and 
.1/, t'.v-h.iilu Hung zum hebraisehen Sprachunter- 
ricld (1905). 

STEVENS, ABEL: Historian of Methodism; b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 19, 1815; d. in San 
Jose, Cal., Sept. 12, 1897. He was educated at Wes- 
leyan Academy. Wiihraham. Mas.-., and at Wesley an 
i'liiversily, Middle town, Conn.; he completed a. 
course of' study at the tatter institution in 1834; 
joined the New England Conference in 1834; was 
appointed to churches in Boston, Mass., and Provi- 
dence, H. I.; became editor of Zion'.W/traH, Boston, 
1840; The National Magazine, New York, 1852; 
The Christian Advocate, New York, 1856; was 
joint edit iir, with Drs. MiClintock and Crooks, 
of The Methodist, 1860-71: and pastor of churches 
in New York City and Mamaroneek, N. Y. On 
retiring from editorial life, he traveled extensively 
in [he I'nited Stales and then in Europe, where he 
settled (in illy at i lent". ;i, Switzerland, taking charge 
of the American Union Church there, and liecame 
correspi m- lent of Anirrieati journals. In a series of 
works that remain the standard authority lie reduced 
l lie history of Methodism to a conneeteii narrative. 
He was the author of Sketches and Incidents (New- 
York, 1843V Memorials of the Introduction of 
Methodism into the Eastern States (2 vols., 184S- 
ISM); Essay on Church Polity '18-17); Essayonthe 
Preaching Requirci by the Times (1855); Essay on 
The Great Reform tn Systematic Beneficence (1856); 
The History of the Religious Morement of the Eight- 
eenth Century, Coiled Methodism (3 vols., 1S5S-61); 
Life and Timet of Nathan Bangs (1863); History 
of the_Mrthodist Episcopal Chureh in the United States 

(4 vols., 1864-67); The Centenary of America* 
Methodism (1865); Women of Methodism: its thru 
Foundresses, S. Wesley, the Countess of Huntingdon, 
and B. Heck; with Sketches of their female As- 
sociates (1866); Madame de Stael: Study of her Lift 
andTima{2voU.,lSSl); Character Sketches (lS52)j 
Christian Work and Consolation; the Problem of a* 
effective and happy Life (1SS2). 

STEVEHS, GEORGE BARKER : Congregatkmal- 
ist; b. at Spencer, N. Y., July 13, 1854; d. at Kw 
Haven, Conn., June 22, 1906. He was graduated 
from the University of Rochester, N. Y-, 1877, and 
from Yale Divinity School, New Haven, Conn., 
1880; became pastor of the First Congregational 
Church, Buffalo, N. Y., 1880; and of the Find 
Presbyterian Church, Watertown, N. Y„ 1W3; 
studied in (ierniany, 18S5-S6; and was professor rf 
New-Testament criticism and interpretation, Yale 
Divinity School, New Haven, Conn., 1886-95. He 
published Pauline Theology; a Study of the Orifis 
and Correlation of the doctrinal Teachings of 0* 
Apostle Paul (New York, 1892); Johannine ne- 
ology: Study of the Doctrinal Contents of the Goifd 
and Epistles of the Apostle John (1894); Doctrineani 
Life: Study of some of the principal Truths of thi 
Christian Religion in their Relation to ChristittH 
Experience (1895); Theology of the New Testament 
(1899); Messages of Paul (1900); Messages of On 
Apostles (1900); Teaching of Jesus (1901); and 
Christian Doctrine of Salvation (1906). He edited 
Chrysostom's " Homilies on Acts and Romans " in 
NPNP (1 ser., vol. si., New York, 1889); and A 
Short Exposition of the Epistle to the Galatians (Hirt- 
ford, Conn., 1890). 

BlBun-aiPllv: W. Walker, Gtont Barker Stern*: as Ai- 
dret: New Haven. 1006. 

copal bishop; b. near Tallahassee, Fla,, June 22, 
1830; d. at Charleston, S. C, Jan. 9, 1910. He wu 
graduated from the South Carolina Military Acad- 
emy, Charleston, 8. C, in 1849, and was connected 
with this institution as professor of mathematici 
1853-57 and of belles lettrea 1857-59, and as super- 
intendent. 1859-61. After serving in the Con- 
federate Army throughout the Civil War, he w» 
ordained priest in the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
but in 1875 became connected with the Reformed 
Kpiseopalians, and four years later was appointed 
bishop of the special jurisdiction of the South, 
having special oversight of the colored churches of 
that region. In 1890-96 he was also professor of 
mathematics in flat! in University. 

Granville, O., Feb. 5, 1839; d. at Rochester, N. Y, 
Jan. 2, 1910. He was educated at Denison Univer- 
sity, Granville (A.B., 1862), Rochester Theological 
Seminary (1S65), and the universities of Harvard, 
Leipsic, and Berlin (1S65-6S). He was professor 
of Greek at Denison University (1868-77), and 
after 1877 was professor of New-Testament exegesis 
at Rochester Theological Seminary. He edited 
Select Orations of Lysiu s (Chicago. 1876); and wrote 
Commentary on the Epistles to the Thesaalomant 
Philadelphia, 1887); Outline Handbook of the Life 4 


rbi'i (in collaboration with E. D. Burton; New 
York, 1893) ; Harmony of the Gospels for Historical 
oWyfwith the same collaborator, 1894); and Lift 
tf&iApottU Paul {Rochester, 1894). 

copal bishop of Pennsylvania; b. at Bath, Me., 
July 13, 1815; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., June 11, 
18S7. He attended Phillips Academy, Andover, 
Miss., but was obliged, through failure of health, 
logive up his studies; he then spent two years in 
taw!, and on his return graduated from Dart- 
mouth, Hanover, N. H. (M.D., 1837); he practised 
u  physician in Savannah, Ga., 18'J8-43; was 
wdained deacon 1843, and priest 1S44; was In- 
terim of the State of Georgia, 1841; professor of 
beWlettres and moral philosophy in the Univer- 
ritj of Georgia, Athens, Ga., 1844-48; became 
talat of St. Andrew's, Philadelphia, Pa., 1848; 
assistant bishop of Pennsylvania, 1S62, and bishop 
IS63. He was in 18)18 appointed by the presiding 
bishop to take charge of the American Episcopal 
churches on the continent of Europe, and held the 
{notion for six years. He edited with prefaces and 
notei the Georgia Historical Collections {vols. i. and 
ii. r Savannah, 1841-42); and is the author of A 
Hillary of Georgia from its Find Discovery by Euro- 
p«m to the Adoption of the Present Constitution in 
iJM(vol. i., New York, 1847; vol. ii., Philadelphia, 
1859); The Parables of the Nao Testament Prae- 
hci% Unfolded (Philadelphia, 1856; memorialed., 
1S87); Consolation; the Bow in the Cloud {1855); 
Siaiayat Home: Manual of Home Service (1856); 
Hi lard's Day, its Obligation* and Blessings (1857); 
Thf Pad and Present of St. Andrew's Church, Phila- 
^Mia (1858); Sabbaths of rar Lord (1872); Scr- 
"mt (Hint York, 1879); and many addresses, 
sharps, essays, and occasional Bennons. 

Bouccum: The memorial ed. of the Parables (nt sup.) 
maim i >kelch of the life. Consult further W. 8. Perry. 
Ai fpiwipolt in America, pp. 151-153, New York. IS95. 

«f*l, orientalist; b. at Peterborough, Ontario, Apr. 
15, I860. He was educated at McGiil University 
(A.B., 1889) and at the Wealeyan Theological Col- 
l^eat Montreal, Canada (graduated, 1891). He 
■as a teacher in the public schools of Ontario (1879- 
1*51): pastor in Islington, near Toronto (1890-91); 
"A later spent three years (1896, 1899, 1902) in the 
British Museum copying Assyrian contract tablets, 
"hile during 1900 he was a student in Berlin. 
Up has been professor of Hebrew at Vanderbilt 
t-'niwraity since 1892. Besides being associate edi- 
ta,*itbH.C.Tolman,of the Ko'iderWU Ortenioi Se- 
am, he has written Herodotus and the Empires of the 
fi* (with Tolman; New York, 1898); and Babylo- 
"an imd Assyrian Contracts, with Aramaic Befer- 
"•**■ (1902). 

STEVEbsoh, JOSEPH ROSS: Presbyterian; 
* at Ligonier, Pa., Mar. 1, 1866. He was grad- 
Mted from Washington and Jefferson College (1886) 
Jjxi McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, 
J (1889). He studied for a year at the University 
""t Berlin, then was pastor of the Broadway Presby- 
[^Churcb, Sedalia, Mo. (1890-94); became pro- 
"■» of church history in McCormick Theological 

Seminary (1894); pastor of the Fifth Avenue Pres- 
byterian Church, New York (1902-09); and of the 
Brown Memorial Church, Baltimore, since 1909. 

byterian pastor and organizer of mission work; b. 
in Strabanc {65 m. w.n.w. of Belfast), Ireland, Sept. 
20, 1832; d. at Ralhgar, Dublin, Ireland, Sept. 16, 
1886. He was of that Ulster Presbyterian stock 
which ha- given (i special character to the northern 
province of Ireland. He was graduated from the 
Univeisity of Glasgow (M.A., 1S51), and finished his 
theological studies in Scotland and Germany. Occa- 
sional passages in his writings show that while in- 
terested in the speculative and critical Hides of Ger- 
man theology, it was the warm, spiritual. Christian 
life of Germany, as displayed in German hymns and 
missions, which attracted him most. In 1856 he 
was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Stra- 
banc, became town missionary, and worked in the 
fever-stricken lanes of the poor part of Belfast. In 
1860 he accepted the call of the newly organised 
Rathgar-road Presbyterian Church, situated in a 
suburb of Dublin. Stevenson u- the hrsl minister 
of this church, and it was his first and only regular 
charge. Literary work occupied much of his atten- 
tion. His Praying and Working (London, 1362; 
new ed., 1886) is of interest to the student of social 
problems, as well as to the friends of missions 
Lives unii Deeds worth Knowing (New York, 1870'), 
compose,] of collected articles, and published with- 
out authority, is not less interesting. Hymns for 
Church and Home (London, 1873) has a scholarly 
accuracy and thoroughness which make it very val- 
uable to hymnologists. 

In 1871 Stevenson Wiis called to the work which, 
in some sense, was the most important of his life. 
becoming coadjutor with James Morgan, the con- 
vener of the Assembly's Foreign Mission; and ill 
1873 he became sole convener, while retaining the 
pastorate of his church. Successful as a preacher 
and a pastor, he seemed even better tilted for this 
new work, which he assumed with great dilli-fenee, 
and in its interest lie undertook extensive journeys 
In 1881 he was unanimously chosen moderator of 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
in Ireland. As a pulpit orator, Stevenson be)oiigr,| 
to the first rank. 


aatm-BT: His Lift 

t fuiti 

STEWARD. See Methodists, I., } 8. 

STEWART, ALEXABDER: Church of Scotland; 
b. at Liverpool Jan. 27, 1847. He was educated 
at Queen's College. Liverpool (1862-64), United 
College (1864-68), and St. Mary's College, St. An- 
drews (1868-71), and at the universities of Heidel- 
berg and Leipsic (1869-70). After Ix'ing minister 
at Mains and Strath ma nine, near Dundee, from 
1873 to 1887, he was appointed professor of sys- 
tematic theology at the University of Aberdeen in 
1887, and principal and primarius professor of di- 
vinity at St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, New 
Brunswick, in 1894, which position he still holds. 
He was Croall lecturer in 1902. In theological posi- 


tion he is " a moderate broad churchman, averse 
to :il] extremes and laving stress upon the rational 
and ethical elements in religion while recognizing 
ami allowing fur the emotional and mystical ele- 
ments," and holds " that forma of belief, organisa- 
tion, and worship are necessary, but that special 
forms may change and pass away with fuller light 
or chungnl circumstances." He has written Hand- 
book "/Christian Evidences (Edinburgh, 1882) and 
Life of Christ (London, 1905). 

STEWART, DUGALD: Scotch philosopher; b. 
at Edinburgh, Nov. 22, 1753 1 d. there June 11, 
1828. lie was educate' I at Edinburgh University, 
[765-6B; and attended the lectures of Thomas 
Reid (q.v.) at Glasgow, 1771-72; began to teach 
mathematics at Edinburgh in 1772; succeeded his 
father as professor of the same, 1775-85; and was 
professor of moral philosophy, 1785-1820. From 
1809 he lived in retirement at Kiuncil House, Lui- 
litugoshire, engaged in preparing the substance of 
his tectum for publication. Stewart was the rep- 
resentative and expounder of Reid's "philosophy 
of common sense " after the iatter's death. He 
was great ly diMi tarnished fur elegance and doimcnee. 
and his lectures were thronged not only by native 
students, but by many young men of position from 
England. Like Hl'id he made philo-i'i'liy dependent 
on inductive psychology, making much of external 
perception as furnishing evidence of objective real- 
ity; but, though approximating pure empinei-m. 
yet he strenuously opposed that school with intui- 
tion ism, representing intelligence as fundamental to 
the process of knowledge. He repudiated the on- 
t..lugi,:i| argument and was a thorough nominal- 
ist. His works were, Elements of the Philosophy oj 
the Human Mind (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1792 1827); 
Outlines of Moral Philosophy (171)::); and Philaso- 
jihil of the Art ill! and Mnriil Foiccra of Man (2 Vols., 
1828). The Collected Works are by Sir W. Hamil- 
ton, with biography by John Veitch (11 vols., 

Hiiiun'iitAi'iiT: n^i'li* the liioisrcvphy by J. Veitch. in vol. 
i. of the Work: consult: F. Humor, in Ldinburan fle- 
et™, vii (1806), 113-1.'M; S. Fnrr, Works, vu. M3-fiS3, 
London. 1828; M. Sii-wun (*in ■•! ilugnld). Life of Dueald 
Siruisrl. in Annual fiiugniji/ip and Vbiluaru fur IS2W. pp. 
258-2DB: A. H. Even-ll, Htrn-nrl'i M.tra.1 >•>■ if. n.,y:*„. in 
North Amniran Review, mi UW.Si. 21H-J87: H. Cock- 
bum, Material* pawim, Edinburgh, 1S56: J McCosu. 
Smltiilt I'hiluHinhu. Sew Yurie, !«S5: 8. Leslie-. Enoliih 
Utililariaiu, i. 142-ltW. Lotulun. ltKJO; DA'S. liv. 282- 

b. at Columbus, O., Feb. 28, 1854. He studied at 
Princeton College (B.A., 1876; MA., 1879) and at 
Mr I 'oiniiek Theological Seminary and Auburn Theo- 
logical Seminary (graduated 1879); was pastor of 
Calvary Church, Auburn, N. Y., 1878-84, and of the 
Market Square Church, Harrisburg, Pa., 1884-99; 
and became president of Auburn Theological Semi- 
nary and professor of practical theology. 1899. He 
has written Study of the Life of Jesus (Boston, 1907), 
and is the editor of the .1 uburu Scmiitanj Record. 

STEWART, JAMES: United Free Church of 
Scotland; b. in Edinburgh Feb. 14. 1831; d. at 
Lovedale (near the east border of Cape Colonv, 
South Africa, 700 m. n.e. of Cape Town) Dec. 21, 

1905. His early education was at the Edinburgh 
high school and at the Perth academy. His father 
had a farm in Perthshire and one day in his fifteenth 
year while James was plowing one of its fields tbe 
determination to be a foreign missionary was sud- 
denly formed. With this mode of life in view after 
leaving the academy, he entered upon higher studies, 
first in Edinburgh University (1850-52), then in 
St. Andrews (1852-54), again in Edinburgh (1854- 
1855), and in the divinity hall of the Free Church 
there (1855-59). He did not go in for honors but 
for a wide culture. That he put in much of his time 
on hotany comes out in the two elaborate and beau- 
tifully illustrated books which he published while 
an undergraduate: .4 Series of Botanical Diagram, 
Exhibiting the Structure, Physiology and Classifies- 
Hon of Plants. With explanatory Notes (London 
[1867b; and Stewart's Botanical Chart, comprimf 
a Tabular View of Structural and Physiological Bot- 
any [1857]. Both were textbooks in Scottish 
schools and colleges for many years. With the end 
of still better fitting himself for his chosen career 
he studied medicine in Edinburgh (1859-61 and 
1885-66) and took his degree. 

In 1857 David Livingstone visited Scotland and 
pleaded for men to enter the open door into Africa's 
heathen world. Stewart was one of those who re- 
sponded to this appeal. In 1859 he formally offend 
himself to his church for this service, and, as be could 
not be sent at once, became an active preacher of 
the missionary cause among his own countiymen. 
In 1860 he became a probationer, but with no idea 
of settling. In 1861 he went to South Africa and 
met Livingstone, who cordially welcomed him. H( 
went up the Zambesi and into Central Africa and 
returned to Scotland in 1864. In 1866 he married 
and went back to Africa, there to spend the rest of 
his life. In 1841 the Rev. William Govan had 
founded an institute at Lovedale, and in 1S67 
Stewart became his associate and in 1870 his suc- 
cessor. The place hud been named for the Rev. 
John Love, D.D. (1757-1825), a Presbyterian divine 
who in 1795 founded the London Missionary Society 
and was its first secretary. Stewart believed that 
God had made the black man of the same blood is 
the white man and was accordingly susceptible to 
the same educational influences. This was a nofd 
idea, but he succeeded in finding persons of means 
who enabled him to teach the blacks the profes- 
sions, the aria and sciences, and industrial pursuits, 
including farming. He took black girls and trained 
them in similar fashion for teachers, nurses, house- 
keepers, wives, and mothers. He demonstrated on 
a great scale his theories, for under him the Love- 
dale Institute became one of the triumphs of mis- 
sions. He won great fame by doing these things, 
and as '' Stewart of Lovedale " was known the 
world over long before he died. He was indeed the 
first great industrial and educational missionary, 
I'.ur ihiPtjgh to many his theories were tbe interest- 
ing thing, ti. him the missionary interest was domi- 
nant, and the thousands who came under his influ- 
ence felt that dearer to him than anything else was 
his r-'ligiiiii, and that lie wanted hi* colored friendil 
to know his Savior as the best acquisition they could 




In 1873 he had the satisfaction of starting at 
Bfytfaswood, named after Captain Blyth, magistrate 
of the Fingoee, a second Lovedale. In 1874 he made 
i tour in Scotland in the interest of both institu- 
tions, and also proposed the African mission now 
known as Idvingstonia. In 1899 he was moderator 
of the general assembly of the Free Church of Scot- 
land. In 1902 he delivered the Duff missionary lec- 
tures at Edinburgh. His life was too crowded with 
practical matters to allow him leisure for authorship 
of a general nature, but he produced these volumes 
which were in the line of his work: Lovedale, Past 
end Present (Edinburgh, 1884); Lovedale Illustrated 
(1894); Livingstonia t its Origin (1894) ; Kafir Phrase 
Book and Vocabulary (Lovedale, 1898); Dawn in 
At Dark Continent, Africa and its Missions (the 
Duff lectures; Edinburgh, 1903). 

BbuootAFHT: J. Wells, The Life of Jamee Stewart, Lon- 
don, 1908. 

STEWART, ROBERT LAIRD: Presbyterian; b. 
at Munysville, Pa., Aug. 11, 1840. He was grad- 
uated from Washington and Jefferson College (B.A., 
1866; M.A., 1867) and from the Western Theolog- 
ical Seminary (1869); was pastor at Conneautville, 
Pa., 1869-73, and at Golden, Col., 1873-79; was 
also superintendent of schools, Jefferson County, 
GoL, 1874-79; pastor of the Mahoning Church, Dan- 
viDe, Pa., 1880-90; and after 1890 professor of pas- 
toral theology, Biblical archeology, and Christian 
evidences in the theological department of Lincoln 
University, and also dean of the faculty. He has 
written The Place and Value of Pastoral Theology in 
to Curriculum of Theological Study (1894); The 
Land of Israel (1899); Memorable Places among the 
Holy Hills (1903); and Sheldon Jackson, Pathfinder 
snd Prospector of the Missionary Vanguard in the 
Rocky Mountains and Alaska (1908). 

STEWART, WILLIAM: Church of Scotland; 
b. at Annan (14 m. s.e. of Dumfries), Dumfriesshire, 
Aug. 15, 1835. He was educated at the University 
of Glasgow (B.A., 1861; B.D., 1867), where he was 
examiner in mental philosophy (1867-70). He was 
minister of St. George's-in-the-Fields, Glasgow 
(1868-75) ; since 1873 has been professor of divinity 
*Qd Biblical criticism in the university of the same 
<%, and dean of the faculty of theology since 1895. 
% has written The Plan of St. Luke's Gospel (Glas- 
gow, 1873). 

SIICHARIOIV. See Vestments and Insignia, 



I. In General. 

Use of the Term (f 1). 

" 8tichos " Equivalent to " Hexameter Line " (f 2). 
This Measurement Confirmed (f 3). 
Partial Stichometry (f 4). 
Cola and Commata (f 5). 
™. New-Testament Btichometry. 
Euthalius (f 1). 
Euthalius Tested (f 2). 

X. In General; The data of stichometry consist 
***efly of subscriptions at the close of manuscripts, 
^pressing the number of lines which are contained 
11 the book that has been copied; of marginal an- 
notations from point to point, expressing the extent 

of the previous text; or of quotations and allusions 
which are found in various writers, which indicate 

either the locality of some passage in 
z. Use of a quoted work, or the compass of the 
the Term, whole or part of the works of a given 

author. For example, at the close of 
Isocrates, Busiris, in Codex Urbinas, there is, in 
the archaic character, the number 390; while on 
the margin of the same work, in the more recent 
character, there is on fol. 22 v , 10 (§ 25), before 
tovtuv alrtoiy the number 2 (B) ; and on 25 v , 12 
(§ 39), before yeyov&rac $ rove, the number 3 (r); 
and these numbers represent the second and third 
hundreds of lines measured on some exemplar, either 
actual or ideal; Diogenes Laertius quotes a pas- 
sage from Chrysippus, Kara rove jtAiot* orlxpvc; and 
Galen estimates the extent of a certain portion of 
the works of Hippocrates at 240 verses; rovrov rov 
pifiXiov rd fihf Kara rd tv ypdu/ia pkpoc rb wporov 

tic oil* orixQvc itfaet (Galen, In Hippokratem de natr 
ura hominis, xv., p. 9). Full collections of such 
data may be found in F. W. Ritschl, Opuscula phi- 
lologica, i. 74 sqq., Leipsic, 1866; and in T. Birt, 
Das antike Buchwesen, chap, iv., Berlin, 1882. 
Everything in these data suggests that the numera- 
tion has reference to standard lines or copies; and 
since the actual number of lines in the manuscripts 
never tallies with the stichometric record, and we 
are unable to point to any copies which do furnish 
an agreement, it is evident that there is somewhere 
a common unit of measurement upon which these 
subscriptions and quotations are based: in other 
words, the stichos must have an element of fixity in 
it, even if it be not absolutely fixed. It is impor- 
tant, therefore, to determine in what direction the 
meaning of stichos deflects from its normal indefinite 
sense of " line," " row," and " verse." 

The term stichos is of itself extremely vague. It 
may be nothing more than row or line; as when 
the Septuagint uses it for the rows of stones in the 
high priest's breastplate; or, in a mili- 
a. " Stich- tary sense, it may represent the num- 
os " Equiv- ber of men in a rank or file of soldiers, 
alent to especially the latter; and so in other 
" Hex- cases. But in literature it is easy to 
ameter demonstrate that the stichos is de- 
Line." fleeted in meaning in the direction of 
a hexameter line. In the first place, 
such a unit is convenient for the comparison of 
prose-works with poetry; in the next place, actual 
instances of prose-passages are reduced to their 
equivalent verse-lengths; in the third place, the 
term is used of hexameter poetry, in distinction 
from any other; and, finally, any given work may 
be divided into hexameter rhythms and results 
compared with the transmitted numerical data. If 
these points be taken in order, it may be said that 
the prose-unit is more likely to be taken from poetry 
than that the unit of measurement for poetry is like- 
ly to be adopted from prose; for the line of poetry 
is already measured in a sensibly constant unit, and 
no reason exists for a change of that unit. The only 
question that would arise here is whether there may 
not be expected a variety of units of measurement; 
as, for instance, an iambic unit in distinction from 
a hexameter unit. It is sufficient to observe at this 




point, that such varieties of measurement, if they 
exist, are extremely rare. In regard to the actual 
reduction of a prose-passage to its equivalent verse- 
length, there is an important case in Galen (v. 655, 
ed. Kuhn), where, having quoted a sentence from 
Hippocrates, he continues: 

elc ftkv oirroc 6 X6yoc ewia not TpiAnovra ovXkaftijv bnep 
earl dvoiv kcu ijuioeuc inuv igafiirpuv tcri. 

If Galen, according to this, then reckons thirty- 
nine syllables as being equivalent to two hexameters 
and a half, or, as he continues, eighty-two syllables 
to five hexameters, the hexameter can hardly be 
different from a sixteen-syllabled rhythm. The as- 
sumption is easy that stichometric measurement is 
made by preference in syllables of which sixteen go 
to the hexameter, or unit-verse. The number six- 
teen invites attention as being the number of syl- 
lables in the first line of the Iliad, and as being a 
square number, a peculiarity which always had a 
certain attractiveness for early calculators. That 
the term stichos deflects in the direction of hexam- 
eter verse as against any other line of poetry which 
might have been chosen for a proper unit of meas- 
urement, will appear from Montfaucon (Bibl. Cois- 
lin., p. 597), where there is quoted from a tenth-cen- 
tury manuscript a catalogue of poets as writers by 
stichoi, and writers of iambics can only have re- 
sulted from a specialization of the meaning of the 
term stichos by constant use in a particular sense. 

In the demonstration of the same point by actual 

measurement, the most important researches are 

those published by the late C. Graux (in Revue de 

Philologie, Apr., 1878), in which he demonstrated, 

by an actual estimation of the number 

3. This of letters in certain works, that the 

Measure- stichos represented not a clause, nor a 
ment number of words, but a fixed quantity 
Confirmed, of writing. The average number of 
letters to the verse he found to vary 
between narrow limits, generally thirty-four to 
thirty-eight letters; and an enumeration of the 
letters in fifty lines of the Iliad opened at random 
supplied him with an average of 37.7 letters to the 
verse. This very important identification of the 
stichos with the hexameter is the starting-point for 
a great many new critical investigations as to the 
integrity of transmitted texts, their early form, etc. 
Whether the unit of measurement is a certain num- 
ber of syllables, or a certain number of letters, is 
not at first sight easy to decide. It is tolerably cer- 
tain that the measured line is, as above stated, a 
space-line, and not a sense-line; but to discriminate 
between a letter-line and a syllable-line is a more 
delicate matter. If the former be adopted, the unit 
should probably be fixed at thirty-six letters, be- 
cause this is the nearest symmetrical number to the 
average hexameter. There are very few instances, 
however, in which the actual letters of a line are 
found to be numbered; while the custom can 
readily be traced of limiting a line by the division 
of the syllables, in the earliest manuscripts. More- 
over, there is the actual measurement in the passage 
quoted from Galen; and Pliny seems to allude to 
the custom of syllable-counting, when, in one of 
his epistles, he demands an equally long reply from 

his correspondent, and threatens to count, not only 
the pages, but the verses on the page, and the syl- 
lables of each verse (Ego non paginas Ionium, std 
versus etiam syllabasque numerabo; Pliny, iv. 11). 
The preference must, therefore, be given to the 
syllable-line. It is comparatively easy to count the 
copmass of a book in sixteen-syllable rhythms, but 
a toilsome process to estimate with equal accuracy 
the number of thirty-six-letter lines. 

It is interesting to compare the relative sizes of 
the two line-units. M. Graux deduces 37.7 as the 
average hexameter in letters, and Diels (Hermet, 
vol. xvii.) makes the average of the first fifty line* 
in Homer to be 15.6 syllables. A verse 
4. Partial of sixteen syllables is then equivalent 
Stichometry. to about 1.074 verses of thirty-six let- 
ters each. In precisely the same way 
as M. Graux determined the average number of 
letters to the verse from the total stichometry, in 
the manuscripts of Herodotus, Demosthenes, Euse- 
bius, Gregory of Nazianzus, etc., one may examine 
the partial stichometry. This has been done for 
Isocrates by Fuhr (Rheinieches Museum, xxxm 
468) ; for the Plato manuscripts, by Schanz (Heme*, 
xvi. 309); and for the Demosthenes manuscripts, 
by W. v. Christ, in the able discussion entitled Die 
Atticusausgabe des Demoftthenes (Munchen, 1882). 
The partial stichometry is of the highest value for 
the study of texts; and in every case the data which 
it supplies are found to accord very closely with the 
fundamental statements above as to the paleo- 
graphical meaning of the word stichos. There are 
traces of partial stichometry in the great Vatican 
manuscript of the Old and New Testaments (cf. 
E. Nestle, in Correspondent Blatt /Hr die GeUkritn 
und Realschulen Wtirttemberge, 1883; and J. R. 
Harris, Stichometry, pp. 59-64, London, 1893). The 
foregoing investigations receivea striking and unex- 
pected confirmation through the discovery by Pro- 
fessor Mommsen in 1885 of a list of the canonical 
books of the Old and New Testaments and of the 
works of Cyprian in the Phillipps Library at Chel- 
tenham. These lists were accompanied by stich- 
ometric annotations, to which the scribe attached 
the information that the index of verses in the city 
of Rome is not clearly given, and elsewhere, through 
greed of gain, they do not preserve it in full; but 
that he went through the books in detail, counting 
sixteen syllables to the line, according to the stand- 
ard line of Vergil, and appended the number of 
verses. The importance of this statement is evi- 
dent. There was not only a stichometry of the Vul- 
gate and of the works of Cyprian by which the pur- 
chaser of books in Carthage or elsewhere could be 
protected against the rapacity of the bookseller, 
but the hexameter standard was clearly defined as 
the unit of measurement. 

Some degree of confusion is introduced by the 
existence, apparently, in early times, of an alterna- 
tive iambic verse of twelve syllables, 
5. Cola and as well as by the introduction of wri- 
Commata. ting by cola and commaia. The latter 
of these points has been an especial 
ground of combat, in consequence of the counte- 
nance which the custom seemed to lend to the theory 
of sense-lines in opposition to space-lines. The ex- 



pbnation of the matter seems to be as follows: when 
the earlier uncial form of writing was deserted for one 
more convenient for purposes of reading and recita- 
tion, the text was broken up into short sentences, 
named, according to their lengths, cola and com- 
mu; and in some instances an attempt was made, 
sot only to number these cola, so as to form a colom- 
etry similar to stichometry, and sharing the advan- 
tages which it offered for reference and book-meas- 
uring, but even to accommodate the arrangement 
of these cola so as to reproduce the original number 
of verses. Thus the rhetorician Castor (C. Walz, 
Rhetdm Greed, iii. 721, Stuttgart, 1834) discusses 
the pseudo-oration of Demosthenes against Philip 
as follows: tovtov tov Myov ori^ofuv icard. koXov kotov- 
ffwr-ff etf r$v *oo&nrra ruv k6Xuv Kara tov apSfibv 
rdv ipctiftevov kv rolf hpxoioti ftiffMoic, «f i/Urpifoev 
•rif i tof/iooOiviK tov Idiov \6yov. It seems also 
that this change of form took place first for those 
books which were publicly recited, or which had 
a semi-poetical structure; so that the oldest Bible 
manuscripts desert the continuous uncial writing in 
the Psalms, in Job, the Proverbs, Canticles, etc.; and 
8t Jerome proposed to imitate this peculiarly di- 
vided text in the prophets: " What is usually done 
in the cases of Demosthenes and Cicero, vis., that 
those writings which are in prose and not in verse 
are arranged in cola and commata, we also, looking 
to the convenience of the readers, distinguish a new 
interpretation by a new kind of writing " (preface 
to commentary on Isaiah). 

H New-Testament Stichometry: In turning to 
the New Testament, and particularly to the epis- 
tles, it will appear that the theory already advanced 
is completely confirmed, and that there is a very 
powerful critical implement for the restoration of 
early New-Testament texts in the tra- 
x. Baths- ditional data. As before, both total 
Hot, and partial stichometry exists. There 
is, however, a good deal of variation 
between the transmitted data, arising from various 
causes, such as variation in the text, variation in 
the unit employed in the measurement, difference 
in versions measured, and difference in the abbre- 
viations employed. The greatest authority, how- 
ever, for New-Testament stichometry, is found in 
the work of Euthalius (q.v.), ed. L. A. Zacagni, Col- 
tones monumentorum veterum ecdesice Grctca ac 
kfo* (Rome, 1698; MGP, lxxxv.). Euthalius 
*u a deacon of the church of Alexandria, and after- 
ward bishop of Sulci in Sardinia. (For modern dis- 
cussions with reference to Euthalius, his history and 
ftdteiastical office, besides the literature under 
Eutbautj8, consult Ehrhard, in Centralblatt far 
B Vu*hek8wuen, viii. 9, pp. 385-411; Von Dob- 
*faftti, in the same, x. 2, pp. 49-70. These dis- 
ttasions do not affect the problem of stichometry.) 
T has frequently but erroneously been credited 
!pb the introduction of stichometry to the New 
jj^ajnent, and these verses which he measured have 
*?* by many persons identified with the colon- 
^ting previously described. There is very little 
£?Qnd for any such ideas; and it appears that the 
8 P c hoi mentioned by Euthalius are hexameters of 
J^t^en syllables, a very slight allowance being made 
"* certain common abbreviations, The work of 

Euthalius consisted in editing the Acts and Catho- 
lic Epistles, with a complete system of prologues, 
prefaces, and quotations: every book was divided 
into lections, and to every lection, as well as to the 
greater part of the prefaces, was appended its nu- 
merical extent. The verses were also marked on the 
margin from fifty to fifty. There is thus a mine of 
stichometric information sufficient to test any theory 
in the closest manner. Moreover, the work has this 
importance, that Euthalius professes to have meas- 
ured his verses accurately, and to have employed 
the best manuscripts, viz., those preserved in the 
'Pamphilian Library at Csasarea. It is consequently 
permissible to set a high value on the measurements 
made, on the ground of antiquity as well as of 

It remains to test these results given by Eutha- 
lius for the lections of the Acts of the Apostles; and, 
no account being taken of the abbreviations which 

might have been found in the text, the 

a. Eutha- text of the Acts in Westcott and Hort's 

lius Tested. New Testament will be divided into 

sixteen-syllabled rhythms. If allow- 
ance were made for abbreviation, the results would 
have been somewhat less, as a syllable might be sub- 
tracted at every occurrence of the words debc and 
xptordc, and two syllables for each occurrence of 
upoovf and xOpioct with perhaps a few other rarely 
recurring words, as irari)p, wpavde. The data for 
Euthalius are taken from Cod. Escorted, ^. iii. 6, as 
there are some errors in Zacagni 's figures. Allow- 
ing for one or two obvious corruptions, such as the 
dropping of the figure p in lection 6, the agreement 
is very complete. 

The lines of the following table are nearly hex- 
ameters, so that the table affords a picture of the 
arrangement of an early bicolumnar codex: 



Cod. Em. 

and Hort. 


























8.1 (Jy*m) 






































Still more remarkable is the harmony between 
the measured text of Westcott and Hort and the 
Euthalian figures, when allowance is made for the 
abbreviations previously mentioned. In the follow- 
ing table the first column represents the stichometric 
number supplied by Euthalius and the best manu- 
scripts; the second gives the result of the actual 
subdivision of the text of Westcott and Hort into 
sixteen-syllabled verses; and the third expresses 
the same result with the proper deduction made for 
four leading abbreviations. 
The agreement between the first and third col- 
I umns is very complete and decisive as a test of the 


hypothesis proposed with regard to the nature of 
the Euthaiian stichoi. 

BiBuoaaAFBT: J. R. Harris, Stichomttrv, Cambridce, I3B3: 
idem, in AJP, noa. 12 {supplement), 14, 15; C. TlKBac 
dorf, MonumrrUa Hera iiudUa. una cttUaotM. L, p. its, 


23? or 242 

















his Coda Baa, London. 1867; (iraui, in Anu di Mi 

(1801). 217-303; Turner, in the eame, pp. 304-325; idm, 
in JTS, ii (1001), p. 230; E. Preuscheu. Analgia, pp. 13S 

I Corinthian 

II C.m.diL; 

1 T|-.."...„|.,il 

!l il,- -:■!■■ 

by Bias* and by Wachamuth; and xzxviii (1882), bj 
Fuar; and in «i™« aa follow*: ivi (1881). 30». bj 
Schani; tvii (1882). by Dieb: and xxi (1885). 142-1% 


II L'liDof.ii.v 

of Erfurt) between 1556 and 1564; d. at Erfurt (S2 

In the Gospels the data may be handled in a simi- 
lar manner; but the difficulties arising from variety 
of text, etc., are great: moreover, many mHBBMripta 
transmit not only the number of verses, but also 
another number corresponding to the fir/para of the 
separate books. From a large group of cursive man- 
uscripts the following numbers for the four Gospels 

tired of this pursuit conducted a wine-shop in hii 
native place; but in 1603 the city withdrew thu 
privilege. The next year he separated from the 
church and kept his children away from church 
and school. This involved him in violent contro- 
versies with the clerical ministerium and the coun- 
cil, resulting in his imprisonment. In 1606 he 
abjured his errors and was released. He moved 
to Erfurt and soon after to Gispersleben. From 





there he issued a great number of tracts; for ex- 
ample, " The Different Explanation of the First 
Man before the Fall, of the Other after tbe Fall, 
and of the Third and Last Adam Bora of God from 
Above." This tract was the one answered by Jakob 







From this it appears that the number of M/mra is 
sometimes in excess, and sometimes in defect, of 
the number of verses. It is doubtful, moreover, 
whether the verses of the Gospels are measured hy 
the same unit as is found employed in the Acts 
and Epistles. A fifteen — vllaUiil hexameter seems 
to agree best will) tlii: . ru<litii'>n:il figure. The Gos- 
pel of John, in the text of Westcott and Hort, is 
2,025 aliliri'viiited fiftecn-sylhiltli-d hexameters, an 
almost absolute agreement with the result given 
above (2,024). The question as to the meaning of 
the Milam subscribed side by side with the stichoi 
has caused not a little perplexity. It was pointed 
out by Hurris (Stichometnj, pp. 65-68) that the 
word k'li'ata was only a blundering retranslation 
of the Syriac pethgame, which may mean either 
" words " or " verses." Thus the reckoning of the 
pi/para is only a disguised form of the ancient 
Btichometry which has come back again from an 
eastern version. If, for example, the pi/uara as 
given above be compared with the pethgame as 
numbered in a Syriae manuscript on Mt. Sinai 
(Cod. Syr. Sin., 10), there results: 

found willing readers at Langcnsalia, where Sii. ■'"■ ■! ':> 
nephew, Ezcchicl Meth, was continuing his prop- 
aganda. Both were placed under arrest in 1613 
and the next year were brought before the su- 
perior consistory at Dresden. Tbey were com- 
pelled to make public retraction and pay the costs, 
and Sticfel had to meet, besides, a heavy fine. He 
next acquired property at Gispersleben, Kiliani, and 
Siiloimiiiihorn, where he assembled bis sister's fam- 
ily with his own, and their religious adherents. For- 
bidden to hold meetings, 1614, he violated his oath, 
at which the Erfurt council attempted his correc- 
tion, with apparent success. Shortly after, the 
council instigated a posse of farmers to seise him 
and a company engaged in a festival. Ail were re- 
leased after promising under oath to abstain from 
meeting, and Stiefel was likewise bound not to 
proselyte. Not fulfilling this, he was banished, to- 
gether with wife and child, from the city. His jour- 
ney to Basel was a triumphal march. There he met 
with no success and returned, in spite of the pro- 
hibition, to Gispersleben, Christmas, 1616, where he 
and his kin were immediately cast into prison. Attar 

Mil thaw 




were released; but his confinement continued until 
he recanted in 1619. He was granted the right of 
residence at Erfurt and opened a traffic in dyer's- 
weed; but resumed his religious efforts in 1631. 
He inveigled the Countess Erdmuth Juliane of 
Gleichen and Ohrdruf. whereupon the council was 
deliberating whether it should sentence him to 
death, when be fled into Tburingia. On Mar. 31, 


a. 524 





It appe 
same, whe 

errors in L 

rs clearly 
ukaand J 

that the 
wanes is d 
Am- J- 

wo systen 
lade for t 

e obvious 




1624, he was sent back to Erfurt, and remained a 
prisoner at the hospital until he died. He is said to 
have repented of his errors. 

Stiefel was a highly gifted man, well educated, 
and very familiar with the Latin and German Bible. 
The theological bickerings which then prevailed in 
the pulpits repelled him, and dry dogmatic disser- 
tations turned him from the Church. He had been 
studying the writings of Thomas Munzer (q.v.) for 
» long time, whose fundamental ideas he adopted: 
the renunciation of infant baptism and the Lord's 
Supper, as taught by the Church, the control of the 
secular power, and the Scripture as a dead letter; 
and the advocation of dreams and visions and of 
the inner word of the Spirit. The community idea 
of Mflnier he followed in practise. 

(Paul Meder.) 

Bnuoannrr: Hie one work of accessibility and value is 
P. Meder, Der Sehwdrmer Etajoe Stiefel, in Jahreebericht 
dm ErfvrUr Gfchichte- und AUertumeverein*, 1808. 

former and mathematician; b. at Esslingen (8 m. 
u. of Stuttgart) 1486 or 1487; d. at Jena Apr. 19, 
1567. He entered the Augustine monastery of his 
native city, and in 1511 was consecrated priest. He 
first assumed an active part in the Reformation 
with the treatise, Von der Christfermigen rechtge- 
frtndten Leer Doctoris Martini Luthere (1522), being 
specially affected by reading the book of Revela- 
tion. He took refuge in May, 1522, with Hartmut 
ofCronberg; but upon the surrender of Cronberg 
Oct. 15, he fled to Wittenberg, and, Mar., 1523, be- 
came court preacher of Count Albrecht of Mansfeld. 
With great zeal he devoted himself to mathematical 
studies, setting up a strange cabalistic system by 
transforming letters into the so-called trigonal num- 
bers 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, thus disclosing secrets of the 
Bible. Luther, however, assured him of the futility 
of his practise, from which he desisted for awhile. 
Luther also sent him as preacher to Christoph Jdr- 
ger of Toilet and Kreusbach, a nobleman in upper 
Austria. Compelled to flee from Austria in 1527, 
he found refuge in Luther's house, where he col- 
lected and transcribed the works and letters of 
Luther, until Sept., 1528, when he became pastor 
in Lochau. From 1532 he returned to his apoca- 
lyptical calculations and published Ein Rechenbuch- 
kin Vm End Christi, Apocalypais in Apocolypaim 
(Wittenberg, 1532). He unearthed the mysteries of 
the history of the Scripture, the Church, and the 
Papacy, and calculated the date of the advent of 
Christ as eight a.m., Oct. 19, 1533. Inconsequence 
he was brought to Wittenberg by the officers of the 
elector, held in confinement for four weeks to await 
ta elector's sentence, and only the intercession of 
Luther and Melanchthon saved him from prison 
*&<! secured his reinstatement in the parish of Holz- 
*rf, 1534 or 1535. Holding himself aloof from 
prophecies, for fourteen years, he prosecuted gen- 
0106 mathematical studies, resulting in ArUhmetica 
JJJ^o (1543); and Deutsche ArUhmetica (Nurem- 
**& 1545). He matriculated at Wittenberg, 1541, 
probably for the purpose of giving mathematical 
lnstr uction to students. During the Schmalkald 
*** Stiefel returned to his cabalistic play with 
qun *benj, was expelled from Holzdorf by the soldiers 

of Spain, fled to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and thence 
to Prussia, and was stationed at Memel, where he 
carried his calculations on Daniel into the pulpit. 
After a brief stay in Eichholz, near Kdnigsberg, on 
account of antagonism to Andreas Osiander (q.v.) 
there, he returned to Saxony as pastor of BrUck. 
At Eichholz he issued Ein sekr wunderbarliche WorU 
rechnung Sampt einer mercklichen Erklerung etlicher 
Zalen DanielU und der Offenbarung Sand Johannis 
(1553), composed of a mass of strophes, the sen- 
tences of which afforded the apocalyptical numbers 
and disclosed their mysteries. His partisanship for 
Flacius against Melanchthon induced him to go 
from Electoral Saxony to the territory of the Ernes- 
tines. After 1559 he held mathematical lectures at 
the University of Jena. His German explanation 
of Revelation, which he represented as a prophecy 
of all history, finally reached the Thomas Library of 
Leipsic; for specimens, see H. Pipping's Arcana 
bibliciheca Thomas, pp. 70 sqq. (Leipsic, 1703). 

(G. Kawerau.) 

Bibliography: O. T. Strobel, Neue BeUr&ge, i. 1, pp. 5 
sqq., Nuremberg, 1790; T. Keim, ReformationebUUter der 
Reichsetadt Etalingen, pp. 77 sqq., Esslingen, 1860; Q. 
Bosaert, Luther und WQrttemberg, pp. 7 sqq., Ludwigsburs, 
1883; ADB, xxxvi. 208 sqq.; TSK, 1907, pp. 450 sqq. 

STIER, sti'er, RUDOLF EWALD: German 
Biblical theologian; b. at Fraustadt (57 m. n.w. of 
Breslau) Mar. 17, 1800; d. at Eisleben (40 m. n.w. 
of Leipsic) Dec. 16, 1862. He entered the Univer- 
sity of Berlin in 1815 to study law, but finding this 
subject ill suited to his poetic taste, he was regis- 
tered as a theological student in 1816; but his 
romantic spirit led him to the pursuit of poesy, 
adopting Jean Paul as his ideal, and engaging in 
correspondence with him. In 1818 he went to the 
University of Halle and became president of the Halle 
Burschenschaft. In consequence of the decease of a 
young woman whom he loved and a change of life in 
that intense period of religious revival, he abandoned 
his literary adventure and took up the study of 
theology seriously at Berlin, 1819. From 1821 to 
1823 he occupied a position in the seminary at 
Wittenberg, where he devoted himself to a compre- 
hensive study of the Bible. In 1823 he took a posi- 
tion in the teachers' seminary at Karalene, and in 
the following year became teacher at the mission 
seminary at Basel; was pastor at Frankenleben, 
1829-38; at Wichlinghausen, 1838-47; spent a 
season in literary retirement at Wittenberg, 1847- 
1850; was called by the consistory of Magdeburg 
to the office of superintendent at Schkeuditz, 1850; 
and was superintendent at Eisleben, 1859-62. Dur- 
ing all these years Stier's main interest was in Bib- 
lical study in which J. von Meyer's annotated Bible 
was his basis and guide. Not satisfied with the 
Lutheran version he collaborated with Von Meyer 
in the production of his last edition of 1842, and 
in his own (Bielefeld, 1856) he made extensive al- 
terations. His translation is specially valuable for 
the parallel passages given. His exegetical works 
are practical and devotional, here and there pare- 
netic, and somewhat lacking in dogmatic relevance 
and pointed ness. He was author of Siebzig ausge- 
wdhlte Paalmen (Halle, 1834) ; and of commentaries 
on Ephesians (1846; popular ed., Berlin, 1859), oq 



Hebrews (2d ed., Brunswick, 1862), and on James 
(2d ed., Leipsic, I860). His experience of the inner 
life, familiarity with ascetic literature, and a fresh 
and piquant interest, mark these as well as hia 
widely distributed Raid da Herrn (2d ed., 5 vols., 
Leipsic, 1851-55; Eng. transl., Words of the Lonl 
Jesus, 8 vols., Edinburgh, 1855-58, 4th American 
ed., New York, 1864), a commentary on the Gos- 
pels; and Rtilen des ilerni voni Ilimmd hi-r (1,H5!.i; 
Eng. transl., Words of a liiien Sarior, Edinburgh, 
185U), on the Acts and Revelation. He represented 
a doctrine of direct and organic inspiration, accord- 
ing to which the personality til the authors disap- 
pears entirely, and the Holy Spirit implies in one 
passage what he txpr^si's in all others. This in- 
spiration was not of the letter but of the Word. 
He upheld, however, the integrity of the canon, 
being influenced more by church tradition than by 
historical criticism, and is to be characterized as a 
dogmatic mystic. Mention should be made of the 
well-know n and useful iVlvglot Bible prepared 
together with It Ci. W. Theile (4 vols., Bielefeld, 
1846-55). (F. A. THOi-ucKtO 

Bibuogkapht: C. I. Nitnoh, Rudolph 3tier all Throiaae, 

Barmen. IKDS; G. nail I'. stier, AVnfJ Itud.Jf .-iti^, 2<\ ,:,i. 

Wittenbern. 1871; J. P. Lncfoi., The lift of ft. Blur. 

New York, 1874; M. A. Landerer, SeaetU Dogmmgt- 

Khichtt. p. 371, Heilbrann. 1881. 

STIGEL, sti'gel (STIGELHJS), JOHAfllf: Ger- 
man humanist; b. at Frimar, near Gotha (77 m. 
B.w. of Leipsic), May 13, 1515; d. at Jena Feb. 11, 
15(.W. J'lliann Stigel w:isa man who held a prominent 
position in the Wittenberg circle of Melauchlluinian 
Km i ["i:mi^(s, because of his extraordinary endow- 
ments. He entered the University of Wittenberg, 
1531, where he lirst studied the ancient languages; 
und, later, medicine, physics, and astronomy; and 
soon became famous through his poems. By 1541 
he was at Hi-Bcii-liiirj*; and fur a congratulatory poem 
to Charles V., Germnnin: cpistota griitubtloria (1541), 
he received the imperi A thinks and the title, poVia 
laureatus. In 151:! he received the proftsaura Teren- 
tuina at the University of Wittenberg, and lectured 
on Terence, Hesiod, and Ovid. At the outbreak 
of the Schmidkidd war he removed to Weimar, and, 
in 1517, to Jena, where he, with Victorinus Strigel, 
established n higher gymnasium, teachitig rhetoric 
und poetics. This Vu the foundation of the new 
university, at the dedication of which, 1558, he 
delivered the oration. Difficult was his somewhat 
neutral position in the Philippic controversy (see 
Phjlipfists), on account of hi3 friendships 
in both camps, and just before the downfall 
of riacius, 15B1, it became almost intolerable. 
His poems indicate a pious and pure heart, 
and include elegies on .lohanu I'riedrich, duke of 

Saxony, and Luther. Collections were published 
ns Poftnota (in 9 books, Jena, 1561-72; 2 vols., 
1577; 3 vols., 1600-01). A German hymn may be 
found in Kirehenlied, iv. 541 (Leipsic, 1862-77) by 
C. E. P. Wackemagcl; and his Latin spiritual 
hymns (ib., i. 481-4B0). Besides, he was author 
of Orotic dc origin* rl HM nermonit (155!)); Annola- 
fvmca in Qtti'ilili-iiii tiittitttlioiiitm librum i., in P. 
Melanebthon's Annotation** in Qtiinltiionxtm, 1570: 
and De aniina rommrntarii, MelanchlhnnU cfpttratio 

(Wittenberg, 1576). (G. Kawehau.) 

BiBLioaHArnr: Arnos^ source* a 
('ft, vail, iit.-ix. Consult: K. GfllUioa. Vila J. SJlpfc 
T/iuringi, Jam, 1B5B; H. Finoaliiu. Oratio it nio <■ $Wt 
J. Stit/rlii, ib. ]£&); M. Adam. Vila Gcnwuurtm p'i- 
oiopKorum, Ugidelbsix, 1615; ADB, xxxvi. 128 oqn. 
STIGMATIZATION: The spontaneous forma- 
tion of wounds on the persona of Christians similar 
to those received by Christ from the crown of thorns, 
crucifixion, and the spear. No reports of stigma- 
tfoation date earlier than the thirteenth ceatun, 
Francis of Assist (q.v.) being tlie firet who wna af- 
fected with it, this taking place in 1224 at Mt. Al- 
verna in the Apennines. Besides his, the Roman 
Catholic Church relates about eighty other cases, 
some of them exhibiting only a partial sligmitiu- 
tion; not all, however, are so strongly attest*! is 
that of Francis. Single cases of stigmatixatioD bit 
been observed even in recent times, attested both 
by men of repute and by many thousands who ob- 
served them. A case of this kind is that of Anna 
Katharina Emmerich (b. of pious peasants in 1774 
near Coesfeld, 20 m. w. of Munster). From DM 
youth she showed deep religious feelings and a rare 
modesty and humility. In 1803 she entered the 
convent of Agnetenberg, where she was sHected 
with chronic illness. Soon after 1811 her body began 
to show complete stigma tiiation, which remained 
with her until 1819, when the scars were healed 
after prayer, though every Friday they assumed a 
red color and exuded blood. A similar case is that 
of Maria von Mori (b. 1812 at Kaltern, 61 m. a. of 
Innsbruck, d. 1868), who showed stigmata in aide, 
hands, and feet, witnessed by over 40,000 persons. 
The most recent instance is that of Louise Latent 
of Bois d'Haine near Cbarleroi, 30 m. s. of Brussels 
(b. 1850; d. Aug. 25, 1883). Stigmatisation may, 
therefore, be accepted as a fact, but its explanation 
is to be sought. 

Roman Catholics regard stigmatization as s mira- 
cle, and Gregory IX., Alexander IV., and other 
popes have put themselves on record in the case of 
St. Francis. But the phenomenon may be explained 
in a natural way. The human soul possesses not 
only normal but what pass as abnormal powers. A 
work of art, for instance, owes its origin not merejj 
to reason, but also to a subconscious instinct for 
creation. The same instinct appears in dream life 
while unconscious powers direct the functions of 
the human organism. It is noteworthy that St 
Francis and the other notable examples among the 
stigmatized suffered from morbid conditions from 
which an excess of psychic influence upon a tnorhidlf 
inclined and weak body is intelligible. Prottf- 
tunts, therefore, while admitting stigmatization, do 
not attach to it the same value as Roman Catho- 
lics; on the other hand, it is admitted that stigmfr 
tization shows itself only in those who in gloving 
love have devoted themselves to the Savior. 

(Jri.Trs HAMBEHQBR.t) 

The phenomenon is one that is known outside re- 
ligious circles. The exudation of blood through th» 
skin is recognized by the medical profession and o 
described in many books on dermatology. The" 
is, of course, no miracle in connection with the 



[ to which ia attached a critieaJ atudy of stigmata, and 
(brtbyF.E. duvjn de Malan. chaps. 14-15, Puis, IMS; 
A. Plkotti. Uiatorin admiranda de Jeau <' ahVma- 
Aw, hL R. Gibbon. Antwerp, 1S1Q; Ecangeliache K\r- 
ctmUav. 1835, pp. 180-301, 346-390: A. Tbaluok, 
I'emkalrSeAn/frfl. i. 07-133. Hamburg. 1830; tbeintro- 
dgrim to flai fcillfrs trijm mam. H«rm y«u CArtali, 
Nmieh, 1852: J. Ennemoter. Da Afannelumuii im Ver- 
UMi n=- A'afv und >ur fiehjibs, PP- 62-65, 131-142, 
etoisjut. 1353: B. Johnen. LaaUe bateau. Kein Wun- 
df.mlm Ttiuxhung, Leipsic. 1874; A. Rohling, Louite 
l*ion Fidorbarn, 1874; 1 -hartionnier do Batty. Maladies 
d hntftfj divetaem da mi/ttvtuit. Bruanela, 1875; P. 
Hijmkc Leiiuc Lotenu, Berlin. 1875; T. Schwann. Mein 
GtioUn tiier die Vmucht on Louiae Lateau, Cologne. 
IKS; Worlomont, Louite Lateau, Rapport mtdical nr 
la mtaaiMr de Boia d'Hairte. BruMcla and Paris, 1875; 
Dit Sliipnoiinerttn dea 19. J ohrhumtrrta. Regenaburg. 
IS"; C. Berene, Louiae Lateau nut I, den neutatcn BeobaeM- 
■vn Mi Eracbe-nunoen, Paderbom, 1878; J. J. von 
Gain, r*< .SJiomoM; a Rialory of carioua Corn, Lon- 
ike, 1BSJ (a tnuul. of part or ih> cAriaUicAa Myatii, If, 
410HM, 494-510, 4 tola., Regenaburg. 1830-42); P. 
Runkr, Lei Manifoiationa oculairea de Vhyattrie, Paha, 
19)2; A. Imbert-Gonbeyre, La ^lipmaliailton, rezbuc 
*uw, tf let miraela de Z*unJ«. 2 Tola., Paria, 1864; 
K itm. The Mental Slate of HyaterieaU. A Study e] 
Haul Stigmata. New York. 1901. 

STfXES, EZRA: American Congregationafist; 
b.iiSottb Haven, Conn., Dec. 15, 1727; d. in New 
Htvcn Hay 12, 1705. He was gradoated from Yale 
College, 1746; was tutor there 1749-55; he studied 
ik.'iijy but turued to law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1753; practised law two years, but re- 
turned to the ministry in 1755; ho was pastor in 
Kewport, R. I., 1755-77; in 1777, when the place 
TO occupied by the British, he removed to Ports- 
mouth lo become pastor of the North Church. In 
Sept., 1777, he was elected president of Yale Col- 
lege, •fan he was professor of ecclesiastical history 
till 1780, when he became professor of divinity. He 
■MiMOuntcd in hi* day the- most learned and ac- 
complished divine of the United States. He pub- 
EsbaUn Account of the Settlement of Bristol, It. I. 
.(Providence, 1785); and A History of Three of the 
Jvdgtt of King Charles /., Major General XVhalley, 
Major General Goffe, and Colonel DixweU, who . . . 
jUto America and were secreted . . . for near thirty 
HM With an Account of Mr. T. Wale of Narra- 
Jwwt, supposed to have been one of the Judges (Hart- 
ford, 1794). He left an unfinished Church History 
if Dm England, and more than forty volumes of 

liauoQUFHT: Conault the Life by A. Holme*, Boston, 
1W; that by J. L. Kingaky, in J. Sparks'* Library of 
■Iwvus Biography, Hi ml-.., II. is;m -38; W. B. Sprague, 
'fallal 0,, American Pulpit, i. 470-476. New York, 
IMS; V. Walker. 7oi JVew England Leader,, pswim, ib. 
IM1; uul The Literary Diary of Bien Stile,, ed. F. B. 
"tla, S vols. New York, 1001. 

tMD mystic and writer of devotional works; b. in 
°* "Uoge of Grand (23 m. n.e. of GBttingen) Sept. 
n < '710; d. at Carlsrtihe Apr. 2, 1817. His name 
"MJohjnn Heinrich Jung, but in the last twenty 
J 5 *™ of his life he called himself Jung-Stilling be- 
cau * be had written his autobiography under the 
■J* of StiUing. He was the son of a poor tailor 
•fl school-teacher and grandson of a charcoal- 
vj" w - lo his tenth year Stilling was entrusted to 
™ ei »lorof the Latin school at Hilehenbach, where 
w itudiwj Latin, mathematics, and history, and 

attracted the attention of Pastor Seelbach, who in 
1755 made him school-teacher at Litzcl, at the age 
of fifteen. Here he read Homer, and also the works 
of Doehme, but lost the favor of Seelbach by his in- 
tercourse with separatists. Stilling returned to his 
home and assisted his father, but after a short in- 
tervul Iwgnn to teach again in Drcisbach and Kle- 
feld. In 1762 he went as journeyman tailor on his 
travels, ultimately reaching Solingen, where he 
found work and spiritual advancement in the cora- 
j isi untie* iiilliirTn'i'i] l>y Sp.-rier mid TVf-tivgen. Then 
he became tutor in tin; house of a well-to-do mer- 
chant. After a short time spent with a tailor, ho 
taught again tn the family of a merchant named 
Flender who gaw him leisure and the means to 
continue his studies, cspi.rially in ancient and mod- 
em languages. Duritiy this time he became ac- 
quainlcd with ll»' Roman Catholic preacher 
in Attendom who was very successful in curing dis- 
eases of the eye and taught liini iiis methods. From 
1770 to 1772 Stilling studied medicine in Strasburg, 
where he became acquainted with Herder and 
Goethe. He then settled as physician in Elberfeid. 
In 177W he received a call to Kaisers! a utem aa pro- 
fessor in the school of political economy. After 
the removal of this school to Heidelberg in 1784 
and its connection with the university, Stilling 
went to Heidelberg, and in 1787 to Marburg in the 
same capacity. But, in spite of his success as teacher 
-triil j.livsieiaii, lie became dissatisfied with his call- 
ing, and gavi- ui> his po-ilinii in M;i;l"ir^ i.l- si ':li (u 
accept a call of Elector Karl Friedrich of Baden, 
who settled an annuity upon him so that he might, 
devote himself entirety to his religious calling :i\iA 
jirti[>:igiite religion ;md |ir;ietii';il I 'hrlsl ianii.y ( liruiiL-li 
bis ri.nvs[>ondencc and literary activity. He lived 
in Hi iilelberg as a witness of the living God and 
herald of Christ, 1803-OG; the rest of his life he spent 
in Carlsruhe. 

Stilling was a "patriarch of revivals" who, in 
the time of indifference and of the atrocities of the 
French revolution, showed thousands of people 
where salvation from moral degeneration could be 
found, and led them again to a profounder religious 
feeling. His books still have influence, being the 
products of immediate personal experience. Three 
works of Stilling have especially established his fame 
and importance; Hr-ixrirh Stillii"js .1 itijcnd (1777); 
Heinrich Stillinijx ./.■,/■. j/.i,-./.. juhre (1778); and Heirt- 
riclt Stillvnji! Waridersclt'i/i (1778). The first of these 
won Goethe's ardent admiration. Of his attempts 
in the domain of belles-lettres, only Th.eni.nhl nlr-r 
!■/(,' SrhifiirmiY (1784-Si'il survived, and even that 
bflOMBB it contains contributions to the history of 
the Separatists. Ifrinrirh Stilhiiq* lnhniliche-K L-hcn 
(1780) and Heinrich Sailings Lchrjahre (1804) are 
rontinnations of the story of his life mentioned 
above, but they lack the depth and originality of 
the first works. Dos Heimweh, Scenen aus dem 
Geisterreiche, Siegesgeschichte der chrisUicliir'. R. - 
ligion and Theorie der Geiaterkunde, works of a mys- 
tiral nature, were soon forgotten, but Stiil'nq showed 
the irresistible power of personally experienced faith 
in his periodica] publication, Der grave Utam I [7S5 
1818), and in Der chrUtliche Menschenfreund (1803- 
1815); Ta&chenbuch far Freunde dee Cfr&fcnAMM 



(1805-16); and BiUische Erzdhlungen (1808-16). 
The poems of Stilling were collected after his death 
and published by his grandson W. E. Schwarz 
(Frankfort, 1821); his S&mtliche Schriften appeared 
Stuttgart, 1835-39; and S&mtliche Werke, in the 
same place, 1841-44. (A. Freybe.) 

Bibliography: There have appeared in Eng. transl., Theory 
of Pneumatology, London, 1834; Heinrich Staling, 3 
parts, London, 1835-36 (transl. of the Jug end, Junglings- 
jahre, and Wanderschaft, ut sup.); Autobiography, 2 vols., 
ib. 1835, 2d ed., 1842, abridged, 1847; and Interesting 
Tales, ib. 1837. For Sailing's life his autobiographic 
writings, as indicated in the text, are of course authori- 
tative. Among sketches of the life may be named that 
by A. G. Rudelbach, in Christliche Biographie. Lebens- 
beschreibungen der Zeugen der christlichen Kirche, i. 435- 
514, Leipsic, 1849-50; the anonymous Lebensgesehichte, 
3d ed., Berlin, 1859; and ADB, xiv. 697-705. Consult 
further: N easier, Etude tMologique sur Jung Stilling, 
Strasburg, 1860; and Stilling's correspondence with his 
friends, Berlin, 1905. 

land bishop of Worcester; b. at Cranborne (22 m. 
w. of Southampton) Apr. 17, 1635; d. at Westmin- 
ster Mar. 27, 1699. He was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge (B.A. and fellow, 1653; M.A., 
1656; B.D., 1663; D.D., 1668). He then served as 
private tutor, and in 1657 became rector of Sutton. 
Just after the Restoration, he published his Ireni- 
cum, a Weapon Salve for the Churches Wounds (Lon- 
don, 1661), an attempt at a compromise between 
the established church and the Presbyterians. The 
following year appeared his Origines Sacra, or Ra- 
tional Account of the Christian Faith as to the Truth 
and Divine Authority of the Scriptures, in which he 
dwelt upon the knowledge, fidelity, and integrity of 
Moses, and the inspiration of the prophets, as in- 
ferred from the fulfilment of their prophecies, and 
extended the work in the line of a general apologetic. 
While in many points the work is superseded by 
later productions, it remains a storehouse of learn- 
ing, and displays much logical ability and lawyer- 
like habits of thought. This volume was followed, 
in 1665, by A Rational Account of the Grounds of the 
Protestant Religion, a publication issued to meet the 
Jesuit account of the Laud-Fisher controversy. In 
1665 he became rector of St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
and preacher at the Rolls Chapel; in 1667, prebend 
of Islington in St. Paul's, exchanged for Newing- 
ton in 1672; royal chaplain in 1667-68; canon in 
Canterbury cathedral in 1669; archdeacon of Lon- 
don, 1677; dean of St. Paul's, 1678. The Unrea- 
sonableness of Separation (2 parts, 1681-82) gave 
unmistakable proof that he had abandoned the 
moderate opinions, and dropped the conciliatory 
temper, expressed in his Irenicum. This brought on 
him answers in the way of defense, written by Owen, 
Baxter, and other non-conformists, and he candidly 
acknowledged his mistake. His Origines Britannica 
(1685) was an investigation of the sources of Brit- 
ish ecclesiastical history (standard ed., 2 vols., Ox- 
ford, 1842). In 1689 he became bishop of Worces- 
ter, and as such took part in the commission for 
revising the Book of Common Prayer. In 1695 a 
violent dispute went on among certain non-conform- 
ists respecting Antinomlanism; and some of the 
disputants appealed to Stillingfieet as a sort of ar- 
bitrator, a circumstance which showed that by this 

time he had recovered his reputation as a healer 
of strife. An active mind like his would meddle in 
all sorts of questions, and he could not refrain from 
taking part in the great doctrinal controversy of 
the age. A Discourse in Vindication of the Doctrine 
of the Trinity was published in 1697. StiHingfleet 
was a metaphysician, as well as a divine, and criti- 
cized Locke's Essay on the Human Understarv&nq 
the same year, following that up soon afterward by 
a rejoinder to Locke's reply. Other works are The 
Council of Trent Examin'd and Disprov'd (1688); 
and Sermons (4 vols., 1696-1701). A collected edi- 
tion of his works, with his life by Richard Bentley, 
was published (6 vols., London, 1709-10). 

Bibliography: Besides the Life by Bentley in the Work*, 
ut sup., consult: G. Burnet, Hist, of his own Time, 6 vok, 
Oxford, 1833; T. Baker, Hist, of the College of SL Jos* 
. . . Cambridge, ed. J. E. B. Mayor, ii. 098-703, London, 
1869; DNB, lix. 375-378. 

Presbyterian; b. in Charlestown, S. C, Mar. 14, 
1819; d. at Tuscaloosa, Ala., Jan. 23, 1895. He 
received his education at Oglethorpe University, 
Midway, Ga. (B.A., 1841) and at the Theological 
Seminary at Columbia, S. C. (graduated, 1844); 
was licensed by Charleston presbytery in 1844; 
in the same year served as substitute pastor of the 
Second Presbyterian Church of Charleston for ax 
months during the absence of the pastor; was or- 
dained by the presbytery of Tuscaloosa, Ala., in 
1845; was pastor at Eutaw, Ala., 1844-53; at 
Gainesville, Ala., 1853-70; and at Tuscaloosa, Ala., 
1870 till his death. He was moderator of the gen- i 
eral assembly in 1876. 

He was on the editorial staff of The Southern 
Presbyterian for a number of years, while that paper 
was published in Columbia, S. C. To him, more 
than to any one else, was due the founding at Tus- 
caloosa, Ala., of an institution for the training of 
colored ministers. From the time of its founding in 
1 878 up to within a few months of his death, he was 
the superintendent of the institution and watched 
over it with fatherly care. When he resigned from 
the superintendency, the general assembly in recog- 
nition of his services named the school the StOlman 
Institute for Training Colored Ministers. 

R.C. Reed. 

Societies, III., 3. 

STOCK, EUGENE: Church of England layman; 
b. at Westminster Feb. 26, 1S36. He received bis 
education at private schools, and was in mercantile 
life till 1873, though he acted as honorary editor to 
the Church of England Sunday School Institute, 
1867-75; he was in succession editor, editorial sec- 
retary, and general secretary of the Church Mission- 
ary Society, 1873-1906, and vice-president since 
1906; member of the London diocesan conference 
since 1882, member of the house of laymen of the 
Canterbury ecclesiastical province since 1886, and 
diocesan reader for the diocese of London since 1991; 
and contributor to the American Sunday School 
Journal, 1873-81. He belongs to the Evangelical 
party in the Church of England. He has published: 
Lessons on the Life of our Lord (London, 1871, and 




often, 200,000 copies sold); Lessons on the Ads of 
the Apostles (1872); Story of the Fuh-Kien Mission 
of the Church Missionary Society (1877); Steps to 
Truth (1878, many editions, also translations into 
other languages) ; Japan and the Japan Mission of 
the Church Missionary Society (1880) ; Lesson Studies 
in Genesis (1885) ; History of the Church Missionary 
Society (3 vols., 1899); One Hundred Years of the 
Church Missionary Society (1899); Short Handbook 
of Missions (1904); Notes on India for Missionary 
Students (1905); The Story of Church Missions 
(1907); Talks on St. Luke's Gospel (1907); and My 
Recollections (1909). 

STOCK, SIMON. See Simon (Simeon) Stock, 

TIAN VIBE: Norwegian missionary; b. at Fredriks- 
stad Jan. 11, 1787; d. at Sandefjord (58 m. s.s.w. 
of Christiania) Apr. 26, 1866. By the death of his 
father, who was a preacher, in 1794, his mother was 
left in dire poverty with three children of whom 
Nils was the oldest. She afterward moved to Copen- 
hagen in order to give the two oldest boys a legal 
education. Nils, however, had a strong inclination 
for theology. In 1805 the mother died; and the 
two boys, overcome by sickness, grief, and over- 
work, were brought into a hospital in great destitu- 
tion. Nils received a lieutenancy in the army dur- 
ing the European war, and upon the conclusion of 
peace (1814) was honorably discharged with the 
rank of captain. He then returned and entered the 
Norwegian army. He became a tutor in the family 
of a rural preacher near Waldres in 1818, which led 
to a revival of his desire for the study of theology. 
He entered the University of Christiania in 1823, 
and was ordained a missionary to Finmark (north- 
ernmost Norway) in 1825; and in spite of his weak 
lungs and his paralyzed right arm, he, accompanied 
by his wife, went to Vadsd on the Arctic Ocean, the 
same year. Finmark has an area of 18,250 square 
miles and a scattered Finnish population of 21,000, 
either engaged in the fisheries or following with their 
reindeer a nomadic life inland. As the only other 
church district was without a pastor, Stockfleth's 
field included this wide extent. At the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, the Finns of this prov- 
ince were only nominally Christians, demoralized by 
the liquor traffic and the selfish spoliation of the Nor- 
wegians. The Gospel had been planted by the zealous 
teacher Isaac Olsen (1703-16) and by Thomas 
von Westen (q.v.), the " Apostle to the Finns." In 
order to serve the six churches Stockfleth was 
obliged to make long and perilous journeys, some- 
times by boat, sometimes by sled, even as far as 
into the Russian empire. Finding the work under- 
taken beyond one man's strength, he determined 
to confine himself to the ministry of the Lapps, 
sharing with them their huts and fare, in order to 
master their speech and win their confidence. At 
one-fourth his former income he therefore assumed 
the Lebesby pastorate (1828). His work was an 
incessant itinerancy; he tarried usually about eight 
weeks in a district and stopped only briefly with 
the families scattered miles apart. More and more 
the conviction increased upon him of the inadequacy 


of the literature for the Finns. With great exer- 
tion he had translated Erik Pontoppidan's expla- 
nation of the catechism, the New Testament, and 
the book of Genesis. These he consigned with others 
to the flames in 1830. He was more and more im- 
pressed with the necessity for the establishment of 
the Lappish literary language upon a new basis. 
In preparation for this work he spent the years 
1831-33 in Christiania, Copenhagen, Stockholm, 
and Helsingfors, holding conferences with leading 
scholars. Having returned to Finmark in 1833, he 
invented a new phonic alphabet. In 1836 he jour- 
neyed to Christiania to publish his writings, and 
prepared two students in the Lappish language. 
The year 1837 he spent in Finland for a more thor- 
ough study of Finnish, and, upon his return to 
Christiania, published a primer and reader, Luther's 
Shorter Catechism, a translation of Matthew and 
Mark, and a Biblical history. This was done at the 
expense of the Storthing, which authorized also a 
complete translation of the Bible. Then he turned 
his attention again to the mountain Lapps (1840- 
1845, 1851-62), always intent upon the instruction 
of pastors for the people. The history of all his 
missionary expeditions he published in his Dagbog 
over mine Missionsreiser i Finmarken (Christiania, 
1860), with an appendix giving an excerpt from the 
most important writings on Finnish history and 
language. An episode in the last period of his work 
was a wave of religious frenzy originating from the 
preaching of Lars Lewi Lsestadius in a neighboring 
Swedish diocese. This movement threatened the 
public peace as well as public and private morals. 
Stockfleth hastened to the scene, and for six months 
waged battle against the morbid outbreak. Ex- 
hausted in strength, he retired in 1853, after having 
been pensioned; and spent the remaining years of 
his life (1853-66) at the baths of Sandefjord. His 
" Religious Letters " (1845) show a profound relig- 
ious life. (J. Belsheim.) 

Bibliography: The principal source is his own Dagbog, ut 
sup. Sketches of his life are by J. Forechhammer, Copen- 
hagen, 1867; and C. H. Kalkar, in F. Piper's Evangel' 
isches Kalendar, 1867. Consult also H. Steffens, Ueber 
die happen und Pastor Stockfleth* Wirksamkeit tmter 
dieaen, Berlin, 1842. 

Protestant; b. at Mount Holly, N. J., June 4, 1808; 
d. in Philadelphia Oct. 9, 1868. Converted in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, he joined the Meth- 
odist Protestant Church on its organization, and in 
1829 was placed upon a circuit. He was stationed 
in Baltimore, 1830; was chaplain to the house of 
representatives, 1833-35 and 1859-61, and to the 
senate, 1862. He preached in Philadelphia, 1838- 
1847; in Cincinnati, 1847-50; as associate pastor 
in Baltimore, 1850-56; as sole pastor in Philadel- 
phia, 1856-68. He was one of the most eloquent 
preachers of his day, and was an anti-slavery pio- 
neer. He compiled a hymn-book for his denomina- 
tion (1837), and published Sermons for the People 
(Pittsburg, 1854); Poems, with Autobiographic and 
Other Notes (Philadelphia, 1862); and Book above 
All; or, the Bible the only sensible, infallible and di- 
vine Authority on Earth: Discourses (1870). 

Bibliography: A. Clark, Memory's Tribute to the Life, Char- 
acter, and Work of the Rev. T. H. Stockton, New York 






terian; b. in Boston, Mass., May 28, 1833. He was 

<-. illicit- i.'d at Williiiiiis Collect. Williamstown, Mass. 
(A.B., 1854), the University of Edinburgh and Free 
Church of Scotland Theological Seminary (1855-56), 
and at Union Theological Seminary (graduate.!, 
185ft), after which he was pastor of the Washington 
HeighN 1'ieslnii'rian Church, New York City, until 
1883. In 1861) he was associate editor, in 1873 part 
owner, and from 1885 to 1902 editor-in-chief of The 
Observer; he has also been active in directing and 
promoting various philanthropic enterprises. He 
edited The Centennial Celebration of Williams 
College (Williamstown, Mass., 1894) and has 
written Across Russia from the Baltic to the 
Danube (New York, 1891); Spanish Cities, with 
Glimpses of Gibraltar and Tangier (1892); Beyond 
th<: BoofeMf (1894); A Spring Journey in California 
(1895); and Cruising Among (Ae Caribbces (1895; 
new ed., 1903). 

STODDARD, DAVID TAPPAfl: Congregational 
mi.-.-i'iiiiirv; !). at Northampton, Mass., Dec. 2, 
1818; d. at Ururaiah, Persia, Jan. 22, 1857. He 
Studied at Hound Hill Academy and Williams Col- 
lege; was graduated from Yale College, 1838, and 
from Andover Theological Seminary, 1841; sailed 
u~ mis-itonarv I" the Nesturinns, 1843, among whom 
he labored successfully. From 1848 to 1851 he was 
in America on a visit. He was particularly inter- 
cHtfl in the Xi' youths whom lie gathered in 
tin' wminu.ry established in 1844 at Urumiah. His 
tlicfilncif-al lectures, which embraced a complete 
course of doctrinal theology, he delivered in Syriac, 
His CrtiiHHiar of the Modern Syriac Language was 
published in the Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, New Haven, Conn., 1855. 
BaiDMKUnCT! J. P. Thompson, M tmoir of David Tappon 
Stoddard, New York, 1858. 

STODDARD, SOLOMON: Congregationalist; b. 
in Boston, Mam., 1643; d, at Northampton, Mass., 
Feb. 11, 1729, He was graduated from Harvard 
College, 1662; was chaplain in Barbados for two 
years; preached at Northampton 1669-1729, when 
he was succeeded by his grandson, and colleague 
from 1727, Jonathan Edwards. From 1667 to 1674 
lie was first librarian at Cambridge. He is remem- 
bered for his theory that " the Lord's Supper is in- 
stituted to be a means of regeneration," and that 
persons inay and ought to come to it, though they 
know themselves to be in a " natural condition." 
He wrote The Safety of Appearing at the Day of 
Judgement, in the Righteousness of Christ (Boston, 
1687; 3d ed., 1742); The Doctrine of Instituted 
Churches Explained and Proved from the Word of 
God (Boston, 1700; a reply to Increase Mather's 
The Order of the Gospel, Professed and Practised by 
the Churches of Christ in New England, Justified, 
Boston and London, 1700); An Appeal to the 
Learned, Being a Vindication of the Right of visible 
Saints to the Lord's Supper, though they be Destitute 
of a saving Work of God's Spirit on their Hearts; 
Again kI the Exceptions of Mr. Increase Mather 
C1709); A Guide to Christ, or the Way of Directing 

Souls that are under Conversion (1714); An Anise? 
to some Cases of Conscience (1722). 
BnunoBtrai: W. B. Sprague, Aruiolt of tit* Attritm 
Pulpit. 1. 172-174, New York, 1858; W. Walker. Crmk 
and Platform* of Cingrroationalitm, passim, ib. 1993; 
ideal, id Amencan CAurcA Hittom Seriw. iii. 180-lffi, 
188. 251, 254. ib. 1894; idem. Ten Nor Bnalaod Lnin 
pp. 218, 227. 232, 245-247. ib. 1901; L. W. Bian. JU 
ConareaatumaliiU, pp. 81. 113, 117. 119. ib. 1904: F. H. 
Foster. Qtnttie But. of New Enotamd Thmhov, pp. 30, it 
36-40. 51. Chicago, 1907. 

STOECKER, stuk'er, ADOLF; German Unite! 
Evangelical; b. at Halberstadt (31 m. b.w. of Msg- 
deburg) Dec. 15, 1835; d. at Nuremberg Feb. 25, 
1908. He was educated at the universities of Halle 
and Berlin (1854-57); was private tutor in Neustadt 
(1857-59) and in Kurland (1858-63); became pas- 
tor at Seggerda, near Halberstadt, where he re- 
mained until 1866, when he was called in a similar 
capacity to Haraersleben; from 1871 to 1874 he wu 
military divisional pastor at Met» (1871-74); wis 
court and cathedral preacher at Berlin (1874-91); 
in 1891 his political views caused his dismissal. In 
1878 he became a member of the general synod of 
the Evangelical Church, Stacker's chief fame is 
due to his foundation, in 1878, of the Christian so- 
party, and to his sturdy advocacy of aofr 
3e he regarded Judaism as a danger 
both to Christianity and to the political strength of 

Stoecker was elected as the avowed advocate 
of these views to the Prussian diet in 1879, re- 
taining office until 1898, while from 1881 to 1893 
he was likewise a member of the Reichstag, re- 
elected in 1898. He served as president of the 
Christlich-Sraiaier Verein, which, owing to the 
decline of the anti-Semitic movement in Germany, 
had diminished in prestige. In 1887 he founded 
the Deutsche cvangdisclie KirchrmeUung, which he 
edited after 1892. He wrote Christlich-Sozial (Biele- 
feld, 1884); Eins ist Not, ein Jahrgang Volisprrdig- 
ten uber freie Texte (Berlin, 1884); Land, hare da 
Herrn Wort, ein Jahrgang Volkspredigten Uber Hi 
Episteln (1885); Den Armen wird das Evangdiw 
geprcdigt ( 1 887) ; Die sotialen und kirchticM* 
Notstdnde in grossenStddten (Stuttgart, 1888); Won- 
dell im Geisl (Berlin, 1888); Die eonntdglicht Pi* 
digt (1889); Soli der Erde (1892); Woek auf, em- 
gelisches Volk (1893); Dreizehn Jakre Hofpredifir 
und Politiker (1895); GesammelU Schrtften (18M); 
Verhcissung und Erfullung (1896); Das Evangtli'" 
eine Gottcskraft (1900); Beetdndig in der Ap&d 
Lehre (1901); and Das Leben Jetu in Idglichen An- 
dachten (1903). 

STOESSEL, JOHANN: German theologian; b. 
at Kitringen (10 m. s.e. of Wurzburg) June 23, 
1424; d. at Senftenberg (33 m. n.e. of Dresden! 
Mar. 18, 1576. After taking his degree at Witten- 
berg in 1549, he was called, as an anti- Philippic 
to Weimar by Duke John Frederick as chaplain, 
and in this capacity he took part with Maximilian 
Merlin, court chaplain at Coburg, in introducing 
the Reformation in the margravate of Baden-Dur- 
lach in 1556, vigorously opposing everything diver- 
gent from strict Lutheratiism. In the same spirit 
he opposed Melanchthon at the colloquy of Worms 


in the following year. He was made superintend- 
mt it Heidburg, and in 1558 took part, with Mor- 
M and Simon Musaeus, in the preparation of the 
ffeacar " Book of Confutation," which they de- 
fended igainst Victorinus Strigel and Pastor 
Bugd in a special Apologit in 1559. The next year 
Eltnri and Mcirlin accompanied John Frederick 
lo Heidelberg, in the hope of keeping the duke's 
blher-ia-law, Elector Frederick the Pious, firm in 
lutheranism. This proved impoaaible, however, 
and shortly after Stossel 's return a change became 
ippurnt in his own attitude. In ensuing contro- 
wrries between Lutheran and Colvinistic theolo- 
pius both he and Morlin assumed an intermediate 
(nation, and in this frame of mind became coun- 
don of John Frederick, though at the Naumburg 
Dirt of princes in 1561 they still worked on the side 
ofFUriuB. But when Stossel was appointed, first 
temporarily and then (Sept., 1561) definitely, 
superintendent in Jena, his mediating position be- 
came more pronounced, and with his limitation of 
the theological controversy of the Jena professors 
and the elevation of the Weimar consistory, at his 
instace, to the supreme church authority in Thu- 
rinpa, with himself as its assessor, the breach be- 
tmn him and the Flacian party became complete, 
n that when Flacius and Wigand protested in 
writing against him, he lodged complaint against 
then it court. 

Tie result of this controversy was the deposition 
d both his opponents and the rout of their whole 
jvty, while Stossel was appointed to a thcolog- 
m professorship and undertook the difficult task 
d mediating between the Flacian clergy and the 
•ywrpitic Strigel. But his Superdedaratio, com- 
posed la this end, caused fresh dissension and the 
dkmisMl of some forty recalcitrant pastors in 1562- 
183, u well as a bitter literary controversy. Stri- 
gel, mspicious of Stossel, resigned from the faculty, 
and lor a time StSasel was the sole theological pro- 
ietorM Jena, of which he was rector in 156a, 1665, 
aid 1567. After the fall of John Frederick, his 
bother and successor, John William, recalled the 
•uled pasters in 1567, and they issued, against 
Stand* Superdedaratio, their own kesponrio 
eni/urn Thurinqiamtm, compelling all who had sub- 
•rrihed to his work lo resign. Through the influence 
of tie Elector August he was appointed super- 
intendent in Muhlhausen, whence he was trans- 
•fHi to Pirns, becoming ecclesiastical councilor 
•nd confessor to the elector. In May, 1570, at 
toe colloquy of Zerbat, he sought recognition for 
we Corpus doctriniE Phtiippicum. But his plea for 
^erypto-Calvinism of the Philippists doomed him, 
■nd b March he was confined to his house in Pima, 
*hcre he signed a declaration submitted to him by 
•^elector. At the Diet of Torgau, however, bis 
l ' B '«pectful utterances about high personages 
*en brought to formal notice, in August he was re- 
,BOr ed to the fortress of Sent tenberg, and in Jan., 
157G,igai n underwent a formal trial. 

St&seis revulsion from the Flacians of Jona 
"Wwes its explanation from their terrorism, but 
"» change to crypto-Calvinism is more difficult to 
fWuat for. Many of his contemporaries ascribed 
" to unworthy motives; and it is impossible to tell 

how far personal ambition was the cause, or how 
far the reason lies simply in the development of his 
views of theology and of the Church. 

(G. Kawerau.) 

Bisuoobjlfkt: H. Heppe, QtKhidUt dm Prnlrtlantitmui, 
-rata, i.-ii., Marburi, 18S2-53; A. KJuckholm. F:,.l;ch 
At Frommt, pp. 69 «j a .. N'lrdJingen, INTO; R. Hofmaim. 
Grtetiidilt Art Kirche SI. Morten in Pirna, pp. 38iqq., 


t. 471 * 

STOICISM: One of the philosophic-ethical 
schools of ancient Greece and Rome. Tin? founder 
of Stoicism was Zeno of Citiuni in Cyprus (d. in 
Athens c. 260 B.C.), originally a trailer, who in mid- 
dle life determined to reside permanently in Athens. 
Here, in the Stoa pnikile, the colonnade adorned 
with frescoes of patriotic themes of Attic lagirnlli 
and history, he was wont to meet his followers, 
hence the name. The formal resolutions of the At- 
tic government in his honor seem to attest the sub- 
stantial consistency of his conduct and of his doc- 
trine. Neither his direct successors, Ueanthes of 
Assoa (d. about 220 B.C.), and Chrymppus the Cili- 
cian (d. about 207 B.C.), nor PanaHius {d. 112 B.C.) 
and Poaidonius (d. about 50 B.C.) can be here dis- 
cussed. What is of interest is the attitude of the 
school toward religion and ethics. 

Formally the Stoics were materialists. Even 
deity, divinity, God, was to them a substance, ether, 
the most delicate and all-pervasive element. In 
the periodic processes of cosmic making and unma- 
king, whether through fire or deluge, this alone it 
imperishable and eternal. Of this substance are the 
individual souls of men, but (hey are not immortal. 
"God," "universe," "the world," " fate," "provi- 
dence," " Zeus," all these as well as " reason " arc 
merely terms and names for one and the MJM tliinn 
(Diogenes Laertius, vii. 135). God is immanent in 
the world, dissolving it in cosmic periods i t i r , . himself 
nnd creating it again out of himself. Intelligence. 
and providence pervade and permeate the world. 
Past and future are infinite eternities, the present 
only is limited. Toward the physical personifica- 
tions of the so-called religion of the Greeks, this 
school assumed an attitude which, when supvtlieially 
considered, appeared to be conservative, but it was 
in effect destructive. They resorted to allegories 
and allegorical interpretation. This matter and 
method found its way into the schools of those who 
expounded Homer and Hesiod, and was rCMOtrtjd 
later on by Cornutus in Rome, a OQRtmtpOrwy 
of Claudius and Nero, as well as by Keapktto* 
mists like Porphyry and Servius. How practise 
of sincere worship could abide with this allegor- 
ical dissolution of Hera, Athena, Zeus, and the 
rest it is hard to see; at the same time the scan- 
dalous elements of Homeric anthroponiorjilii-ni 
were abolished, names, legends, and symbols [icing 

The relation of man to himself, to God or the 
world, and to his fellow men, is best expressed in 
the axiomatic postulate that. " man must live in con- 
sonance with nature "; here they differed profound- 
ly from their chief adversaries, the Epicureans, as 
well as from the Greek contentment with mere phys- 
ical felicity. They claimed that " nature," " God," 
" reason," direct man to seek the highest good in 


virtue, not in pleasure. This was the voice of that 
nature, that rational ideal of giving sovereignty to 
God in man, to that precept which will justify 
conduct before the universal reason, and thus make 
it by implication obligatory on all.* Thus the Stoics 
elevated Socrates to a dominating position. Be- 
tween virtue and moral wrong there are no inter- 
mediate steps or gradations. Nor are there any de- 
grees of difference or elevation within the category 
of virtue or of vice. Virtue, unless it appears in ac- 
tion, is of no value. What men mainly cherish, tht- 
boons of health, wealth, honor, power, pleasure, 
must not be the objects of action, for they are neither 
good nor bad in themselves, but are intermediate 
or indifferent (adiapkora). 

Stoics thus took a distinctly spiritual ground, am I 
a vigorous " contempt for the world " can not - be 
denied to some members of the school. At the same 
time everything, at bottom, is centered in the sub- 
ject, and suicide is commended as a termination of 
trouble or as preservation of freedom. Cato, thi- 
opponent of Ctesar, and afterward, under the em- 
perors, Partus Thrasea, Seneca (q.v.), Lucan, Cor- 
nutus, and his pupil the poet Peraius, Helvidius 
Priscus, and Epictetus were notable adherents of 
this school, which really made great demands on its 
followers, and gained from the general body of their 
various contemporaries a large measure of respect, 
being by far the most virile form of thought which 
arose among the ancients. The Antonine emperom. 
whose creed Stoicism was, did much for the improve- 
ment of slavery, but Marcus also directed a perse- 
cution of the Christians. See Natuiial Law. 

E. G. SlHLEE. 
Bibuoorapbt: Sources are Diogenes Losrtius. book vii., 
Eng. tninals. wero published, London. 1688. 1696. and in 
floAn'j Library, 1853; Plutarch, from bis Opera, best sd., 
ed. T. Doohncr and others, 3 vols., Paris. 1346-55, rosy 
be named De Stoicorum rcpuonantii*. De placiti* pkiloso- 

i, En K . 1 

., Lend 

1898, Dc ftnibu*. Eng. ib. 18D0: Epictetus, TF, 
(En E . transU, new ed., Boston. 1391; idem, Discourse*, 
2 vob., Iflodon, 18D7 (a fine ed., published by Humph- 
reys), other translations are issued by Dent. London. 

1899. and by Bell, ib. 1003; Marcus Aurclius, Golden Book, 
ed. W. H. D. Rouse, London. 1000 (another tmnsl.. 1908); 
idem, Meditation*, Edinburgh, 1904 (a fine edition), Lon- 
don. 1905 (in Standard Library), with title Marcus Aure- 
Kum to Himself, transl. and introductions by G. H. Kendall. 
Iondon and New York, 1901; idem. Thought', London, 
1890, with introduction by J. L. Kpnlding. London and 
New York. 1900; Seneca. Minor Dialogue*. London, 1886; 
idem. Morale, ib. 18K8; idem. On Benefit*, ib. 1887; idem, 
Tranquillity of Mind and Proi-idcnce. New York. 1000. 

The subjoct is discussed in the works on the history of 
philosophy by H. Bitter. 4 vols., Oxford. 1836-16; J. E. 
Erdmann, New York, 1893; H. Ritter and L. Preller 
8th ed., by E. Wallmann, Gotha, 1898. Consult further: 
W, W. Capes. Stoicism, London, 1830; E. Zoller. Stoic* 
Epicurean*, and Sceptic*. London, 1880; D. Ticdemaan. 
System dec elder-hen Philosophic, 3 vols.. Leipsic, 1776; 
A. Grant, The Ancient Stoic*. Oxford, 1858; M. Arnold, 
Marcu* Aureliue, in his Keeay, in Criticitm. scries 1, 
London. ]S65; F. May Holland. lleiga of the Side*, New 
York. 1873; G. P. WeyRddt. Die Philosophic dcr Stoa 
nach ikeem Wesen und ihrm Schicksalen. Leipsic, 1883; 
T. Jordan, Sloie. Moralise in the Firet Tyco Centuriei, 
Dublin. 1884; H. dc Stein, Die Peucholoyie dcr Sloa. 2 
vols.. Berlin, 1S86-W; J. Fnvrc. Ias Morale stolcienne. 
Paris, 1888; <:. H. Hot'  

menu of Zeno and Clcanthu, Cambridge, 18*1: T. W. 
Bolleston. The Teaching of Epictitu*. London. 1891; i.K 
Ligbtfoot, St. Paul and Seneca, in his Dinertatiom on le* 
Apostolic Aft, London, 1892; A. SchmekeL Die Pie 
lo*ophie dee minleren Stoa, Berlin, 1862; J. B. Bran, 
Stoic* and Saint*. Glasgow, 1893; A. Bonhoffet, EpOtt- 
lot und die Stoa. Stuttgart. 1890: idem. Die Eliot im 
Sloikers Epiktrt, ib. 1894; A. W. Bean, The Padeatasf 
□/ Greece. London, 1898; A. Dyroff, Die Ethik dee sta 
Sloa, Berlin. 1898; T. Gompsti, Creek Thinker*, 3 too, 
London. 1901-08; A, P. Ball, Satire of Seneca on Iks Ays- 
Aeon* of Claudiv: a Study, New York. 1902; C. E 
S. Davis, Greek and Roman Suriciem, Boston. 1903; E. 
Return. Marcus Aureliui, recent issue, London, 1*0; 
E. A. Abbott. Silanut the Christian, London. 1900 (i 
historical novel, but valuable) ; L. Alston, Stoic and Ckrie- 
tian in the Second Century. London, 1906; W. H. D. 
Rouse, Word* of tkt Ancient Wi*e, London, 1906 (sato- 
tioos from Epictetus and Marcus Aunliua) ; W. L. IHrid 
son. The Stoic, Creed. Edinburgh. 1907; St. George Block. 
Stoidtm (in Philosophies, Ancient and Modern), Koia- 
burgh. 1908. New York, 1909; T. Zielinaki. Cicert is 
Wandel der Jahrhunderie. Leipsic, 1908; F. V. BuokH, 
Jforcu Aurtlius and tkt Later Stoic*, Edinburgh. IWe; 
R. D. Hicks. Stoic and Epicurean, London and New York, 
1910; ~ ~ ...--. 

bridge, 1889; F. W. Farrar. .' 
London and New York, 1891; 

fieri after God, new ed.. 
. C. Pearson, in his Fraa- 

AntONIMOO. ft] 

STOKES, GEORGE THOMAS: Irish eccleriu- 

tical historian; b. at Athlone (70 m. w. of Dublin), 
Ireland, Dec. 28, 1843; d. in Dublin Mar. 24, 1886. 
He Studied at Gal way grammar-school and at Queens 
College, Gal way ; was graduated from Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin (B.A., 1804; M.A., 1871; BJ)., lost; 
and D.D., 18S6); was vicar of All Saints, Xew- 
town Park, Dublin, 1868-98; became assistant to 
the regius professor of divinity, 1880, and professor 
of ecclesiastical history in the University of Dub- 
lin, 18S3; librarian of St. Patrick's Library, Dub- 
lin, 1887; and prebend and canon of St. Andrew, 
1893. He published Ireland and the Celtic Church. 
A History qf Ireland from St. Patrick to thti Engiid 
Conquest in 117t (London, 18SG); a commentarr 
on the Acta, 2 vols., in The Expositor 1 *. Bible (1888); 
Ireland and the Anglo-Norman Church. A History 
of Ireland and /risk Christianity from the Angle- 
Norman Conquest to the Dawn of the Beformatua 
(188',)); Dudley Lof tut: A Dublin Antiquary of Ik 
seventeenth Century (Dublin, 1800); The Idasl 
Monasteries: of Wale* and Ireland (1891); St.Feda* 
nf Fone, and hi* Monastery (1892); Greek in GW 
and Western Europe down to A.D. TOO. The Xtast 
edge of Greek in Ireland between A.D. BOO and XO 
. . . (1892); Calendar of the TAber Niger Aim 
(1893); and, in collaboration with C. H. H.WricK 
The Writings of St. Patrick; . . . a . . . Trwie- 
lion, . . . with Note* (1887). 

Bibuoqiupht: Df/B. Supplement UL 381-302; AAenf, 
Apr. 2, 1898. 

German author and convert to the Roman Catlofc 
faith; b. at Uramstedt (23 m. n. of Hamburg) Not. 
7, 1750; d. on the estate of Sondennuhlen nor 
OanabrUck (65 m. s.s.w. of Bremen) Dec. 5, 181°. 
After the removal of his family to Copenhagen, be 
was educated there, together with his brother Chris- 
tian, two years older than himself. Klopstock, * 
friend of the family, exercised a deep influence upon 
the two boys. They studied at Halle in 1770-71, 
and at Gottingen in 1772-73. In Gottingen they 
liecame a part of the well-known ''Hambund," 




-which names a certain period of development in 
modern poetry. In 1775 the two brothers under- 
took a journey through Germany to Switzerland, 
Baking the acquaintance of prominent men, in 
Frankfort associating with Goethe, and at Geneva 
■eeting Voltaire. In 1776 Friedrich Leopold was 
appointed ambassador at the Danish court by the 
prince-bishop of Lubeck and the duke of Olden- 
burg. Hie literary productions of Stolberg were at 
that time in the region of lyrical poetry. At the 
nine time he occupied himself with the study of 
the Greeks, translating the Iliad, also some portions 
of JSechylus, and composing several dramas in the 
Greek form. In 1785 he was sent on a mission to 
St. Petersburg, where he met Klinger. In 1789 he 
wu appointed Danish ambassador in Berlin, and 
in 1791 the prince-bishop of Lubeck appointed him 
president of the government in Eutin, but before 
he entered his new position, he traveled to Italy, 
and also visited M Ouster, where he met the Princess 
Galitan, a devoted Roman Catholic. Munster at 
that time was the seat of a Catholicism in which 
Biblical Christianity predominated over Romanism. 
An interview with the pope later filled Stolberg with 
admiration. In 1793 he returned to Eutin and en- 
tered his new position, but remained in close con- 
tact with the circle of Munster while Voss, with 
whom he had hitherto been in close relations, seemed 
the representative of superficial rationalism. In 
1793 Princess Galitzin returned his visit; in 1794 
Stolberg visited in Munster, being powerfully at- 
tracted by Furstenberg and the princess. The 
change in his opinions appears in a letter to F. H. 
Jacobi, written in February, 1794, in which he 
says: " I know and love the mysticism of a Plato, 
one of my first favorites . . . but the kind of rev- 
elation that was granted them remains as distinct 
from that of the Bible as the heaven is above the 
earth"; while later it was declared of him: " The 
miserable condition of Protestantism, that leads to 
deism, atheism, to a rationalism that eats and des- 
troys all mystic roots like cancer, the philosophy 
of Kant, and the whole Enlightenment repelled him 
more and more." In 1798 he visited the Brethren 
inHermhut to see whether he could there find peace 
and rest. On June 1, 1800, Stolberg, together with 
his family, adopted the Roman Catholic faith in 
the chapel of Princess Galitzin. By this step he 
offended most deeply all Protestant North Germany, 
but especially his older circle of friends, Voss, 
Jacobi, Gleim, and others. After tendering his res- 
ignation to the duke, Stolberg retired into private 
life and settled near Munster, on the estate of Ltit- 
jcnbeck. In 181 1 he removed to the estate of Taten- 
haosen near Bielefeld, and in 1816 to Sondermuhlen. 
Meanwhile he had published his lyrical poems, to- 
gether with those of his brother Christian (Leipsic, 
ITty new ed., 1821, and separately Vaterldndische 
G*fckte, again combined with those of his brother, 
Hamburg, 1815). He was the author also of Zwo 
Bdriften des heiligen Augustin von der wahren Re- 
fyfo und von den Sitten der katfiolischen Kirche 
(1803). But the work which filled almost the whole 
'attainder of his life was his Geschichte der Religion 
J «*Ckri9ti (15 vols., Hamburg, 1806-18). It ex- 
feixh only to the year 430, and was continued by 

F. von Kerz (vols, xvi.-xlv., Mainz, 1825-46) and 
by J. N. Brischar (vols, xlvi.-li., 1849-53). The 
work shows a lack of critical discernment and sys- 
tem, and a hasty pen. He also published Leben 
Alfred* des Grossen (Munster, 1817), with an intro- 
duction on Anglo-Saxon history; and Ein Buchlein 
von der Liebe (1818; Eng. transl., A Little Book of 
the Love of God, London, 1849), a coherent repre- 
sentation of the Biblical doctrine of love. His Reise 
in Deutschland, der Schweiz, ItaAien und SicUien (4 
vols., Konigsberg, 1794) was translated into Eng- 
lish (2 vols., London, 1796-97). (A. Freybe.) 

Bibliography: Biographies have been written by A. 
Nicolovius, Mains, 1846; T. Menge, 2 vols., Gotha, 1862; 
J. Janssen, 3d ed., Freiburg, 1882; and K. Windel, 2d ed., 
Potsdam, 1896. Consult further: C. F. A. Schott, Voss 
und Stolberg, oder der Kampf des Zeitaltera zwischen Licht 
und Verdunkelung, Stuttgart, 1820; W. von Bippen, 
Eutiner Skizzen. Zur Kultur- und Litteraturgezchichte des 
18. Jahrhundert, Weimar, 1859; W. Herbst, Johannes H. 
Voss, vol. ii., Leipsic, 1874; also J. H. Hennes, F. L. Graf 
zu StoJbero und Herzog Peter Friedrich Ludwia von Olden- 
burg au% ihrem Briefwechsel, Mainz, 1870. 

STOLE. See Vestments and Insignia, Eccle- 

to fixed contributions to the clergy for certain offi- 
cial services rendered, paid by the person at whose 
behest such service is rendered. In a 
History in wider sense the term includes the fees 
the Roman of such lower clergy as cantors, organ- 
Catholic ists, and sacristans. The term first 
Church, appears in the later Middle Ages, and 
originated in the fact that the clergy 
in the Roman Catholic Church, then as now, was 
obligated to perform those offices clad in the stole. 
In the Eastern Church these fees are known by the 
corresponding term for stole, epitrachelium. In the 
Middle Ages there is mention of justitia, jura pre&by- 
teri, and jura parochialia, or the fee is designated ac- 
cording to the particular service performed, as baptis- 
terium, nupti&, or sepultura. In the early Church, the 
bishops furnished the support of the clergy, but many 
voluntary gifts were made as evidences of gratitude, 
as well as for support. But, by authority of Matt. 
x. 8, the acceptance of a voluntary gift for the per- 
formance of a holy act was expressly forbidden. 
Nevertheless, the desire of the people to retain the 
good-will of the clergy and prove their own ac- 
knowledgment, on the one hand, and the cupidity 
of the latter, on the other, led not only to offensive 
practise among the ordinary clergy, but even the 
bishops came to accept gifts for such transactions 
as ordination, dedication of churches, and confirma- 
tion. Again and again it became necessary for the 
Church to forbid the practise, excepting, however, 
voluntary gifts to the support of the clergy (I Cor. 
ix. 11-14; Matt. x. 10), if not given specifically for 
services performed. This standpoint appears in 
the ecclesiastical enactments of the twelfth century. 
Meanwhile an influence among the lower churches 
and clergy operated to restrict the right of stole 
fees. This was the Germanic system of private 
temples. In the north, even in pagan times, the 
earl or private owner imposed upon those who fre- 
quented his temple a toll for the maintenance of the 
same and the support of his priest, as well as fees 




for specific services. The west and south Germans 
brought this custom with the system of private 
temples into the Church, and now the latter had to 
encounter as a system what before appeared only 
as more or less scattered abuses. The Church was 
a private enterprise of the landlord, who was not 
content with voluntary offerings and gifts, but de- 
manded a fixed price for every important service 
by the priest, who was his private official. Natur- 
ally, this was extended to include baptism, marriage, 
penance, and unction; and, in combination with the 
other Germanic principle recognizing not free serv- 
ices but only those recompensed as efficacious, the 
system soon extended to the churches in the hands 
of the bishops and became universal. The stole 
fees were regarded as legal appurtenances of the 
churches, and were included in sales and investi- 
tures. In spite of earnest protest by legislation 
and through its representatives, the Church was 
not able to restrict this barter of religious offices, 
entrenched as it was behind the power and self-in- 
terest of the landlord and the legal order. In the 
end, when the danger of lay domination was, in 
principle at least, removed by the substitution of 
the right of Patronage (q.v.), the Church was not 
unwilling to assume this system of fees as resting 
upon custom, not without, inside of certain limits, 
a commending acquiescence in its origin. This took 
place in connection with the act on Simony (q.v.) 
of the Fourth Lateran Council under Innocent III. 
in 1215. Extortion for spiritual official services 
was forbidden, but where the payment of fees was 
according to established custom it was commended 
and sustained. To make this consistent with the 
prohibition of simony, such payments were not to 
be understood as specific recompense for the serv- 
ices, but simply as a tribute rendered in view of the 
obligation of clerical support and the recognition of 
parochial jurisdiction. It was also understood that 
the clergy were not to regard such fees as per con- 
tract, nor to direct their ministry accordingly; and 
for the poor the necessary services were to be gratis. 
In following times the acceptance of such contribu- 
tions was made legitimate and it was only a step 
to sanctioning the right of the clerical to demand 
compensation, and also the legal obligation on his 
part to render the service. To this day the right 
to stole fees within " laudable custom " has retained 
the sanction of the Roman Catholic Church. 

In the Evangelical church, some of the older reg- 
ulations either wholly or partly abolished the stole- 
fees; as, for instance, for baptism and the com- 
munion. Generally, they have been permitted and 
remained customary in the Evangel- 
History in ical church. Where, as in electoral 
the Evan- Saxony, demand of them was forbid- 
gelical den until the seventeenth century, the 
Church, communion excepted, the practise of 
payments as free-will offerings per- 
sisted with reference to baptism and confession. 
Under the new regime of state government from the 
sixteenth century the states have assumed the con- 
trol of, and, with the concurrence of the spiritual 
authorities, regulated, the system of stole fees. 
This standpoint has not been universally main- 
tained, however, since the authorization of the 

autonomy of the Roman Catholic Church in IMS. 
In fact, the right of the respective churches to fix 
and regulate fees for ecclesiastical transactions is 
inalienable; yet obligations involved are imposed 
upon the subjects of the State for the enforcement 
of whieh the State must lend its arm. Hence, the 
matter may not be wholly left in the hands of the 
Church, and the State is also entitled to the privi- 
lege of a normative cooperation. This rule prevails, 
for example, in Prussia; in Austria, on the other 
hand, alterations in the regulations are reserved by 
the State after the concurrence of the bishops. A 
state concurrence takes place where the Evangelical 
church possesses organized government and by the 
adaptation of presbyterial and synodal elements 
maintains a certain independence, and where the 
regulation of stole fees therefore devolves on the 
church boards in common with the parish organs. In 
principle, the obligation of paying stole fees pertains 
only to the members of the church of the officiating 
clergyman, which members alone are in a position 
to require the services. This is the present concep- 
tion. But formerly, before the parity of the churches 
was established, the members of the merely toler- 
ated bodies were forced to pay the fees to the pas- 
tor of the prevailing church, even where they were 
performed by pastors of their own confession. 

Voices have been raised in the Roman Catholic 
Church for the abolition of stole fees, namely, in 
the Council of Trent, and spontaneously in the 

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
Efforts at though in vain against the practical 
Abolition, difficulties involved. More earnestly 

was the practise felt to be improper 
in the Evangelical church (beginning with Spener) 
and its abolition was demanded. Until the last 
quarter of the last century this demand was met 
only in isolated instances. In 1818 Nassau, 1849 
Oldenburg, and 1871 Brunswick abolished the fees 
in lieu of recompense from church funds or other 
sources. The introduction of the civil register and 
civil marriage by imperial statute (1875) provided 
for an indemnification of the clergy, and occasioned 
in a number of states the abolition of stole fees for 
baptisms, wedding ceremonies, and publishing of 
the bans, either in all churches or the Evangelical 
alone. Universal abolition was consummated in 
Prussia in 1890-1900. In Baden the redemption 
of the stole fees is assigned to the churches; else- 
where it is effected by state provisions. In Prussia 
the churches are reenf orced, if the redemption taxes 
make an increase in the total expenses, by a state- 
church fund. 

While the Old Catholics did not adopt the sys- 
tem at all, it is in full sway in the Eastern Church, 

as well as in the Roman Catholic 
Modern Church. Those entitled to stole fees 
Practise, in the latter are the parish priest, a 

clerical whose position is materially 
the same, or an assistant, either on formal assign- 
ment by the parish priest or through special title. 
Stole fees must be authorized by church statute or 
recognized custom. They usually occur in connec- 
tion with baptisms, publishing of bans, marriages, 
the blessing and attendance upon the deceased, and 
the churching of women. It is excluded in respect 




to the dispensation of the other sacraments, as the 
communion, extreme unction, and ordination, and 
frequently, penance. In individual dioceses the 
to in connection with baptisms, penance, and the 
dmrfhfag of women are dispensed with. The amount 
depends on the regulations or local custom. The 
euiier practise of proportioning the tax according 
to the rank of the person is discontinued, but in- 
stead there is introduced a grading according to the 
aeans of the applicant, that is, his civic assessment. 
The regulation of the stole-fee system is under the 
jurisdiction of the bishop, with the advice of the 
priests and his assistants. By a decree of 1896 this 
is conditioned by previous concurrences in provin- 
cial synods or bishops' conventions. Disputes, ac- 
cording to canon law, are subject to the ecclesias- 
tital courts. In Prussia the state courts, by virtue 
of state control, may hear and adjudicate com- 
plaints. In Bavaria the administrative boards and 
administrative courts control disputes and enforce 
payments, and in Austria these, in addition, punish 
exorbitant charges by a fine and enforced resti- 
tution. From stole fees are to be excepted the 
stipends for masses, and fees for burial sites, pews, 
utensils, and candles. The legal administration of 
stole fees according to Evangelical church law is 
similar to the Roman Catholic. They must not be 
asked in advance, nor must the rites be suspended 
until payment has been made, and the necessary 
official services must be rendered to the poor. Those 
legally entitled are the official pastors, or, relatively, 
church treasuries, or those who administer the pas- 
toral income. The whole amount is regulated by 
the church order or canonical precept with allow- 
ance for local observances. The levy and approval 
of the taxes belongs to the church governing boards. 
With the introduction of presbyterial and synodal 
provisions the initiative to alteration devolves upon 
the congregational organs. (U. Stutz.) 

IbuoaupHT: H. M. G. Grellmann, Kurxe Geschichte der 
Aofetttrai, Gottmgen, 1785; F. F. Fertsch. Das Beiehtr 
fdimderjmitestantischen Kirehe, Giessen, 1830; J. A. H. 
Tittminn, Ueber die Fixierung der Stolgebuhren, Leipsio, 
U31; P. Baldauf, Die . . . Stolgebuhren in den dster- 
"Muetoi Provinsen, Gras, 1835; E. L. Hagen, Die 
rfvramtfetat Beeoldungen, Neustadt, 1844; F. Kolde- 
*ty> Dai Alter der Stolgebuhren in der evangAutherischen 
£*tfa da Henogtums Braunschweig, Brunswick, 1871; 
a. D. Uriin, Legal Guide to the Clergy, London, 1881; 
H. W. Cripps, The Law Relating to the Church and Clergy, 
**• C. A. Cripps, London, 1886; J. H. Blunt, Book of 
Chuxk Law, Revised by Sir W. G. F. PhQlimore, London, 
Y®'< 0. Bosaert, Die 8tolgebuhrenfrage in der evangeliechen 
**"4eifctrtfo WurUembergs, Stuttgart, 1891; A. Luchaire, 
*™*tti da institutions francaisee, periode dee Capitiens 
jj***. pp. 350-351, Park, 1892; L. Benario, Die Stol- 
*~*fa* naeh bayeriechem Staatskirchenrecht, Munich, 
M04; V. Karl, Grundxugedes bayeriechen Stolrechtes, Wurs- 
*"■* 1804; U. Stuts, Die Eigenkirehe ale Element dee 
^^^erh^hiiermanieehen Kirchenrechts, p. 27, Berlin, 
W5; idem, Geechichte dee kirehlichen Benefisialwesens, 
"lJ\ PP. W, 272, ib. 1805; J. Imbart de la Tour, Lee 
i"*v*«e» rural** du iv. au xi. tilde, Paris, 1900; C. 
*""*• Boyeriechee Kirchenvermdgensrecht, ii. 299 sqq., 
j* 1 "***, 1901; B. Kaltner, Die neue Stolordnung fur 
°2. ff »**ki» SaUburg, Brttnn, 1904; G. Lflttgert, Bvan- 
****« Kirchenreeht in Rheinland und Westfalen, pp. 553 
**- Gfltenloh, 1905; Milaach-Peaaic, Das Kirchenreeht 
""tyeilandiechen Kirehe, 2d ed., pp. 546-547, Mortar, 
J**'. A. Freiaen, Der . . . Pfamwang und seine Aufhe- 
r^^OntermcA und den deutschen Bundesstaaten, Pader- 
•"^ 1906; Hauck, KD, ii. 273, 717, iv. 21, 48. 

STORE OF MESHA. See Moabitb Stone. 

STONE, BARTON WARREN: Disciple of Christ; 
b. near Port Tobacco, Md., Dec. 24, 1772; d. at 
Hannibal, Mo., Nov. 9, 1844. He graduated from 
the academy at Guilford, N. C, in 1793; taught in 
Washington, Ga., and studied theology, then en- 
tered the Presbyterian ministry as a licentiate in 
1796, being ordained as pastor of the churches at 
Caneridge and Concord, Ky., 1798; in 1801 he was 
led to renounce Calvinism, and with four other 
clergymen formed the Springfield Presbytery in 
1803, though this was dissolved in 1804 and formed 
into the Christian Church (see Christians, 2); he 
then turned for a time to farming and teaching, 
meanwhile preaching and founding churches in 
Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee; in 1826 he was 
editor of The Christian Messenger; in 1832 he as- 
sisted in a union of the churches known after him as 
" Stoneite " with the " Campbellite " churches in 
Kentucky (see Disciples of Christ, § 1); after re- 
moving to Jacksonville, HI., in 1834, he continued 
to labor for the denomination until his death, both 
by preaching and editing. He wrote Letters on the 
Atonement (1805) ; Address to the Christian Churches 
(1805); and Letters to Dr. James Blythe (1822). 

Bduoobapht: B. B. Tyler, in American Church History 
Series, xii. 11, 13, 20, 22, 31, 32, New York, 1894, and in 
general the works on the early history of the denomina- 
tions with which he was connected. 

STONE, DARWELL: Church of England; b. at 
Rosset, Denbighshire (19 m. s. of Liverpool), Sept. 
15, 1859. He received his education at Merton 
College, Oxford (B.A., 1882; M.A., 1885; B.D., 
1909; D.D., 1909); was made deacon in 1883 and 
priest in 1885; was curate of Ashbourne, Derby- 
shire, 1883-84; vice-principal of Dorchester Mis- 
sionary College, 1885-88, and principal, 1888-1903; 
librarian of Pusey Memorial Library, Oxford, 1903- 
1909, and principal of the same since 1909. He 
" accepts thelprinciples of the Tractarian movement 
in the Church of England, and is a student of the 
history of doctrine and criticism." He has pub- 
lished: Holy Baptism (London, 1899; 4th ed., 1905) ; 
Outlines of Christian Dogma (1900; 4th ed., 1908); 
Christ and Human Life (1901); Meditations for Use 
in Retreat (1902); The Church of England. An Ap- 
peal to Facts and Principles (1903; in collaboration 
with W. C. E. Newbolt) ; The Invocation of Saints 
(1903); The Discipline of Faith (1904); The Holy 
Communion (1904); The Christian Church (1905); 
and A History of the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist 
(2 vols., 1909). 

STONING, HEBREW USE OF: The employment 
of stones as a weapon of offense is common to vari- 
ous stages of civilization. Cases may be cited from 
the heroic age of the Greeks (Iliad } iii. 57; jEschy- 
lus, Agememnon, 1608) or from their historical 
period (Thucydides, v. 60; Pausanius, VIII., v. 8), 
while the Roman mobs were not averse to the use 
of stones as weapons (Cicero, Pro domo, v. ; Quinti- 
lian, Dedamatio, XII., xii.). It was a custom also 
to throw stones toward the grave of a hated indi- 
vidual. It is not surprising to hear that in Persia 
Antiochus Epiphanes was reputed to have met his 
death by stoning (II Mace. i. 16), and that in Israel 


also stones were thus used (Ex. xvii. 4; I Sam. xxx. 
6; Matt. xxi. :J5, and many other places). The ques- 
tion is interesting — what is the source of stoning 
as a punishment imposed by the governing body? 
The practise of stoning by official direction is wider 
tlijLii lias been supposed. While this does not appear 
iti the code of Hammurabi (see Hammchabi and 
ii w Code), Arabs arc known to thrmv stories at tlir 
grave of a transgressor anil at the place where a 
.-linn, fo.1 deed has been committer!; this method 
of execution was employed by Persians, Macedo- 
nians (Curtius, Dr rebus gestis Atenmdri, VI., xi. 
38), and Spaniards. The scholiast on Euripides, 
Orcstrx, 4U2, makes the death of Palamedes occur 
by st'iuim:. iiiiil many other eases are reported (cf. 
O. Crusius, BeUrSge, p. 20, Leipsie, 18X6). There 
needs no special explanation of the use of this means 
of nuiliablQeot — that it involves a certain rough- 
ness or low state of culture is not true. Thus Israel 
revealed in its earliest code of laws in several re- 
spects a nobler sense of humaneness than the code 
of Hammurabi, as is proved by its prescriptions re- 
garding the care of animals (F.x. xx. 10) and the 
treatment of slaves and the poor (Ex. x\i. 2, 20, 26, 
etc.). Two reasons may be assigned fur the custom 
of stoning among the Hebrews. The first was a 
notable and lively ethical consciousness which was 
evident throughout Jewish history with a certain 
earnestness, in punishment of certain kinds of 
breaches of law. There was also apparent a definite 
effort to bring the liveliest realization to the largest 
nu ruber of people possible of the heinousness of cer- 
tain transgressions by making part, of I lie people 
executors of justice Benzinger sees also in the par- 
tiripation of so many an effort to release themselves 
from guilt. 

This punishment was decreed among the He- 
brews, according to the Old Tes' anient, in cases 
where the vitality of the nation was assailed, i.e.. 
when its religious consciousness was offended; as 
wlie n I roe pjiiphccy was intituled by false prophecy 
(Dent. xiii. (Ml) or by soothsaying and sorcery 
(Lev. xx. 27), when Yahweh's oneness was assaulted 
by the practise of idolatry (Deut. xvii, 2 sqq.), when 
Yahweh's sanctuary was invaded by incompetent 
persons (Ex. xis. 12), in oases of blasphemy (I Kings 
xxi. 10), or desecration of the sabbath (Num. xv. 
33-35), or when the ban was broken (Josh. vii. 25). 
In Hammurabi's code stealing from the temple was 
the one capital crime in this category. In addition 
to these religious offenses, the worst sins against 
morality were punched by stoning, such as extreme 
Hi .il impiety (Deut. xxi. 18-21), cursing of parents 
(Lev. xx. ft), breach of betrothal vows (Deut. xxii. 
20-24), adultery (Lev. xx. 10; cf. Esek. xvi. 40, 
xxiii. 47), incest (Lev. xx. 11, 12, 14), pederasty 
(Lev. xx. l.'J), and unnatural crime (Lev. xx. 15, 1ft). 
The one case, of adultery, in which the law does not 
explicitly ( stoning, while Kzekiel (lit sup.) 
Bhows that to be the method of punishment, sug- 
gests ihat other transgressions were also visited with 
stoning. Legal execution with the sword occurred, 
according to the Old Testament, when senlenee was 
hv the king and execution was by the military 
(II Sam, i. 15; I Kings ii. 25; II Kings x. 25). In 
the New Testament stoning is the punishment for 

blasphemy (Acts vi. 13, vii. 58) and for adulter; 
(John viii. 5). The Miahnah (Sanbedrin, vii. i) 
regards as punishable by stoning the offenses 
enumerated above, which either by express direc- 
tion or by assured deduction were in the Old Testa- 
ment so indicated ; but Sanhedrin xi. 1 indicates for 
adultery death by strangling, and in general the 
Talmud divides capital penalties according as thtj 
are executed by stoning, burning, the sword, or 

Respecting the carrying-out of the sentence tie 
Bible direct* that it be done outside the dwelling- 
place- of the community (Lev. xxi v. 14; I Kings 
xxi. 13; Acta vii. 58), and that the witnesses cast 
the first stone, to the end that witness-bearing be 
done with greater circumspection (Deut. xiii. !0, 
xvii. 7; John viii. 7; Acts vii. 58-59). TheTahnud 
gives the following directions (Sanhedrin, vi): As 
soon as judgment is pronounced, the condemned is 
to be led away to the place of execution, which is it 
a distance from the court of judgment; one person 
remains at the entrance of the court-house with » 
large cloth in ids hand, while another, on horseback, 
is at a considerable distance away, yet within sight 
of the first; in case some one affirms that be ha) 
testimony for the condemned, the signal is givM 
with the cloth, and the horseman rides at once to 
suspend execution; the condemned is brought back, 
and this may be done four or five times. Similarly 
execution may be suspended if the accused allegrt 
that he has something vital to offer. In case he pro- 
duces what is found essential, he goes free: otht-r- 
wise he is led forth, while some one precedes him 
announcing: Such a one, son of so and so, is lea 
forth to be stoned for such an offense; soandsoant 
the witnesses; whoever has anything to produce in 
his favor, let him produce it. When the condemned 
is distant four ells from the place of execution, he 
is stripped almost nude. The place of stoning is the 
height of two men. One of the witnesses casts a 
stone, and if this does not kill the man, then an- 
other, and then, if death has not ensued, the peo- 
ple take up the task. Those so executed are after- 
ward hanged (Rabbi Eliezer) ; others say that only 
blasphemers and idolaters are banged; Elieier di- 
rects that men and women both be hanged, otltf 
authorities, only men. The Jerusalem Gemara in 
the tract Sanhedrin gives the directions on foliM 
23-24, the Babylonian Gemara on folios 42-19 
The latter affirms (folio 43a) that with reference 
to Prov. xxxi. 6 before the stoning noble women 
gave to the condemned wine with frankincense in 
it to produce stupefaction. (E. KflJHOj 

BiBUoaRAPav: For the practise among noo-uiniBljUc pur 
pics consult: TV. Wuchsmuth. HfUmiKk* AIUrt**nt»**- 
vol. ii., part 1. Beilnge 3, HoJlc. 1829; K. F. Henmm. 
GriteAuche Primlall/rlumrr, ed. K. B. Stark, 73. 5, H*- 
dolber*. 18711; Piiuly, Rcoiencykloiiidit dtr Huw*» 
AHolamncmauchall. ed. TV, S. Teuflel, Stutt*»rt Vf": 
F. Justi. Gochichte dm alien Pcriiau, p. 82. Berlin, 1871: 
Haherlnnd. in Zcituchrifl flir Y f 4Iw Jliy Hi llimft. xii (18*". 
280-309. For the practise among the Hebrews modi <* 
the literature under Law. Hbbkew. Civn, un Canmrli. 

Hammurabi and nisi nee <"'ii]i«uli furUiet; F. S. Hi* 
Pt lapidalione Hrbrxorum. Frankfort, 1718; C R He 
cnaelis. De judiciis pornixque cajrtialibu* in Scriptvra «c* 
wmmemoratw, Halle, 1749: H. B. Fused. Dim kW* 


Stoning 1 

ks Strafoesetz und etrafrechtliche Gerichte-Ver- 
}ross-Kanissa, 1870; P. B. Benny, Criminal Code 
w according to the Talmud Maeeecheth Synhedrin, 
1880; 8. Mendelsohn, The Criminal Jurisprudence 
ncient Hebrew*, Baltimore, 1801; S. Mandl, Der 
p. 22-23, Brflnn, 1808; R. Hirsel, Die Strafe der 
■f, in the Abhandlungen of the Royal Saxon 
f, Phflosophical-historical class, xxvii. 7 (1000); 
sr, Archaotooie, p. 277; DB, i. 527; EB, iii. 2722; 
554-658; and the commentaries on the passages 
the text. 

H, NIKOLAUS. See Zwickau Prophets. 

rHE Older. 

S, RICHARD SALTER: Congregation- 
at Braintree, Mass., Aug. 21, 1821; d. in 
, N. Y., June 5, 1900. He was the grand- 
ev. Richard Salter Storrs (1763-1819) of 
low, Mass., and the son of the Rev. Rich- 
r Storrs (1787-1873) who was for sixty- 
irs the eminent pastor of the Congrega- 
irch of Braintree, Mass. He was prepared 
e at Monson Academy and graduated at 
College in 1839. After two years spent 
teaching and partly in the study of law 
ice of Ruf us Choate in Boston, he entered 
•ver Theological Seminary from which he 
iated in 1845. He was immediately called 
arvard Congregational Church at Brook- 
!., but after a year of service there he ac- 
l urgent invitation to become the pastor 
burch of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
d been organized two years before. He 
lied Nov. 19, 1846. In spite of numerous 
mportant churches in New York, Boston, 
rhere, he remained in this position till his 
rforming all its duties until 1899, when he 
e pastor emeritus. In 1896 the fiftieth 
try of his installation was celebrated not 
the church but by various organizations 
ut the city and by a notable meeting of 
l the Academy of Music. He was a preacher 
eloquence and power, an orator who was 
demand on important occasions, a recog- 
der in the church, an eminent and influ- 
izen. He was one of the founders of The 
mt and one of its editors, 1848-61; was 
al years prominent as a lyceum lecturer; 
ident of the American Board of Commis- 
or Foreign Missions 1887-98, a critical 
its history; was for many years a trustee 
rst College and of various benevolent and 
y societies; was one of the founders and 
g time president of the Long Island His- 
txriety and an incorporator and officer of 
klyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, ren- 
iportant services to both these institutions, 
jrving for a time as park commissioner and 
issioner of the civil service; and was the 
the day when the statue of Lincoln was 
when the city of New York celebrated the 
J of the Declaration of Independence, July 
vhen the first Brooklyn Bridge was opened 
lblic, at the semi-millennial celebration of 
of John Wyclif in 1880, and on many other 
. Two of his most remarkable orations, 
several times in 1875 and 1876, on " The 

Ottoman and the Muscovite " were spoken without 
notes and were never printed; several others were 
collected and published after his death in a volume 
entitled Orations and Addresses (Boston, 1901). In 
addition to these and to numerous occasional dis- 
courses his most important publications are: The 
Constitution of the Human Soul (New York 1857); 
Preaching unthout Notes (1875); The Divine Origin 
of Christianity Indicated by its Historical Effects 
(1884); Bernard ofClairvaux (1888); and Addresses 
on Foreign Missions (1899). E. B. Coe. 

Bibliography: £. A. Park, Richard S. Storrs: Memorial 
Address, New York, 1000. 

STORY-BIBLES. See Bibles, Historical. 

land; b. at Roseneath (22 m. n.w. of Glasgow), 
Dunbartonshire, Jan. 28, 1835; d. at Glasgow Jan. 
13, 1907. He was educated at the universities of 
Edinburgh (M.A., 1853) and Heidelberg (1853), 
and received his theological training at Edinburgh 
(1853-56) and St. Andrews (1856-57). He was 
minister at Roseneath (1860-87); professor of 
church history in Glasgow University (1887-98); 
from 1898 until his death he was principal and vice- 
chancellor of the university. In theology he be- 
longed to the liberal school. Besides editing the 
Scot Magazine, he wrote Memoir of the Life of Rob" 
ert Story (Cambridge, 1862); Christ the Consoler 
(Edinburgh, 1865); Life and Remains of Robert 
Lee (2 vols., London, 1870); William Car stares: a 
Character and Career of the Revolutionary Epoch 
(1874); Creed and Conduct (Glasgow, 1878); and 
The Apostolic Ministry in the Scottish Church (Lon- 
don, 1897). He likewise edited The Church of Scot- 
land, Past and Present (5 vols., London, 1890-91). 
Bibliography: Memoir of R. H. Story, by hie Daughters, 

Glasgow, 1000. 

Protestant; b. at Bautzen (30 m. n.e. of Dresden) 
Sept. 2, 1851. He was educated at the univer- 
sities of Leipsic and Erlangen (1871-74); became 
curate in Ispringen, 1874; pastor in Rosenthal, near 
Kdnigstein, 1877, and at Helmstadt, 1880; mis- 
sionary in India, 1888; pastor in Berlin (1892) and 
privat-docent for the science of missions in the Uni- 
versity of Berlin, 1902; in 1907 he became pastor 
primarius at Neuwedell (Neumark). He has writ- 
ten: Brief e uber die Offenbarung St. Johannis (1892); 
Sankt Paulus der Apostel (Leipsic, 1894) ; Die Augen- 
zeugen des Lebens Jesu (Giltersloh, 1895); Alttesta- 
mentliche Studien (6 vols., 1896-1903; Eng. transl. 
of the first vol., Die Entstehung der Genesis, 1896, 
under the title " The Origin of Genesis," London, 
1897) ; Imfemen Indien, Eindrilcke und Erfahrungen 
im Dienst der lutherischen Mission unter den Tamu- 
len (Berlin, 1896); Der pastoraUtheologischer Ertrag 
der Bergpredigt (1898); Zeitgedanken uber die heilige 
Taufe (1902) ; Das Heidentum als religidses Problem 
(1903); Fur heilige Guter, Aphorismen zur geschicht- 
lichen Rechtfertigung des alien Testaments (Stuttgart, 
1905); Der inner e Gang der Missionsgeschichte in 
Grundlinien (Giltersloh, 1905) ; Die Prophetie Israels 
in rdigionsgesckichtlicher WUrdigung (1907); Die 
apostolischen Sendschreiben nach ihren Gedanken- 
gdngen (3 vols., 1908-10). 




STOUGHTON, JOHN: Congregationalist; b. 
in Norwich, England, Nov. 18, 1807; d. at Ealing 
(8 m. w. of Charing Cross), London, Oct. 24, 1897. 
He studied at the Norwich grammar-school; was 
engaged in law till 1828, when he entered High- 
bury College, Islington; was pastor at Windsor 
1833-43, and at Kensington 1843-74; professor of 
historical theology and homiletics in New College, 
St. John's Wood, London, 1872-84; and Congrega- 
tional Union lecturer 1855. He edited The Evan- 
gelical Magazine for many years, and was author of 
the following works, many of which have passed 
through several editions: Lectures on Tractarian 
Theology (London, 1843); Spiritual Heroes; or 
Sketches of the Puritans, their Character and Times 
(1848); P. Doddridge, his Life and Labours: a cen- 
tenary Memorial (1851) ; Stars of the East: or Proph- 
ets and Apostles (1854); Ages of Christendom before 
the Reformation (1857; the Congregational Union 
lectures for 1855); The Pen, the Palm, and the Pul- 
pit (1858) ; Church and State Two Hundred Years ago. 
A History of ecclesiastical Affairs in England from 
1660-63 (1862); Ecclesiastical History of England 
(5 vols., 1867-74; from the Revolution to the Res- 
toration) ; Homes and Haunts of Luther . . . With 
. . . Illustrations (1875); Our English Bible: its 
Translations and Translators (1878); The Progress 
of Divine Revelation, or the Unfolding Purpose of 
Scripture (1878); Religion in England under Queen 
Anne and the Georges. 1702-1800 (2 vols., 1878; 
new ed., 6 vols., 1881); Worthies of Science (1879); 
An Introduction to Historical Theology: Being a 
Sketch of doctrinal Progress from the Apostolic Era 
to the Reformation (1880); William WHberforce 
(1880); Footprints of Italian Reformers (1881); 
William Penn, the Founder of Pennsylvania (1882); 
Congregationalism in the Court Suburb (1883); The 
Spanish Reformers, their Memories and Dwelling 
Places (1883); Howard the Philanthropist and his 
Friends (1884); Religion in England from 1800 to 
1850 (1884); Golden Legends of the Olden Time 
(1885); The Revolution of 1688 in its Bearings on 
Protestant Nonconformity (1888); Shades and Echoes 
of Old London (1889); and Lights and Shadows of 
Primitive Christendom (1891; new ed., with title 
Lights and Shadows of Church Life, 1895). 

Bibliography: Besides the autobiographic Recollections of 
a Long Life, 2d ed., London, 1894, consult G. K. Lewis, 
John Stouohlon, D.D. A Short Record of a long Life, ib. 

STOW, BARON: Baptist; b. at Croydon, N. H., 
June 16, 1801; d. at Boston, Mass., Dec. 27, 1869. 
He was graduated from Columbian College, George- 
town, D. C, 1825; became pastor of the Baptist 
church in Portsmouth, N. H., 1827; of the Baldwin 
Place Baptist Church, Boston, 1832, and of the 
Rowe Street Church in the same city, 1848, retain- 
ing this connection till his retirement from active 
work in 1867. He was active and influential as a 
member of the executive committee of the American 
Missionary Union, and was noted as a pulpit orator. 
He assisted in compiling the Psalmist (Boston, 1849; 
a hymnal) ; and edited Daily Manna for Christian 
Pilgrims (1846; new ed., London, 1871), and Mis- 
sionary Enterprise (1846; a volume of sermons on 
missions); and was besides the author of Memoir 

of Harriet Dow (1832); History of the Baptist Mis- 
sion to India (1835) ; History of the Danish Mission 
to the Coast of Coromandd (1837); The Whole Fam- 
ily in Heaven and Earth (1845); Christian Brother' 
hood (1859); and First Things (1859). 

Bibliography: J. C. Stoclcbridge, Memoir of Rev. Bam 
Stow, Providence, R. I., 1895; R. H. Neafe, The Pamr 
and Preacher: a Memorial of ... B. Stow, Boston, 1870. 

STOWE, CALVIN ELLIS: Congregationalist; b. 
at Natick, Mass., Apr. 26, 1802; d. at Hartford, 
Conn., Aug. 22, 1886. He studied at the academy 
in Gorham, Me.; was graduated from Bowdom 
College, Brunswick, Me., 1824, where he was libra- 
rian and instructor, 1824-25; was graduated from 
Andover Theological Seminary, Mass., 1828; wis 
assistant teacher of sacred literature in Andover 
Seminary, as well as editor of the Boston Recorder, 
1828-30; started his career as a university preacher, 
1830; was professor of Latin and Greek in Dart- 
mouth College, Hanover, N. H., 1831-33; of 
Biblical literature, Lane Theological Seminary, CSn- 
cinnati, O., 1833-50; of natural and revealed relig- 
ion, Bowdoin College, 1850-52; and of sacred litera- 
ture, Andover Theological Seminary, 1852-64. He 
made a tour of Europe in 1837, investigating the 
various systems of elementary instruction, the re- 
sults of which were embodied in his Report on Ele- 
mentary Public Instruction in Europe (Harrisbuig, 
1838). His wife was Harriet Beecher Stowe, author 
of Uncle Tom's Cabin. He translated Jahn's His- 
tory of the Hebrew Commonwealth (Andover, 1828), 
and from the Latin Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew 
Poetry (1829), both with additions; and wrote In- 
troduction to the Criticism and Interpretation of tin 
Bible (vol. i., Cincinnati, 1835; vol. ii. not pub- 
lished); and Origin and History of the Books of the 
Bible. Pt. 1. New Testament (Hartford, 1867). 

Bibliography: Illustrative matter will be found in the Ut 
of Harriet Beecher Stowe by her son, C. E. Stowe, Bat* 
ton, 1899; The Life and Letters of Harriot Botcher Stom ftf 
her Son and Grandson, New York, 1911. 

STO WELL, HUGH: Church of England, hymnist; 
b. at Douglas, Isle of Man, Dec. 3, 1799; d. it 
Pendleton (3 m. n.w. of Manchester), England, Oct 
5, 1865. He entered, in 1819, St. Edmund Haft 
Oxford (B.A., 1822; M.A., 1826); became curate 
of Shepscombe, Gloucestershire, 1823, and a few 
months later of Trinity Church, Huddersfield, York- 
shire; in 1828, vicar of St. Stephen's, Salford, Lan- 
cashire, where he became first incumbent of Christ 
Church, Action Square, 1831; honorary canon of 
Chester Cathedral, 1845; chaplain to Lee, bishop 
of Manchester, 1851 ; and later rural dean of Ecdes. 
He was popular and effective as a preacher. He 
edited A Selection of Psalms and Hymns Suited to 
the Services of the Church of England (Manchester, 
1831); and wrote The Pleasures of Religion, with 
other Poems (London, 1832); The Duty of England 
in Regard to the Traffic in Intoxicating Drinks (Leeds, 
1840?); Tractarianism Tested by Holy Script** 
and the Church of England, . . . Sermons (2 vo&, 
London, 1845), and other collections of sermons; 
and A Model for Men of Business; or, Lectures ok 
the Character of Nehemiah (1854) . He was also noted 
as the author of the hymn " From every stormy 
wind that blows, 11 and numerous others published 


grb* m in the 12th ed. of the Selection of P talma 
miBgrnnt 0864). 

Bnuosunr: Rev. J. B. Mindon, Mcnoirt o/Oui IAS* awl 
Mwt 0/ Btr. Hue* SloomU. London. 1868; 8. W. Duf- 
SM, Junlu* Bymnt, pp. 156-157. New York. 1888: 
Man. UymnetoBV, pp. 1096-07; DA'S. Iv. 7. 

See Walahukd 

FMertant theologian; b. in Berlin May 6, 1848. 
He rtudied at the univeraitiea of Berlin and Leip- 
*(PhD, 1872; Th.Lic, 1877; Th.D., 1884), and, 
liter latching at the Kaiser WilheJra Gymnasium 
 Berlin (1872-73) and working in the Imperial 
library at St. Petersburg (1873-76), became ex- 
tnwdinary profeesor of theology at the University 
of Berlin in 1877, and honorary professor in 1910. 
Vide icknowl edging the full right of critical inves- 
tiptim, he ia " eonvinoed that such investigation 
an be and ought to be combined with reverence 
fw the Holy Scriptures and earnest Christian faith." 
Tfat Christ died for us and rose again he regards as 
. an irrefutable fact. He has made it one of the tasks 
of his life to promote Christianity among the Jews 
by combating Antisemitism and refuting misrep- 
nmUtioDj regarding the Jews and their ritual 
pmtiKe. His Hterary activity has been extensive. 
His more important publications are, Prolegomena 
erianm V. T. HebraUum (Leipsic, 1873); Kaialog 
let ktbr&tchen Bibelhandechriflen der kaieerlichen 
igoMihen Bxbliothek in St. Petersburg (in collabo- 
ntica with A. Harkavy, 1875); Prophetarum pos- 
tnonnt codex Babylonian Petropoliianus (1876), 
"hich was published at the expense of Alexander 
D. of Russia; Abraham FirkourUseh und seine Enl- 
ictaeen (1876); five Hishnah tracts: SprOche 
if Viler (Carisruhe, 1882; 3d ed., Leipsic, 1001), 
Vtnthnungstag (Berlin, 1888; 2d ed., Leipsic, 1904), 
fttawfcw* (Berlin, 1888; 2d ed., Leipsic, 1909), 
&faU (Beriin, 1890), Sanhedrin-Makkoth (1910); 
■uUtunji in dot AUe Testament (1883; 6th ed., 
Munich, 1906); Einltiiung in den Talmud (Leipsio, 
1887; 5th ed., 1911); Dot Blvt im Gtauben und 
Akrfaubm der Menschheit (Munich, 1891 ; 8th ed., 
J900); QrammaUk dee BibUseh-Aramawchen (Leip- 
«, 1895; 4th ed., 1905); Die Spruche Jems, des 
SoAmj Sirach* (1903); Das Weten des Judentums 
(1906); and Jesus, die HOretiker und die Christen 
^AieniUestenj-adUcbenAogabeti (1910). In col- 
UMntum with O. Zdekler he edited the Kurzge- 
!o*to Kvmmentar tuden heiHgen Schri/ten (Munich, 
1SS6 Njq.), to which he has contributed the com- 
n *ot*riee on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, 
•od Proverbs. He also edits the Nathanael; Zeit- 
"toflfSr-dte Arbeit der evangetischen Kirehe an 
ltd (Beriin, 1885 sqq.), the Jahrbueh der evangel- 
uc ^ei Jvdenmission (Leipsic, 1906 sqq.), and the 
MHratinus of the Institutum Judaicum, a Jewish 
""■Wary society in Berlin. 

SnUKGB, ROBERT: Protestant Episcopal 
™»P of East Carolina; b. at Wilmington, N. C, 
"«■ 6. ISS7. He was graduated from the Univer- 
sty c/ North Carolina in 1879, and from Berkeley 
Divinity School, Middletown, Conn., in 1883. He 
WM iniered deacon in 1881 and ordained to the 

priesthood in 1885. He was a missionary to the 
negroes of southern Virginia during his diaconate, 
and was then rector of the Church of the Good 
Shepherd, Raleigh, N. C. (1885-87), St. James', 
Wilmington, N. C. (1887-1900), and St. Paul's, 
Richmond, Va. (1900-04). In 1904 be was conse- 
crated bishop -coadjutor of East Carolina, and in 
1905, on the death of Bishop Alfred A. Watson, suc- 
ceeded him in the full administration of the diocese. 

STRAHGER: The translation in the English 
versions of the Hebrew ger, " a wanderer, traveler," 
and especially "an alien living in a foreign land." 
Originally all individual rights were based upon the 
blood-relationship which, according to the old Sem- 
itic view, bound the members of the tribe together 
(see Comparative Religion, VI., 1, b). A rela- 
tionship corresponding to that of consanguinity 
could, however, be brought about artificially, and in 
this way aliens were often taken into the tribe. 
There was also the relationship corresponding to 
protectorship or guardianship; the fugitive or out- 
law could place himself under the care of a family, 
and in this way acquire a degree of citizenship. 
Otherwise, the alien, merely passing through or re- 
siding temporarily in the territory of a tribe, en- 
joyed no rights except the hospitality usually ac- 
corded to strangers. This, however, is held sacred 
in the orient, and as a guest the stranger is safe in 
the tent even of his enemy. Accordingly, in Israel 
there was always a distinction made between the 
ger, the stranger who was under the protection of 
some family, and the nokhri, who was an alien and 
stood in no relation to the tribe and could claim 
no legal rights (Gen. xxxi. 15; Job xix. 15); and 
even the humane laws in Deuteronomy for the pro- 
tection of the poor and needy leave the alien out of 
account (Deut. xv. 3, xxiii. 20). The ger, on the 
other hand, enjoyed legal protection in a compara- 
tively high degree. He had the right of eonnvbium 
(see Family and Makbuoe Relations, Hebrew); 
and the children of such a union were Israelites 
(I Chron. ii. 17). The ger, unless he was a Canaan- 
ite, bad not the right of hereditary possession in 
real estate (Isa. xxii. 16; Esek. xlvii. 22). Impar- 
tial treatment before the courts had been assured 
to him by the Book of the Covenant (Ex. xxii. 21, 
xxiii. 9). 

Deuteronomy deprived the ger of the right of 
marriage (Deut. vii. 1 sqq., xxiii. 4); but it repeated 
the command to treat him humanely, to allow him 
to take part in festivities (Deut. x. 18, xiv. 29, xxiv. 
14 sqq.), and to grant him justice before the courts 
(Deut. xxiv. 17, xxvii. 19). He is put on a level 
with Levitee, widows, and orphans, and is recom- 
mended as an object of love, of which as a stranger 
he is doubly in need. But all this is made a matter 
of compassion, not of law; and the ger's legal status 
was inferior. This was true of the nokhri in a still 
higher degree (Deut. xiv. 21) . The ger had to adopt, 
in a way, the religion of his protector; but anciently 
very little waa required in this respect, and he might 
retain his sacra (Deut. v. 14, xvi. 11 sqq.; cf. I Kings 
ii. 7-8; Deut. xiv. 21). 

In the matter of religion, the Priest-code was 
more exacting, in order that there might be no sin 




among the people of Israel. The ger was required 
to avoid everything that was unclean for Israelites 
(Lev. xvii. 8 sqq., xviii. 26, xx. 2; Num. xix. 10 
sqq.), to observe the Sabbath, to fast on the Day 
of Atonement (Lev. xvi. 29), to avoid leavened 
bread at the Passover, and not to profane the name 
of Yahweh (Lev. xxiv. 16). Further, he was as re- 
sponsible for any violations of the Law as were 
the Israelites (Num. xv. 14 sqq.). On the other 
hand, he was given equal rights before the courts 
instead of the bare right to appeal to the compas- 
sion of the judge (Lev. xxiv. 22; Num. xxxv. 15). 
By submitting to circumcision the ger became a full 
citizen (Gen. xxxiv. 15; Ex. xii. 48; Num. ix. 14). 
Otherwise he might not keep an Israelite as a slave, 
but had to treat a servant as a free wage-earner 
(Lev. xxv. 47 sqq.). The right of connubium was 
also denied him (Ezra ix. 1 sqq., x. 2 sqq.). 

I. Benzinger. 

Bibliography : A. Bertholet, Die SteUung der Israeliten und 
Juden zu den Fremden, Freiburg, 1896; M. Peisker, Die 
Beziehung der NichHsraeliten zu Jahve nach der Anschau- 
ung der alHsraelxHschen QueUenschriften, Gieasen, 1900; 
Benzinger, Archaologie, pp. 284-286, 293; DB, ii. 49-61, 
iv. 622-623; EB, iv. 4814-18. 


German diocese first definitely mentioned in the 
sixth century, although both ancient remains and 
the testimony of Irenaeus (Hcer. t I., x. 2) prove that 
Christianity had entered upper Germany during 
the Roman period. The old diocese lay on both 
banks of the Rhine. On the left bank it practically 
coincided with the modern Lower Alsace, except 
that the southern boundary was somewhat further 
south, while in the north the district beyond the 
Hagenau forest belonged to Speyer and that be- 
yond the Vosges to Metz. On the right bank the 
diocese extended from the mouth of the Elz be- 
yond Baden-Baden, stretching inland to the Black 
Forest. (A. Hauck.) 

Strasburg eagerly embraced the Reformation 
and became one of the strongholds of Protestant- 
ism, the adherents of the ancient faith being ex- 
posed to bitter persecution. Even some of the- 
canons renounced the Roman Catholic faith, and 
from 1592 to 1604 there was internecine strife as to 
whether a Protestant or a Roman Catholic should 
be bishop of the diocese. Protestant supremacy 
in Strasburg was finally ended by the Peace of West- 
phalia, and the see then became part of France, al- 
though the bishop continued to rank as a prince 
of the Empire on account of his territories on the 
right bank of the Rhine. During the French Revo- 
lution Roman Catholicism, like every form of relig- 
ion, suffered heavily, but by the concordat of 1801 
the diocese was reorganized, becoming coterminous 
with Alsace. Hitherto forming part of the archdio- 
cese of Metz, Strasburg was made a suffragan see of 
Besancon in 1822. Henceforth it remained un- 
changed until 1870, when Alsace became German 
territory, and since 1874 the diocese has been under 
the immediate jurisdiction of the pope. 

Biblioorapht: J. D. Schopflin. AUatia ULustrata, 2 vols., 
Coimar, 1751; idem. AUatia . . . diplomatica, 2 vols., 
Mannheim, 1772-75; P. A. Grandidier, Hist, de Viglise et 
dee eveques de Strasbourg, 2 vols., Strasburg. 1776-78; 
Code historique et diplomatique de la viUe de Strassbourg, 

ib. 1843; Urkunden und Akten der Stadt-Strossbwrt, 10 
vols., ib. 1879 sqq.; H. Mailer, Die Restaurotion to 
Katholicismus in Strassburg, Halle, 1882; J. Frits, Du 
Territorium dee Bisthums Strassburg urn die MitU dm H. 
Jahrhunderts, Kdthen, 1885; A. Erichson, L'&oUse frm- 
caise de Strasbourg au 16. si&de, Paris, 1886; A. Baton, 
Magistral und Reformation in Strassburg, Strasburg, 1887; 
W. Horning, Briefe von Strassburger Reformatoren, 1S48- 
1664, ib. 1887; Kleine Strassburger Chronik, 1424-1616, 
ib. 1889; A. Seyboth, Strasbourg historique, ib. 1894; Die 
Bischdfe von Strassburg von 1692 bis 1890, ib. 1897; L 
Meister, Der Strassburger KapiteUtreit 1638-4S, :*b. 1889; 
W. Kothe, Kirchliche Zustande Strassburgs in 14* Jab- 
hundert, Freiburg, 1903; F. F. Leitschub, StnsAut, 
Leipsic, 1903; £. von Borries, Geschichte der Stadt Stnst- 
burg, Strasburg, 1905; Regesten der Bischdfe von Stntt- 
burg, Innsbruck, 1907 sqq.; Hauck, KD, 4 vols., pssnm; 
Gams, Series episcoporum, pp 315-316, supplement 76-77. 

of England, bishop of Sodor and Man; b. at Somera- 
hall (13 m. w. of Derby), Derbyshire, Nov. 4, 1840. 
He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge 
(B.A., 1862), and was ordained priest in 1865. He 
was curate of Market Drayton 1865-66, vicar of 
Kirkby Wharfe, Yorkshire, 1866-75, and vicar and 
rural dean of Wakefield 1875-92. In 1892 he wai 
consecrated bishop of Sodor and Man, of which he 
has also been dean since 1895. He was proctor in 
York Convocation for the archdeaconry of Craven, 
1880-85; honorary canon of Ripon, 1883-88, and 
of Wakefield Cathedral, 1888-92; and archdeacon 
of Huddersfield in 1888-92. In theology he is an 
Evangelical Churchman, opposed to the ritualistic 
movement. He has written Thoughts for Communir 
cants (London, 1905). 

man radical theologian; b. at Ludwigsburg (9 m. 
n. of Stuttgart) Jan. 27, 1808; d. there Feb. 8, 
1874. Strauss was the son of a merchant. He at- 
tended the Latin school in his native 
Early town and in 1821 entered the seminar/ 
Life. at Blaubeuren, whence he passed in 
1825 to the University of Tubingen, 
where he was a faithful and industrious student 
His former teacher, Ferdinand Christian Baur (q.v.), 
formerly at Blaubeuren, but now at Tubingen, re- 
lieved what Strauss deemed the dulness of the uni- 
versity courses. During his student days Straus 
was much taken with the teachings of Schleier- 
raacher, Schelling, and Hegel, and graduated with 
high rank, having obtained a good theological and 
philosophical foundation. 

Strauss acted as vicar for a while at a village near 
Ludwigsburg, and then journeyed to Berlin, 1831' 
1832, in order to study the Hegelian philosophy at 
its source. He also heard Schleiermacher, but was 
rather repelled by his lecture style. He read the 
manuscript of Schleiermacher's lectures on the life 
of Jesus, and resolved on returning to Tubingen* 
where he received an appointment as repetent, with 
the privilege of lecturing at the university, of which 
he took advantage, giving courses on Hegel's logic, 
the history of modern philosophy, and Plato. He 
aroused great enthusiasm for the Hegelian philoso- 
phy among the students, and thought of entering 
the philosophical faculty, but, meeting with some 
opposition from the university authorities, he re- 
turned to his theological studies. His Leben Jem 
(2 vols., Tubingen, 1835-36; Eng. trans!., 3 vols-, 




London, 1846) was written at this period, in the 
short space of one year. 

The impression of profound theological scholar- 
ship which the " Life of Jesus " makes on the reader 
is the more remarkable in view of the 
"Life of fact that it was the work of a young 
Jons." man of twenty-seven. There were at 
that time three parties to the contro- 
ieny on the problem of the life of Jesus: super- 
aatunlists, who accepted the New-Testament nar- 
trives and miracles; rationalists, who rejected the 
BHrades; and radical rationalists, who rejected the 
Gospel narratives as fabrications, though this posi- 
tion was held practically alone by Paulus at Heidel- 
berg. Strauss took an independent position. He 
began with the assumption that the Gospel narra- 
tive must be interpreted exactly like any other his- 
torical work. But although he rejected the mira- 
cles, he refused to attribute intentional fabrication 
to the Evangelists. To reconcile these two posi- 
tions, he advanced his " mythical " theory. This 
conception he derived from Hegel's philosophy of 
religion. Philosophical ideas are preceded by myth- 
ical presentations which are comparatively inac- 
curate, but are true to the intellectual state of the 
myth-maker. But even though an idea be promul- 
gated with full knowledge on the part of its author 
of Ha fictitious character, it may be called " myth " 
if it is accepted and passed on confidently by the 
multitude as being in harmony with their religious 
feelings and ideas. A certain remoteness in time is 
necessary to constitute a myth. Hence the Gospel 
of John could not have been written by an eye- 
witness, i.e., not by John the apostle. The synop- 
tic Gospels do not claim to have been by eye- wit- 
nesses. Another Hegelian conception Strauss ap- 
plied to the theory of the life and personality of 
Jesus. According to the supernaturalists, Jesus 
was a unique and perfect personality, and, as such, 
God's son. Strauss replies that the " idea " does 
not realise itself in this fashion — by pouring itself 
in all its completeness into one example ; but rather, 
through a multitude of examples that mutually sup- 
plement one another. The true God-man, hence, is 
not an individual, but humanity as a species. The 
writers of the Gospels, he asserts, had before their 
eyes the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament, 
and ascribed to Jesus words and deeds that should 
nave been his according to the prophecies; in doing 
®, however, they often added original ideas and 
breathed a new soul into the old material. Strauss 1 
work was throughout critical. In his opinion, the 
time had not yet come for a constructive picture. 

His book caused so great a sensation that one 
may call the year of its appearance, 1835, a turning- 
point in modern theology. It brought squarely be- 
fore the Christian world the question: 
Results Who was Jesus, the founder of the 
upon his Christian religion? Strauss had to bear 
Omar, almost alone the storm of attacks that 
followed. He was released from his 
l *petentship and transferred to the lyceum at Lud- 
**pbing. This position he soon left and removed 
*? Stuttgart, where he wrote his Streitsckri/ten zur 
**todiffung meiner Schrift fiber das Leben Jesu und 
toCharaeterisUk der gegenvtirtigen Theologie (1837), 

which is one of his most brilliant performances. His 
friends succeeded in getting him an appointment to 
the University of Zurich, but clerical opposition 
prevailed, and he was not permitted to enter upon 
his duties. He refused to resign voluntarily, but 
drew to the end of his days the pension of 1,000 
francs that was granted him, a large portion of 
which he spent in charity. 

His next most important work, Die christliche 
Glaubenslehre in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung 
und im Kamp/e mit der modemen Wissenschaft (2 
vols., Tubingen, 1840-41), was begun while he was 
preparing to go to Zurich. It is more 
Later negative in character than the Leben 
Life and Jean, sharply polemical, and from a 
Works. literary point of view superior to his 
first work. It bears clear traces of the 
author's sense of the injustice that had been done 
him. During the following twenty years Strauss 
wrote nothing on theology. His marriage to the 
opera-singer, Agnes Schebest, proved unhappy. 
For a short time he represented Ludwigsburg in the 
Wurttemberg Landtag. He published a volume of 
political speeches (1847) and biographies of Schu- 
bart (2 vols., Berlin, 1849), Christian Marklin (1850), 
Nikodemus Frischlin (Frankfort, 1855), Ulrich von 
Hutten (3 parts, Leipsic, 1858-00), and Hermann 
Samuel Reimarus (1862). Strauss returned to the- 
ology in 1860 with a translation of the conversations 
of Ulrich von Hutten, to which he prefixed a polemic 
against the Wurttemberg prelate, Mehring. He 
then set to work upon a new Leben Jesu fUr das 
deutsche Volk (1864). While the work was still in 
manuscript, though nearly completed, Renan's 
brilliant " Life of Jesus " appeared, and Strauss for 
a while thought of letting his own work go unpub- 
lished. But, on second thought, he concluded that 
his book might serve for the German people just as 
Renan's did for the French. The new work was an 
attempt at positive construction, but the author 
finally was obliged to admit that the data for such 
an attempt were insufficient: " It all still remains 
in a certain sense a tissue of hypotheses." He was 
unable to bridge the chasm between the Christ of 
faith and the Jesus of history. In the winter of 
1869-70 Strauss delivered some lectures from which 
arose the masterly little work on Voltaire (1870). 
The outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war called 
forth two patriotic open letters to Ernest Renan 
that met with universal applause in Germany. In 
1872 he again issued a popular version of a theme 
he had handled long before: Der alte und der neue 
Glaube. Artistically it was a masterpiece, accord- 
ing to Zeller on the same high plane as the work 
on Voltaire. It aroused, however, a storm of criti- 
cism and even of abuse for its skeptical views. To 
the question, " Are we still Christians?" the author 
answers bluntly, " No." To the question " Have 
we still religion? " he replies, " Yes or no," accord- 
ing to one's conception of religion; the old belief in 
a personal God and in immortality is gone; there 
remains the feeling of absolute dependence on the 
universe. The tone of the book in discussing the 
nature of the soul is materialistic. The author 
adopts the Darwinian theory and takes his stand 
frankly on the ground of natural science. His last 




illness followed soon after the publication of the 
book, while attack and criticism were still proceed- 
ing. A series of poems written on his death-bed, 
breathing pious resignation, show how truly in his 
own way he possessed religious feeling. In 1910 a 
sightly memorial was erected to him in his home 

In the critical study of the life of Jesus, Strauss 
stands at the middle point. All previous investiga- 
tions converge in him, and all later work, either in 
agreement or opposition, takes him as its point of 
departure. He accomplished his greatest feat at 
the beginning of his career. The remainder of his 
life was tragically incomplete. Even his bitterest 
enemies — with the single exception of Nietzsche — 
have admitted that he was a brilliant writer and a 
brave, truth-loving man. (T. Ziegler.) 

Bibliography: Strauss' GesammeUe Schriften, ed. E. ZeUen 
appeared in 12 vols., Bonn, 1876-78. On his life and 
works consult: E. Zeller, D. F. Straw* in seinem Leben 
und seinem Schriften geschUdert, Bonn, 1874, Eng. transl., 
London, 1874; E. Mussard, Ezatnen critique du systems 
de Strauss, Geneve, 1839; De Valcnti, Hegel, Strauss und 
der Christenglaube, Basel, 1843; C. Albrecht, Epochs aus 
der Straussemeit, Biel, 1863; J. Cairns, False Christs and 
the True, Edinburgh, 1864; C. E. Luthardt, Die modernen 
Darstellungen den Lebens Jesu, Leipsic, 1864; O. Bagge, 
Das Prinzip des Mythus im Dienst der christlichen Position, 
Leipsic, 1865; G. P. Fisher, Essays on the Supernatural 
Origin of Christianity, New York, 1S66; H. Rogers, Rea- 
son and Faith, London, 1866; W. H. Scott, The Christ of 
the Apostle's Creed, New York, 1867; B. Bauer, Philo, 
Strauss und Renan und das Urchristenthum, Berlin, 1874; 
W. Long, D. F. Strauss, Leipsic, 1874; J. de LeRoi, 
D. F. Strauss, Paris, 1875; H. Ulrici, Der PhQosoph 
Strauss: Kritik seiner Schrift " Der alte und der neue 
Glaubc" Halle, 1873, Eng. transl., Philadelphia, 1875; 
A. Hausrath, D. F. Strauss und die Theologie seiner Zeit, 
2 vols., Heidelberg, 1876-78; C. Schlottmann, David 
Strauss als Romantiker des Heidenthums, Halle, 1878; 
H. K (inkier, Zum Gedachtnis an David Friedrich Strauss, 
Wiesbaden, 1808; S. Eck, D. F. Strauss, Stuttgart, 1899; 
K. Harncus, D. F. Strauss, Leipsic, 1901; O. Gramsow, 
David Friedrich Strauss, Charlottenburg, 1904; K. Fischer, 
Ueber D. F. Strauss. Gesammelte Aufsatze mit Einleitung 
von H. Falkenheim, Heidelberg, 1908; H. Kard, Ein Vor- 
kampfer moderner Weltanschauung. Gedenkworte an 
David Friedrich Strauss (dazu ein Jugendbildnis), Zurich, 
1908; A. Kohut, David Friedrich Strauss als Drnker und 
Ertieher, Leipsic, 1908; T. Ziegler, David Friedrich Strauss, 
2 vols., Strasburg, 1908; A. L6vy, David FrSderic Strauss. 
La Vie et Vaeuvre, Paris, 1910. 

STRAUSS, JAKOB : Reformer in Hall, Wertheim, 
and Eisenach; b. at Basel between 1480 and 1485; 
d. possibly in Baden probably in 1533. He received 
his early education in his native town, left there in 
1495 and became teacher in Wertheim, Strasburg, 
probably in Horb also; in 1515 he went to Freiburg, 
where he took his bachelor's and doctor's degree, 
and was afterward Evangelical preacher in Berch- 
tesgaden. In 1521 he went to Schwaz in the Tyrol, 
but was compelled to withdraw before the Francis- 
cans under Michel von Bruneck and went to Hall, 
where he lectured to priests upon the Gospel of 
Matthew and preached in the churches and in the 
open air before vast crowds upon confession and the 
monastic life, attacking the hierarchy and demand- 
ing the administration of both elements in the sac- 
rament. He was guarded by the citizens from at- 
tack, but was compelled to leave there in May, 
1522, amid the bitter weeping of the people, to 
whom he sent on May 16 from Haslach Ein kurzer 
UrUerricht von erdichteten Bruderschaften. He went 

to Saxony and on Aug. 4 was in Kemberg, when* 
sermon preached in Hall was printed: Bint vent* 
dige irdeilich Leer tiber doe Wort S. Pauha: it 
Mensch soil sick setbs probieren, etc. In Septembs 
he went on Luther's recommendation as pretest 
to Count Georg of Wertheim, but his domroeerisj 
ways caused his dismissal the next month. He is 
at Weimar at Christmas, 1522, and at the begmmsi 
of 1523 at Eisenach as preacher, where he printed 
his document on the Weimar disputation and hs 
Wunderbarlich BeicJUb&chlein, abolished the mas; 
pictures in the churches, and the use of oil and the 
chrism in baptism, advocated the marriage of print} 
and wrote Wider den simoneischen Tauff, mi 
erkauften, ertichten Kryaam and Fege/euer und Off* 
/Ur die Toten. He replied also to those who ato- 
dered and accused him in a number of pamphiefr 
He assailed the burdens of taxation, church eodof- 
ments, payment of interest. Luther, being appealed 
to, attempted to correct Strauss' mistaken seal and 
to moderate it, and Melanchthon did the same a 
1524. The result was a more temperate advocacy 
of his principle that the Mosaic law should be s 
basis for church law in a tract of 1524, though dt> 
manding the introduction of the jubilee year. Ii 
1524 Duke Johann Friedrich charged Strauss with 
a visitation in Eisenach and neighboring parts, and 
this Strauss conducted imprudently, arbitrarily <k» 
posing and installing ministers. Disaffection ante 
among the peasants, which Strauss tried in vain to 
quell; after the rebellion Strauss was arrested and 
tried, submitted, and was discharged. His position 
in Eisenach was untenable. He was at Nuremberg 
in 1525, and later went to Hall in Swabia; he re- 
ceived a rebuke from (Ecolampadius, whom he had 
challenged to a disputation. Meanwhile Strauss wis 
made preacher in Baden-Baden, where he entered 
the sacramental controversy, and wrote against 
Zwingli. In 1527 he wrote again against (Ecolam- 
padius' AnUsyngramma, who, however, did not deign 
to notice Strauss. Little is known of his career after 
that, though it is probable that in disappointment 
he reentered the Roman Catholic Church. 

He was a restless, turbulent spirit, combining ele- 
ments of the new and the old, proud of his erudi- 
tion, yet unpractical, having a deep sympathy for 
the people, strong in his critical faculties but with- 
out constructive ability. G. Bossert. 

Bibliography: Ayn freuntlich gesprech zwyschen ainsm 
Barfusser Mtinch aus der Provynx Osterreych, der Observant, 
und ainem Ldffelmacher, cf . ZeUschrift der deutschen Ph&s- 
logie, xxxvii. 75 sqq.; F. A. Sinnacher, BeUrage tur Ot- 
schichte der bischdflichen Kirche von Sdben und Brixen, viL 
1888 Bqq., 314, 7 vols., Innsbruck, 1821 sqq.; G.T.Strobel 
MisceUaneen, iii. 1-94, 6 parts, Nuremberg, 1778-83; 
C. A. Cornelius, Geschichte des mUnsterischen Aufruhr*, 
ii. 243 sqq., 246, Leipsic. 1860; Schmidt, Jakob Strauss, 
Programm des Realgymnasiums, Eisenach, 1865; Q. 
Kawerau, Johann Agricola, pp. 51 sqq., Berlin, 1881; 
H. Neu, Geschichte der evangdischen Kirche in der Graf- 
schaft Wertheim, Heidelberg, 1903. A number of refer- 
ences to further information are given in Hauck-Hersog, 
RE, xix. 92. 

STRAWBRIDGE, ROBERT : Methodist Episco- 
pal pioneer and lay preacher; b. at Drummer's Nave, 
near Carrick-on-Shannon, Ireland; d. near Baltimore 
in 1781. He seems to have been a local preacher 
before his emigration to America, which took place 



760 and 1765; he settled on Sam's Creek, 
Co., Md., and soon began to hold meet- 
to preach in his own house, later building 
sting-house, and the Minutes of 1773 re- 
aa assisting Francis Asbury (q.v.) ; again 
b tn 1775 as second preacher on Frederick 
it acting as with the full rights of an i ' 
hiding the administration of baptism and 
s Supper; in his ministrations he appears 
nanifested an independent spirit, and to 
nnined on the exercise of full ministerial 
in spite of directions from the conference, 
e moved to a farm, the full use of which 
ed to him during his life; but he continued 
, and, the Revolution causing many min- 
n England to withdraw, be took charge 
inches at Sam's Creek and Bush Forest, 
bunty, remaining as pastor until his death, 
g the authority of conference. 

■■i: J. B. Wakelay, LoH ChapUri Rmtmd 
Bart* Bit. o{ American Methodism. New York, 
. Hamilton, m MHAediM Quarterly Review, July, 
B»d«b, Riet. a! the Mtthadi* Spixopai Church. 
1. 1800: W. B. Bpncus. Annuls of the American 
fi. 3-4, ib. 1861; J. H. Buckley. In American 
listen Series, y. 113-116. 201, ib. ISM; ' ' 
irorkfl on the esriy history of 

b. at Eastersnow Rectory, County Ros- 
Ireland, Apr. 8, 1844. He received his 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and Emmanuel 
ambridge (B.A., 1874; H.A., 1877; B.D., 
D., 1895); he was made deacon in 1875 
in 1876; has been fellow of Corpus Christ: 
Cambridge, since 1875; was dean of the 
r-83 and 1886-02, Hebrew lecturer there 
ind from 1006 to the present; curate of 
Chesterton, Cambridge, 1883-85; senior 
Jniversity of Cambridge, 1891-92; and 
inntcheeter, Cambridge, 1898-1904. In 
be is a moderate Anglican. Among his 
reductions are to be noted Prolegomena 
to Treadle*' Greek Testament, edited jointly 
A. Hart (Cambridge, 1879); The Treatise 
Translated from the Babylonian Talmud, 
iuetion and Note* (1891); Jesus Christ in 
4 (1893); The Double Text of Jeremiah 
he Age of the Maccabees (1898); an edition 
istes for the Churchman's Bible (London, 
the Psalms for the Temple Bible (1902), 
tber for the Cambridge Bible for Schools 
le has also translated Karl von Hase's 
der protestanHsehen Polemik as Hand- 
: Controversy with Rome (2 vole., 1906). 

XKR, OrVEDS BROWH: Presbyterian; 
ikler's Springs, Va., Apr. 25, 1840. He 
ated from Washington College, Washing- 
-ee University (A.B., 1868), and Union 
J Seminary, Va. (1870). He was ordained 
inistry of his denomination, 1870; was 
["inkling Spring Church, Augusta County, 
-83); of the Central Church, Atlanta, Ga. 
; and was appointed professor of systema- 
jy in Union Theological Seminary, Rich- 
, where he still remains. During the Civil 

War he served in the " Stonewall Brigade " of the 
Confederate Army. 

STRIGEL, Btrt'gel, VICTORIrTDS: German 
Helanchthonian theologian; b. at Kaufbeuren (36 
m. S.S.W. of Augsburg) Dee. 26, 1524; d. at Heidel- 
berg June 26, 1569. He studied at the University 
of Freiburg, 1538-12, and then at Wittenberg, where 
he attached himself to Melanchthon. After his pro- 
motion in 1544 he gave private instruction at Wit- 
tenberg. During the Scbrnalkald war he went to 
Magdeburg and then to Erfurt, where he lectured 
acceptably. He received a call to Jena, where 
he, together with Johann Stigel, opened the new 
Gy mn asiu m academicum. He began with lectures 
on philosophy and history, subsequently also on 
the Loci of Melanchthon. Ho was, however, soon 
involved in the theological controversies of the 
time; his relations with Melanchthon and the senti- 
ments and tendency of the theologians in Ernestine 
Saxony were destined to lead him into conflicts 
which destroyed the happiness of his life. Melanch- 
thon tried in vain to induce him to accept a call to 
Augsburg. Matters assumed an especially critical 
condition after Flacius (q.v.) went to Jena in 1557. 
Strigel published a written statement to the effect 
that he did not approve the attitude of Flacius 
toward the Wittenberg theologians. The domina- 
ting influence of Flacius made itself felt immediately 
at the Colloquy of Worms (see Works), where 
Strigel together with the other deputies of Thuringia, 
in accordance with the instructions of Flacius, was 
compelled to participate in the protest of the Gnesio- 
Lutherana and contributed to the lamentable out 
come of the colloquy. When Flacius induced the 
duke to order the drawing up of the Weimar Book 
of Confutation, Strigel, Schnepff, and Superintend- 
ent Huge! were entrusted with the task, but against 
their desires. In the ensuing discussions at Weimar 
Flacius and Strigel were involved in dispute, but the 
former gained his point, and Strigel returned to Jena 
in an embittered state of mind. The polemic was 
continued in their lectures; the duke tried to recon- 
cile them, but in vain. At the beginning of 1559 
there appeared the " Book of Confutation," sanc- 
tioned by Johann Friedrich and modeled in the 
spirit of Flacius. Huge! and Strigel refused to ac- 
cept it, the latter because of the condemnation of 
the thesis that the rational will of man cooperates 
in conversion and regeneration; he rejected the 
doctrine of Flacius that the attitude of the will is 
purely passive, and that the Holy Spirit is given 
to those who reject him. After the refusal of Strigel 
to be silent, he, together with Hugel, was imprisoned 
on Mar. 27, 1559, but they were released on Sept. 
5, at the intercession of the university, the most 
prominent Evangelical princes, and even the em- 
peror; Strigel, however, was suspended from teach- 
ing. The duke finally conceded to the general desire 
that Flacius and Strigel should discuss the disputed 
points in a colloquy, which took place on Aug. 2, 
1560, in the old castle at Weimar, in the presence 
of the duke, the court, and a large audience from 
all estates; but the only point discussed was the re- 
lation of human will to divine grace in the act of 
conversion. Strigel presented the synergism of his 




teacher Melanchthon, with a protest against the 
charge of Pelagianism. The initiative in conversion 
he conceded to the Word and the Spirit of God, but 
he asserted that the will cooperates. Against this 
view Flacius formulated the thesis so fatal for him 
at a later time, that original sin is the very substance 
of the natural man. After thirteen sessions, from 
Aug. 2 to Aug. 8, the disputation was broken off 
without result. Both parties were requested to re- 
main silent until the matter was fully decided. As 
Flacius did not conform to this request, he, together 
with his closer associates, was dismissed Dec. 10, 

Before rehabilitating Strigel, the duke asked 
Christoph of Wurttemberg to send two theologians 
to bring about an agreement. Jacob Andrea and 
Christoph Binder arrived for this purpose at Weimar 
in May, 1562. After an oral discussion a declaration 
was formulated which was signed by Strigel and ap- 
proved by all present. It stated that the natural 
man is entirely incapable of doing good, but that he 
has preserved the capacity to be converted. The 
Declaratio Victorini (as it was called) only caused 
new dissension. But few signed it; most of the 
preachers, instigated by men like Hesshusen and 
Flacius, preached against it as being ambiguous, 
and refused their signature. Consequently about 
forty preachers were deposed and expelled. On 
May 24 Strigel was rehabilitated and resumed his 
lectures, but he felt the discomfort of his position 
so much that in autumn, 1562, he went to Leipsic, 
with the intention of never returning. He was ap- 
pointed professor in Leipsic, and on May 1, 1563, 
began his lectures on theology and philosophy. 
Here his doctrine of synergism became still more 
evident than before; he taught that the human will 
must not be inactive in conversion, but must itself 
will obedience; faith is a gift of God, but is not given 
to those who resist it, but to those who listen and 
incline themselves; the innate image of God is not 
completely destroyed and extinguished. He lec- 
tured especially on dogmatics and ethics, but sud- 
denly in Feb., 1567, his lecture hall was closed and 
he was prohibited from teaching because of the sus- 
picion that he inclined toward Calvinism in the doc- 
trine of the Lord's Supper. This suspicion was not 
without foundation. He went to Amberg in the 
Upper Palatinate where Frederic III. was on the 
point of abolishing Lutheranism and introducing 
Calvinism; here Strigel openly confessed the Re- 
formed doctrine of the Lord's Supper. On Sept. 
14, 1567, he entered a new position as professor of 
ethics in Heidelberg, but was soon called away by 

Strigel always was and remained a true Melanch- 
thon ian. He distinguished himself by his efficient 
philosophical training, his dialectic cleverness, and 
his brilliant oratory. His extensive literary activ- 
ity lay in the sphere of philology, philosophy, and 
history, and in Biblical, patristic, and systematic 
theology. He wrote commentaries on Psalms (1563, 
1567), Isaiah (1566), Wisdom Literature (1565), 
Daniel (1565), Jeremiah (1566), the Pentateuch 
(1566), Joshua (1567), Samuel, Kings, Chronicles 
(1569), Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ruth (1571), Job 
(1571), Ezekiel (1570), Minor Prophets (1570), Rev- 

elation (1569-71); and the New Testament (1» 

1583). Still more esteemed, though ^^yHwit 

Melanchthon, were his dogmatic text-books, 

theologici, quibus loci communes . . . Pk&ppi 

lanchthonis Ulustrantwr . . . (ed. Peiel, 4 

Neustadt, 1581-84), the most important work 

dogmatics of the school of Melanchthon in the : 

rower sense; Hypomnemata in epitomen philtmfkk] 

moralis PhUippi MdanchthonU (ed. Peiel, 15ttfc< 

Enchiridion theologicum (1584); Enchiridion k* 

corum theologicorum (Wittenberg, 1591). 

(G. Kawduu.) 

Bibliography: Sources are: Dieputatio de 
cato d libero arbitrio inter M. Flacium IB. d V. 
. . . Vinarim . . . 1660 . . . habita, ed. 8. 
1562 and 1603; V. Striodii epidaim aliqw* de 
eucharietico, Neustadt, 1584. Letten are 
Weaenbecii Papinianue, Wittenberg, 1568; J. Tofe 
Briefweehed der beruhmieeten Gdehrten mit Eene§ ift> 
breeht, pp. 575-604, Konigsberx, 1841; H. L. J. Hajp* 
Geechichte dee devtechen Proteetantiemue, toL L, 
6-8, Marburg, 1853; ef. G. Wolf, Zur Geedde 
deutechen ProteetanHemen, 1666-69, pp. 300 sqq., 
1888. Consult: H. Erdmann, Dt Strig di a n i e mo, Urn, 
1658 and 1675; J. C. Zeumer, Vitm profeeeonm Jmm- 
•turn, pp. 16 aqq., 2 parts, Jena, 1703-06; H. Men, Bid, 
vitat et controversies V. Strigdii, Tubingen, 1732; <L£ 
Planck, Geechichte daa proteatantiachen Lehrbegriia, vol far., 
Leipsic, 1796; J. C. T. Otto, De V. StrigeHo Mmiem 
mentia in ecdeeioe Lutherana vindice, Jena, 1843; A. Beak, 
Johann Friedrieh der Mittlere, vols. L-iL, ib. 1843; J. J. I 
von D6llinger, Die Reformation, ii. 237 sqq., 325 *&, I 
vols., Regensburg, 1846-48; H. L. J. Heppe, ut eon, L 
157 sqq., 192 sqq., 298 sqq.; idem. Dogmatic dea dedadm 
Proteaiontiamua im 16. Johrhundert, L 163 aqq- Godk 
1857; W. Preger, Fiorina, vol. n., Eriangen, 18*1; l 
Janssen, HieL of the German people, viL 145, 275, 356, z. 
263, London, 1905-06; ADB, xxxvi 590 sqq. 

STRIGOLlflKL See Russia, I., § 2. 

STROHS ACKER, str0 / sac // er, HARTMANH: An- 
trian Roman Catholic; b. at Mautembach (a vil- 
lage near Krems, 88 m. n.w. of Vienna) July 6, 187(1 
He entered the Benedictine order in 1888, after com- 
pleting his gymnasium education; studied at the 
Benedictine seminary at Gottweig (1889-93), and 
at the University of Innsbruck (1893-97; D.D, 
1897); was professor of philosophy and dogmatics 
at the seminary of Gottweig (1897-99); and since 
1899 has been professor of dogmatics at the Bene- 
dictine university, Rome. 

Rochester, N. Y., Aug. 3, 1836. He was educated 
at Yale (A.B., 1857) and at Rochester Theological 
Seminary (graduated 1859), completing his educa- 
tion in Germany in 1859-60. He then held pastor- 
ates at the First Baptist Church, Haverhill, Mass. 
(1861-65), and at the First Baptist Church, Cleve- 
land, O. (1865-72; became professor of systematic 
theology and president of Rochester Theological 
Seminary 1872) ; resigned presidency in 1912. He 
has written Systematic Theology (Rochester, 1886) ; 
Philosophy and Religion (New York, 1888) ; The Great 
Poets and their Theology (Philadelphia, 1897) ; Christ 
in Creation and Ethical Monism (1809) ; Systematic 
Theology (3 vols., 1907-09); and Outlines of Sys- 
tematic Theology (19C8). 

STRONG, JAMES: Methodist layman; b. in 
New York Aug. 14, 1822; d. at Round Lake, N. Y., 
Aug. 7, 1894. He was graduated from Wesleyan 
University, Middletown, Conn., 1844; teacher of 


ient languages in Troy Conference Academy, 
at Poultney. Vt., 1844-16; owing to failure in 
Mi he occupied himself in study and held vari- 
. economic positions, 1846-57; was professor of 
■Seal literature, and acting president of Troy 
twenty, 1858-61; and professor of exegetical 
otogy in Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, 
J., from 1868. He was a member of the Old 
Itament Company of revisers; and was the author 
Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels (New 
*, 1852); Harmony of the Gospels in the Greek 
tft* Received Text (1854); Irenics: A Series of 
lags showing the virtual Agreement between Sci- 
m and the Bible (New York, 1883); and edited 
Bid (1876) and Esther (1877) in the American 
tion of Lange. His most important work was 
r editing, at first with Dr. McClintock for 3 vols., 
i afterward alone, of a Cydopadia of Biblical, 
mdUgioal, and Ecclesiastical Literature (10 vols., 
m York, 1867-81; with a supplement in 2 vols., 
85-87] ; the work was begun in 1853. Healsopub- 
bed a literal translation of Ecelesiastes (1877). 

STRONG, JOSIAH: Congregationalist; b. at 
iaperviUe, 111., Jan. 19, 1847. He was educated 
t Western Reserve College (A.B., 1869) and at 
lUnut Hills Seminary (now Lane Theological 
■miliary), Cincinnati, O. (graduated 1871). He 
n§ home missionary at Cheyenne, Wyo. (1871- 
873) ; instructor in natural theology in Western Re- 
rnit College (1873-78); pastor at Sandusky, O. 
,1(76-81); secretary of the Ohio Home Missionary 
faorty (1881-84); pastor in Cincinnati (1884-86); 
•Wary of the Evangelical Alliance (1886-98). 
Saw 1898 he has been president of the American 
[■Stute of Social Service. Besides editing Social 
fnptss from 1904 to 1907 he has written Our 
IWy (New York, 1885); The New Era (1893); 
The Twentieth Century City (1898); Religious Move- 
mts for Social Betterment (1900); Expansion (1900), 
% Times and Young Men (1901); The Next Great 
\mkening (1902); The Challenge of the City (1908); 
Met in the Gospel of the Kingdom (1910); and 
<y Religion in Everyday Life (1910). 

STRONG, NATHAN: CongTegationaliat: b. in 
iwntry, Conn., Oct. 16, 1748; d. in Hartford, 
ma., Dec. 25, 1816. Having been graduated at 
lie College in 1769, be pursued the study of law 
 a time; was tutor in Yale College in 1772-73; 
i, after a brief course of theological reading, was 
lained pastor of the First Congregational Church 
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 5, 1774, holding this pas- 
ate nearly forty-two years, and making the 
jrch the strongest in the state. During the early 
it of his work, in the midst of the colonial troubles 
it Great Britain, he published many political 
per* which exerted a wide and deep influence. 
ese and other discussions were characterized by a 
; sometimes keenly sarcastic in character. During 
! last twenty years of his pastorate he became 
inent as a revivalist, and was, in the best sense 
the term, a pulpit orator. His knowledge of 
■nu nature was remarkable. Thia gave him an 

exceptional degree of authority among the churches, 
and a rare degree of skill in conducting revivals. 
He was an indefatigable student; but his learning 
was developed in his intellectual character, not in 
his references to books. He was also a pioneer in the 
cause of Christian missions, and has been regarded 
as the lather of the Connectirut Missionary Society 
(1798), the oldest of the permanent missionary so- 
cieties in the land. His most noted work was The 
Doctrine of Eternal Misery Consistent with the /'fi </.'.■ 
Benevolence of God (1796); he published also two 
volumes of Sermons (1798-1800); and was the pro- 
jector and principal compiler of the Hartford Col- 
lection of Hymns (1799), to which he contribute! 
several hymns, among them "Swell the anthem, 
raise the song." 

BiBuooiurnr: W. B. Sprsgue, Annalt of On American 
Puipit, EL 34-41. Now York, 1859; F. H. FosMr, -V™ 
England Throlom,, pp. 200-210. Chicago. 1907. 

STRONG, THOMAS BANKS: Church of England; 
b. in London Oct. 24, 1861. He was educated sit 
Christ Church College, Oxford (B.A., 1883), and 
was ordered deacon in 1885 and ordained priest in 
the following year. He was lecturer of his ooOogt 
(1884-1901), where he was also student (1888-1901) ; 
and has been dean since 1901. He was examining 
chaplain to the bishop of Durham 1889-1901; and 
has been examining chaplain to the bishop of Lon- 
don since 1905. He was Hampton lecturer in 1695, 
and has written Manual of 'Theology (Lorn Ion. ISltJi ; 
Christian Ethics (Bampton lectures; 189fi); Doc- 
trine of the Real Presence (1899); Historical Chris- 
tianity (1902); and Authority in the. Church (1903). 

byterian; b. at Vernon, N. Y., Jan. 7, 1851. He 
was graduated from Hamilton College (A.B., 1872) 
and from Auburn Theological Seminary (1876). 
He held pastorates at Presbyterian churches at 
Auburn, N. Y. (1876-78), and Ithaca, N. Y. (1878- 
1883), at the Second Congregational Church, Hol- 
yoke, Mass. (1883-85), and the Fourth Presbyterian 
Church, Chicago, 111. (1S85-92), and since- 1892 has 
been president of Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 
He has written The Song of Miriam (Chicago, 1888) ; 
CnurcA Song (hymnal; New York, 1889); Diet 
Ira, with Versions (Chicago, 1893); Hamilton, Lin- 
coln, and Addresses (Utica, N. Y., 1895); Letter of 
James (Boston, 1895); Lattermath (poems; Utica, 
1896); College Hymnal (New York, 1897); Well by 
the Gate (sermons; Philadelphia, 1903); and Bacca- 
laureate Sermons to the Graduating Classes of Hamil- 
ton College 1893-1905 (Utica, 1905). 

STRYPE, JOHN : Historiographer of the English 
Reformation; b. at Houndsditch Nov. 1, 1643; d. 
at Hackney Dec. 11, 1737. After passing through 
St. Paul's school, he entered Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, 1662, from which he was transferred to 
Catherine Hall (B.A., 1665; M.A., 1669). He was 
made curate of Theydon Bois, Essex, and of 
Low Leyton, Essex, 1669. Archbishop Tenison con- 
ferred upon him the sinecure of West Tarring. Sus- 
sex, 1711, and he was lecturer of Hackney, 115*0- 
1724. He published vol. ii. of J. Lightfoot's Works 
(London, 1684) ; Memorials of . . . Thomas Cran- 
mer, Archbishop of Canterbury. Wherein the History 



of the Church and the Reformation of it daring the 
Primacy of the said Archbishop . . . are greatly illus- 
trated . . . In three Books, 2 parts (1694); Life of the 
Learned Sir Thomas Smith (Oxford, 1698); Histor- 
ical Collections of the Life and Acts of ... J. AyU 
mer, Lord Bishop of London in the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth (London, 1701); The Life of the Learned 
Sir J. Cheke, Kt., . . . (1705); his moat important 
work Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of 
Religion and . . . other Occurrences in the Church of 
England; during the first twelve Years of Queen Eliz- 
abeth's . . . Reign: . . . With an Appendix, 2 parte 
(1708-09; a 2d ed., more complete, 4 vols., 1726-31, 
Oxford, 1824); The History of the Life and Acts of 
. . . Edmund Grindal . . . Archbishop of . . . Can- 
terbury, 2 parts (1710); The Life and Acts of Matthew 
Parker, . . . Archbishop of Canterbury, 2 parts 
(1711); The Life and Acts of John Whilgift . . . 
Archbishop of Canterbury, 2 parts (1718); Ecclesias- 
tical Memorials Relating chiefly to Religion, and the 
Reformation of it, and the Emergencies of the Church 
of England under King Henry VIII., King Edward 
VI., and Queen Mary the First (3 vole., 1721). 
Strype was a diligent collector of materials, but 
hosed literary style and skill in methodical ar- 
rangement. The complete works of Strype were 
issued at Oxford. 1822-40, in 27 vols. 
Bibliooiuphi: S. K. MiiUand. Remarks on On First V al- 
um* ofStrwe'm Ufa o/AreAouAop Cranmer, London. 1848; 
DNB, Iv. 87-89. 

Kpi~!'ii[>:iliun; b. at Glasgow, Scotland, Aug. 20, 
1853. After completing his high-school studies in 
his native city, he left Scotland for the United 
States, and was educated at Kalamasoo College, 
KahmiL^o. Mich. (A.B., 1880), and at the Garrett 
Biblical Institute, Chicago. Entering the ministry 
of his denomination, he remained in its pastorate 
until 1SS5, when he was associate editor of the 
Michigan Christian Advocate for a year. From 1886 
to 1896 he occupied a similar position on the North- 
Wosttrn Christian Advocate, and since 1896 has been 
professor of sacred rhetoric in the Garrett Biblical 
Institute. Besides editing the Methodist Hymnal 
(New York, 1905), and The Books and their Message 
(1910), he has written Descriptive Text of Photo- 
gravures of the Holy Land (New York, 1890); Life 
aii'l StUeted Writings of Francis Dana Hemeniray 
{\a collaboration with C. F. Bradley and A. W. 
Patten; 1890); Gospel Singers and their Songs (in 
«i!l;i1>i<ratioD with F. D. Hemenway; 1891); Vision 
of Christ in the Poets ( 1 896) ; and Story of the Master- 
pieces (1897). 

Brother; b. at Tempsford Hall, Sandy (8 m. e. of 
Bedford), England, 1828; d. at Reading 1903. ne 
was grandson of William Stuart, Archbishop of 
Armagh; went from Eton to St. John's College, 
Can ib rul Ei'. where he took his master's degree, after 
obtaining a Tyrwhitt university scholarship in 
Hebrew. About the year I860 he entered the ranks 
of the Brethren at Reading, where he continued to 
reside until his death. He wrote on the sacrifices, 
the Church of God, textual criticism of the New 
Testament (he was of the Tregellea school), and criti- 

cized William Robertson Smith's Lectures on lb 
Old Testament in the Jewish Church. In 1885 he 
put forth a pamphlet on Christian Standi*--) tad 
Condition, which aroused i 

culminating in a division of the Brethren, not yd 
healed (see Plymouth Brethren)* This w fol- 
lowed by a series of papers on propitiation, in whtdi 
Stuart insisted on the detailed fulfilment of the pres- 
entation of the Savior's blood, immediately after 
death, in the heavenly sanctuary; this doctrine atat 
was obnoxious to old associates. There follond 
expositions of the Gospels and Acts, of the epistle* 
to the Romans and the Hebrews, and of the Psalter. 
A pamphlet entitled The Critics: shall we faOxt 
them f did battle for traditional views of the OH 
Testament. Stuart adhered closely to belief in ver- 
bal inspiration. With independent judgment it 
held firmly the general body of doctrine, prophetie 
as well as ecclesiastical, characteristic of the Breth- 
ren. E. E. Wbj 

STUART, GEORGE HAY: Presbyterian lavrnw; 
b. at Rose Hall, County Down, Ireland; d. at Chert- 
nut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa., Apr. 11, 1890. Hecua) 
to Philadelphia in 1861, went into business 
accumulated wealth. He was for many yean presi- 
dent of the Merchants' National Bank of Philadel- 
phia. He acquired a national reputation as a phi- 
lanthropist and Christian worker. During the Oril 
War he was president of the Christian Commisson. 
Later he was president of the Philadelphia branch 
of the Evangelical Alliance, vice-president of the 
American Bible Society, of the American Tract So- 
ciety, and of the National Temperance Society, mi 
was prominently connected with many other reh? 
ious and philanthropic associations. 
BiBLiofltuFHT : Lift of George B. Stuart, written by hi 

edited b]/ R- B. ThompKtn, Philadelphia, 1890. 

STUART, MOSES: American Hebraist; t 
Wilton, Conn., Mar. 26, 1780; d. at Andover, M 
Jan. 4, 1862. He was graduated from Yale Col- 
lege with the highest honor (1790); taught school 
at North Fairfield and Danbury, Conn.; studied 
law and was admitted to the bar 1802, and the same 
year was called as tutor to Yale; pursued the etwij' 
of theology with President Dwight, and wis o(- 
dained pastor of the First Congregational Church, 
New Haven, Conn., 1806, showing remarkable talent 
as preacher and pastor; became professor of ncrwl 
literature in Andover Theological Seminary in 1810, 
retaining his place there until his retirement in 18& 
His first literary work was a Hebrew grammar, 
which was circulated among the students in manu- 
script because it was not possible to print Hebre* 
in this country at that time; when it was finally 
printed (1813), he was compelled himself to set op 
part of the type for lack of compositors equipped  
for the task; later editions long remained the text- 
books for American students. To Americans ha 
brought the knowledge of what was being done fir 
Biblical scholarship in Germany, and thus founded 
in America the scientific study ol Biblical archeology 
and linguistics. For his services in this department 
he has been called " the father of American Bib-heal 
literature"; in the course of his labors he trained 
more than 1,500 ministers, 70 professors C* 


colleges, more than 100 foreign mis- 
, and about 30 translator of the Bible 
„q tongues. 
His literary work was extensive. He translated 
Tmer'a Greek Grammar of the New Testament (1825; 
i collaboration with Professor Robinson), and 
Rnedigcr's Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1846); pre- 
pared commentaries on Hebrews (2 vols., 1827-28), 
Romans (2 vols., 1832), Revelation (2 vols., 1845), 
Daniel (1850), Ecclesiastes (1851), and Proverbs 
; and wrote, besides his Hebrew Grammar, 
 to Rev. William E. Charming . . . on the 
- of Christ (1819); Letters to Rev. Samuel 
. . on the Eternal Generation of the Son of 
God (1822); Hebrew Chrestomathy (1829); Elemen- 
tary Principle* of Interpretation, from the Latin of 
Erncsti (1842); Finis on the Prophecies (1842); 
Critical History and Defence of the Old Testament 
i (1845); Miscellanies; consisting of Letters 
mud Sermons, on the Trinity, the Atonement, etc. 
(1815); and Exegetical Essays (1867). 
BnuoelArBi: The Funeral Sermon, by E. A. Park, wu 
pubbhed. Andover, 1862. Consult further W. Adorns. 
Ditamrtt <m lit Lift "tut Scrricci of Motes Stuart. New 
Yort. 1852; W. B. Bprssue, Annals of Ul American Pul- 
pit, ii. 475-481. ib. 1858; W. Walker, ID American Church 
Bistort/ Series, iii. 341. 352-353. 355, ib. 1804: idem. Ten 
K—r England Leader., pp. 372, 388, 308, 415-417. ib. IS01 . 

land; b. at Liverpool Sept. 3 1845. He was 
educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge 
(B_A., 1868), and was ordered deacon in 1868 and 
ordained priest in 1869. He was senior curate of 
St. Mary's, Sheffield (1868-71), vicar of Granbor- 
ough, Bucks (1871-84), and of Stokenham, Devon- 
shire (1884-88); rector of Wavertree, Liverpool 
(1888-94); dean of Ely (1894-1906); and bishop 
of Truro since 1906. He has been honorary fellow 
of his college since 1904, and was select preacher at 
Cambridge in 1881, 1894, 1896, and 1901, and at 
Oxford in 1883 and 1898-99, Lady Margaret preach- 
er at Cambridge in 1896-97. select preacher at Har- 
vard in 1900, and Hulaean lecturer in 1904-05. He 
has written, in addition to several volumes of poems, 
Origin and Growth of Sentiments of International 
•■'■■: i -,' (London, 1869); Village Politics: Ad- 
dresses and Sermons on the Labour Question (1878); 
The Myths of Life (1880); Christ and Democracy 
(University sermons; 1883); God's Englishmen: 
Sermons on the Prophets and Kings of England (1887) ; 
For Christ and City (Liverpool sermons; 1890); 
The Land and the Labourers (1890) ; Christ and Eco- 
nomics (1893); Christus Imperator (1894); A Creed 
for Christian Socialists, with Expositions (1896); 
Historical Memorials of Ely Cathedral (1897); Hand- 
book to Ely Cathedral (Ely, 1898); Charles Kingsley 
and the Christian Social Movement (London, 1898); 
The Serial Teachings of the Lord's Prayer (Univer- 
sity sermons; 1900); Pro Patriot (cathedral and 
university sermons; 1900); In a Minster Garden; 
Colloquies of Ely (1901); Cambridge and its Story 
(1904); and The Christ of English Poetry, Hulsean 
lectures (1905). He has edited Matthew and Mark 
for The Temple Bible (London, 1901); and Verba 
Christi: Sayings of the Lord Jesus, Greek and Eng- 
lish (1903). 

STUBBS. WILLIAM: Church of England tiL-hup; 
b. at Knaresborough (16 m. n. of Leeds) June 21, 
1825; d. at Oxford Apr. 19, 1901. Ho studied at 
Christ Church College, Oxford (B.A., 1848; M.A., 
1851); was fellow of Trinity College, Oxford (1848- 
1851); of Oriel (1867-84); honorary fellow of Bal- 
liol (1876-84); honorary student of Christ Church 
(1878-84); vicar of Navesteck, Essex (1850-67); 
librarian to the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
keeper of the manuscripts at Lambeth (lSiL'-OT); 
examiner in the schools of law anil modern history, 
Oxford (1865-66); regius professor of modern his- 
tory (1866-84); select preacher (1870); examiner 
in the school of theology (1871-72) ; and of modern 
history (1873, 1876, 1881); rector of Cholderton, 
Wills (1875-79); canon of St. Paul's, London (1879- 
1884); member of royal commission on ecclesiastical 
courts (1881); became bishop of Chester (1884), 
and was translated to Oxford (1S88). Ana historian 
and critic he belonged in the front rank of Ijr.-lisb 
scholars. He was one of the foremost, contributor.-. 
to the Rolls Series; was the editor or author of 
Reoistrum sacrum Anylicanum (Oxford, 1858); 
Chronicles and Memorials of Oie Reign of Richard I. 
(2 vols., London, 1864-65); Benedietus Abbas (2 
vols., 1867); Roger Hoveden (4 vols., 1868-71); Se- 
lect Charters (1871); Councils and Eedtstastsad 
Documents (vol. iii., 1871); Walter of Coventry (2 
vols., 1872-73); ConstitiUionol History of England 
(3 vols., 1874-78); Memorials of St. Dunstan 1 1*74) ; 
The Early Plantagenets (1S1 Ci); The Historical rVorkt 
of Ralph de Diceto (2 vols, , 1 876) ; Wonts of Gervase 
of Canterbury (2 vols., 1879); Chrnnidc« of Edward 
I. and 11. (2 vols., 1882-83); Seventeen Lectures on 
the Study of Mcdiarvat mid Modern Church flisti/r;/ 
(1887) ; The " Gesta Regum " of William of Malmes- 
bury (1887-89); and, posthumously, OrrfiJia/iO'ivld- 
dressrs, ed. E. E. Holmes (19011; Historical Intro- 
ductions to Rolls Series, collected and ed. A. Has- 
sal] (1902); Letfers, 1825-1901, ed. W. H. Hutton 
(1904); Visitation Charges, ed. E. E. Holmes (1904); 
Lectures on Early English Hixfory, ed. A, fTlllniltl 
(1906); and Germany in the . . . Middle Ages, ed. 
A. Hassall (2 vols., 1908). 

Bnuoafurar: W. H. Hutton. William Stubbs. Bithap of 
Oxford, 18S6-1901, London. 1008. 


Lutheran; b. at Bramsche (60 m. s.w. of Bremen), 
Germany, Jan. 6, 1835; d. at London May 28, 1903. 
He was educated at Witteribf-rg College. SprinchVId, 
O. (A.B., 1857), and at the universities of Halle 
(1859-61), Gottingen, Tubingen, and Berlin (1865- 
1867). He held Lutheran pastorates at Davenport, 
O. (1858-59), Erie, Pa. (1861-65), Indianapolis, 
Ind. (1867-68). and Pittsburg, I'a. (1-K6S-74), being 
also chaplain of the 145th Pennsylvania Volunteers 
in 1362-63; he was professor of theology in Witten- 
berg Theological Seminary (1874-80), and from 1880 
until Ins retirement from active life in IS94 wag pas- 
tor of the American Church in Berlin. In theology 
he was a liberal evangelical, and wrote Niiii tit-Fire 
Theses for the Seventh Semi-Centennial of the Refor- 
mation (Baltimore, 1868); History of the Augsburg 
Confession from its Origin till the Adoption of the 
Formula of Concord (Philadelphia, 1869); Christian 

iSS?bU^BSS? r Uo ^ mmnt THE NEW SCHAFF-HER20G 


Sociology (New York, 1880); Life of Immanud 
Kant (London, 1882); Final Science (New York, 
1885) ; Introduction to the Study of Philosophy (1888) ; 
The Age and the Church (Hartford, Conn., 1893); 
Tendencies in German Thought (1896); Introduction 
to the Study of Sociology (New York, 1897); The So- 
cial Problem (York, Pa., 1897); and Sociology: or, 
The Science of Human Society (2 vols., New York, 
1903). He also translated C. R. Hagenbach's Ger- 
man Rationalism in its Rise, Progress, and Decline 
(in collaboration with W. L. Gage; Edinburgh, 

EIGN MISSIONS: A movement originated at the 
first international conference of Christian college 
students, held at Mount Hermon, Mass., in 1886, at 
the invitation of the late D. L. Moody. 
Origin, Or- Of the 250 delegates who attended, 
ganization, twenty-one had definitely decided to 
Purpose, become foreign missionaries when the 
conference opened. Of this number 
Robert P. Wilder of Princeton, Tewksbury of Har- 
vard, and Clark of Oberlin had come with the con- 
viction that God would call from that large gather- 
ing of college men a number who would consecrate 
themselves to foreign missions. Before the confer- 
ence closed 100 of the delegates had recorded their 
" purpose, if God permit, to become foreign mis- 
sionaries." At the conference it was decided that 
a deputation should be sent among the colleges, 
and four students were selected for this purpose. 
Of the four selected, Wilder alone was able to go, 
and John N. Forman, also of Princeton, was induced 
to join him. The expenses of the deputation were 
borne by Mr. D. W. McWilliams, of Brooklyn. 
Messrs. Wilder and Forman visited 176 institutions, 
including a majority of the leading colleges and 
divinity schools of Canada and the United States. 
In the summer of 1888 about fifty volunteers at- 
tended the student conference at Northfield. It 
was there decided that some organization was nec- 
essary, and a committee was appointed by the 
volunteers present to effect such an organization. 
This committee met in Dec., 1888, and an organ- 
ization was effected, taking the name of the Stu- 
dent Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions 
which is incorporated under the laws of the state 
of New York. There is an executive committee, 
a board of trustees, and an advisory committee. 
This movement is in no sense a missionary board. 
It never has sent out a missionary, and never will. 
It is simply a recruiting agency. Those who be- 
come student volunteers are expected to go out as 
missionaries under the regular missionary organ- 
izations of the Church. It does not usurp or en- 
croach upon the functions of any other missionary 
organization. It is unswervingly loyal to the 
Church, and has received the endorsement of every 
leading missionary board on the continent. It is 
primarily a movement of students, and it is not in 
any sense an organization forced upon the students. 
The purposes are as follows: (1) To awaken and 
maintain among all Christian students of the United 
States and Canada intelligent and active interest in 
foreign missions; (2) to enroll a sufficient number 

of properly qualified student volunteers to meet Ǥ 
successive demands of the various missionary bout 
of North America; (3) to help all such intends** 
missionaries to prepare for their life-work and to 

enlist their cooperation in developing the 
ary life of home churches; (4) to lay an equal bow 
den of responsibility on all students who are to re- 
main as ministers and lay workers at home, tfett 
they may actively promote the missionary enter- 
prise by intelligent advocacy, gifts, and prayer. 

Student volunteers are drawn from those who 
are or have been students in institutions of higher 
learning in the United States and Canada. Each 
student volunteer signs the " declara- 
Methods of tion," which is as follows: " It is my 
Work, purpose, if God permit, to become s 
foreign missionary." The work for 
which the movement, as an agency of the Church, 
is held responsible is the promotion of the miaaoo- 
ary life and activity in the institutions of higher 
learning in the United States and Canada, in which 
more than 250,000 students are matriculated. From 
these should come the future missionaries and mis- 
sionary leaders of the Church. Therefore no work 
can be more important than that of making each 
student center a stronghold of missionary intelli- 
gence, enthusiasm, and activity. To accomplish 
this a staff of secretaries is employed, offices are 
maintained in New York City, and conferences and 
conventions are held. Besides administrative sec- 
retaries, there are traveling secretaries; and this 
position is usually held for one year by a student 
volunteer ready to go to the mission field. Returned 
missionaries also have been employed. The number 
of traveling secretaries is determined by the funds 
at the disposal of the executive committee. The 
traveling secretaries visit the colleges, deliver ad- 
dresses on missions, meet with missionary commit- 
tees and volunteer bands, organize mission-study 
classes, and in every way possible promote the mis- 
sionary activities of the colleges — but the chief ob- 
ject of their work is by public address and personal 
interview to lead students to give their lives to mis- 
sionary service. The student volunteers in an in- 
stitution are organized into a volunteer band, which 
has as its objects to deepen the missionary purpose 
and spiritual lives of the members, to secure other 
volunteers, and to promote missions in the college 
and in the college community. Once in four yean 
an international convention is held. Six such con- 
ventions have been held; at that of 1910 there 
were present 2,954 students and professors repre- 
senting 735 institutions. 

The Volunteer Movement has reached by its 
propaganda nearly if not quite 1,000 institutions of 
higher learning in North America. In a large ma- 
jority of these the work was the first 
Results, real missionary cultivation which they 
ever received. It is the testimony of 
professors and other observers that even in the in- 
stitutions which had already been influenced in dif- 
ferent ways by the missionary idea, the Volunteer 
Movement has very greatly developed missionary 
interest and activity. Because the Student Volun- 
teer Movement is a movement for foreign missions, 
the principal proof of its efficiency is to be found 


a the going forth of its members to the foreign 
i field. It is gratifying, therefore, to note 
that the movement has on its records the names of 
4,784 volunteers who, prior to Jan. 1, 1911, had 
reached the mission field, having been sent out aa 
o less than fifty different mission- 
ary boards of the United States and Canada. About 
one-third of the sailed volunteers are women. 

The sailed volunteers are distributed by countries 
aa follows: 

ataxias 152 

Central Amelia 28 

Soulh America 388 

Wast !ad« . 140 

lAtib and Onek Church aouolnea of Kurope 31 

Aftioa SOS 

Torfcbb Empin 174 

Arabia 21 

PMa . 39 

India. Burma, and Ceylon 924 

Biam. Laoa. and Strmiu HtUrmenu TO 

China 1.38B 

— dKp, 


Total *,7B4 

In order to be of greater service to all the mission 
boards in helping them to secure the most capable 
men and women to go as missionaries, there was 
established in the fall of 1907 the candidate depart- 
ment. The work already done has demonstrated 
the wisdom of this forward movement. Almost 
every board has been aided during the past year in 
finding properly qualified candidates. In 1894 the 
movement began to promote the systematic and 
progressive study of missions among students. At 
that time there were less than thirty classes carry- 
ing on such study in all the institutions of North 
America. During the first year there were organ- 
ised 144 classes with an enrolment of 1,400. In the 
year 1909-10 there were in 596 institutions 2,379 
classes having an enrolment of 29,322. At the be- 
ginning of this period there were no textbooks 
available for the classes. Since 1894 a text-book 
literature has been created, not only for the stu- 
dents, but the work, taken up by other organiza- 
tions, has been pushed in the churches among young 
people's societies, women's missionary societies, 
and in the Sunday-schools, so that now the annual 
sales of missionary text-books by these different 
agencies has passed the 100,000 mark. This mission 
study work is developing an intelligent and strong 
missionary interest and is striving to make that 
interest permanent. It is an invaluable help in pre- 
paring missionary candidates for their life-work, is 
making the conditions favorable for the multiply- 
ing of the number of capable volunteers, is develop- 
ing right habits of praying and giving for missions, 
and is equipping those who are to become leaders at 
home to be real citizens of a world-wide kingdom. 
The movement has also stimulated gifts to missions 
by students. When it began its work less than 
$10,000 a year was being contributed toward mis- 
sionary objects by all the institutions of the United 
States and Canada. During 1909-10 29,000 stu- 
dents and professors gave over 1133,761, of which 

Student Volunteer Movement 
Stumbline- Block 

more than 190,000 was given to foreign i 
and $37,000 to home missions. Eighty-nine insti- 
tutions gave $3tX> or more each. Many colleges and 
theological seminaries arc supporting entirely or in 
large part their own representative on the foreign 
field. The movement lias been helpful also in mining 
the standards of qualifications of intending mission- 
aries. During the past twenty year, in particular it 
has emphasized that those why are to become mis- 
sionaries should posse*-- I lit; highest ijtulifaal inns. 
It invariably encourages students to take a regular 
and thorough college or university course and to 
press on to such graduate courses as may be required 
by the agencies under which they expect to go 
abroad. The leaders of the movement have ahvavs 
insisted that- no student volunteer was prepared for 
his high calling unless he were spiritually qualified, 
Henee the movement has guided and stimulated 
volunteers to form rigid lievoliuiial haliits .inch as 
that of personal Bible study, secret prayer, and the 
practise of religious meditation. 

Great as the achievements have been, the work 
is not and will not be finished while there is an in- 
creasing demand for missionaries. New missionaries 
are needed to fill the places made vacant on the 
mission field by the death or retirement of the old 
missionaries, to reach the un evangelized millions 
in the countries where missions have already been 
established, and to occupy the countries which are 
at present wilhoiit :i single i  i i — . ioiiaiy. or where no 
work has as yet been attempted. These recruits 
must be found among the students. 

F. P. TrjRNEK, 
BlBuc"iH*pnr: HeporU of the Executive Committ™ mid ot 
the internal ioir. I iv!iv,-nti,in-. |ml.!i-W hv ilio urganiaa- 
tion (ram limo to time. 
STUDITES. See Acosutrrl. 
The translation in the English versions of the He- 
brew mikshul, iiiiiL.i/uliili, i-li/i, n iiiijlirph, and the 
Greek proakommo, lithns ton pronkniiimalos, |fqn 
dolon, the fundamental idea of which is either an 
object in the way over which one may stumble or a 
weighted nap n.-.ed fur catching wild animals, which 
falls when the bait is touched. These terms may 
represent [k.tsoiis or things good in themselves, as 
when (I Cor. i. 23; I Pet, ii. 8) they are applied to 
Christ, the guilt resting upon those " which stumble 
at the word, being disobedient "; and moral guilt 
may be incurred by a Christian if, when he should 
uphold his faith, he weakly denies it or conceals it 
for fear of giving offense. On the other hand, he is 
always to take the idea.-! awl feelings of others into 
('(iiinidc-fation iff. Malt. .wii. 27). An offense uhieh 
involves blame to the giver does so because it leads 
to sin, if only by confusing the moral judgment, in 
the awakening of a doubt about the character of 
the agent or the action or about the correctness of 
another's habitual convictions. Sin is thus made 
easier, and the one who gives offense incurs the guilt 
of consciously or unconsciously leading another into 
temptation. It is from this standpoint that St. 
Paul exhorts the Corinthians to abstain from meat 
offered in sacrifice {I Cor. viii, 7-13, x. 28), laying 
down his principle of Christian liberty, " All things 




are lawful unto me, but all things are not expedi- 
ent " (vi. 12, x. 23, 32). (Rudolf Hofmann.) 

STUNDISTS. See Russia, II., § 7. 

STUPA: A mound of masonry, usually dome- 
like, employed by Buddhists to commemorate a 
notable event, mark a sacred spot, preserve a relic, 
or to serve a combination of these purposes. The 
terms dagoba and tope are employed to some ex- 
tent as equivalents, the latter having reference to 
the form and the former to the purpose as protect- 
ing a relic. The shape has been explained as due 
to the tradition that Buddha, born among a race 
descended from the Scythians, directed that his re- 
mains be buried in Scythian fashion (cf . Herodotus, 
iv. 71, 72, 217; and the notes and plans in Rawlin- 
son's transl., ill. 57-63, New York, 1875) under a 
raised mound (S. Beal, Catena of the Buddhist Scrip- 
tures from the Chinese, pp. 126-130, London, 1871). 
The period during which these structures were 
raised coincides roughly with the middle stage of 
the dominance of Buddhism in India, c. 250 b.c- 
250 a.d., though some rebuilding was done as late 
as the eighth century. Those best worthy of men- 
tion are (1) that at Sanchi, Bhopal, Central India, 
having a horizontal diameter of 106 feet and placed 
upon a circular platform 120 feet in diameter, and 
having a perpendicular radius of forty-two feet. 
It is constructed of bricks laid in mud covered with 
a layer of chiseled stone, and has a tee or flattened 
surface on the apex (the place where usually the 
relic was kept) fourteen feet in diameter. The whole 
is surrounded by an elaborately carved stone rail- 
ing. (2) A second important example is found at 
Manikyala, near Raval Pindi, in the Punjab (where 
these structures are especially numerous). (3) The 
finest of all, perhaps, was that at Amravati, in the 
Madras Presidency, the sculptures of which are now 
in the British Museum. (4) One of great historic 
interest is twelve miles from the Lumbini Garden 
(the traditional birthplace of the Buddha, about 110 
m. n.e. of Benares), and covered that part of the 
ashes of the saint which fell to his own Sakhya clan. 
(5) A notable series of groups are in the vicinity of 
Bhilsa in Bhopal, and number between twenty-five 
and thirty. Most of these are in a most ruinous 
condition, the Mohammedans and others having 
used them as quarries of material for later struc- 
tures. The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hiouen 
Thsang (seventh century) reports that what are 
known to have been some of the earliest were al- 
ready in ruins. Geo. W. Gilmore. 

Bibliography. J. Fergusson, Hist, of Indian and Eastern 
Architecture, book I., chap, iii., London, 1891 (gives ex- 
cellent cuts, one on title-page); idem, in Royal Asiatic 
Society's Journal, new series, iii (1868), 132-166; K. Rit- 
ter. Die Stupas, Berlin, 1838. H. H. Wilson, Ariana An- 
tiqua, pp. 55-118, London, 1841; A. Cunningham, The 
Bhilsa Topee, ib. 1854, idem, in Royal Aeiatic Society's 
Journal, xiii (1852). 108-114; J. Burgess, Notes on the 
Amaravati Stupa, Madras. 1882; J. Burgess, The Buddhist 
Stupas of Amaravati and Jagaayyapeta, London, 1887; 
and the following articles in the Royal Asiatic Society's 
Journal, new series, v (1870), 164-181 (by S. Beal), arfv 
(1882), 332-334 (by W. Simpson), 1902, pp. 29-45 (by J. 

Boniface, first abbot of Fulda (q.v.), and apostle of 

Hesse and Saxony; b. in Bavaria in 710; <L it 
Fulda Dec. 17, 779. He came of a distinguubsd 
Christian family, and was sent to Boniface for in- 
struction while the latter was in Bavaria; he ac- 
companied Boniface on at least one of his miaaon- 
ary journeys, and for further education was under 
the care of Abbot Wigbert at Fritzlar, being made 
priest in 740. He was then a missionary in Hesse 
for three years; but, feeling a strong inclination far 
the monastic life, he was encouraged by Boniface 
to build an abbey, and after some indecision settled 
at Fulda, receiving a gift of the land from Carlo- 
man through the intercession of Boniface, erecting 
the first structure and becoming its first abbot under 
the Benedictine rule. After the death of Boniface, 
when great efforts were made to carry the body to 
Mains for entombment, Sturm carried out the 
wishes of his master for burial at Fulda. Lullus of 
Mains attempted to disregard the exemptions se- 
cured by the abbey, and Sturm was the defender; 
but in consequence he was charged with disloyalty 
to Pippin and banished to Jumieges in Normandy, 
758, but was permitted to return in 760 and received 
into Pippin's good graces, this result being in part 
due to the favor in which Sturm was held througb- 
out the Frankish kingdom. Sturm was also re- 
garded highly by Charlemagne, and was employed 
by him in diplomatic affairs, and it fell to his tot 
to carry the Gospel to the regions brought under 
the Frankish's king's dominion in Saxony. His 
accomplishment was not merely the planting of the 
abbey and its erection into a strong and influential 
institution, but the impulse to general education 
and culture which he imparted and the results of 
this in churches and schools in central Germany. 

Bibliography: The fundamental source is the Vita by 
Egil, abbot of Fulda, 818-822, in ASB, iii. 2, pp. 2S9- 
284, with discussion of the year of death and account of 
the canonisation by Mabillon, pp. 284-286, also in MOB, 
Script., ii (1829), 365-377, and MPL, cv. 423-444; then • 
a Germ, transl. by W. Aradt, Berlin, 1863. Consult fur- 
ther: Q. F. Maclear, Hist, of Christian Missions during 
the Middle Ages, pp. 211-217, Cambridge, 1863; idem, 
Apostles of Medieval Europe, pp. 132-138, London, 1888; 
F. J. Nick, Der heUige Sturmius, enter Abt von Fulda, 
Fulda, 1865; J. Kayser, Der heUige Sturmi, der erste 
(Haubensbote dee Paderborner Landes, Paderborn, 1866; 
A. Elbert, AUgemeine Oeschichte der Literatw des MUteU 
alters, ii. 104-106, 121, 144, Leipsic, 1880; B. Kuhlmann, 
Der heUige Sturmi, Qrunder Fxddas und Apostet WestfaUns, 
Paderborn, 1890; Rettberg, KD, i. 371, 607 aqq., 616 sqq.; 
Hauek, KD, vol. ii. passim. 

STURM, sturm, JAKOB: German reformer; b. 
at Strasburg Aug. 10, 1489; d. there Oct. 30, 1553. 
He was educated at Heidelberg (B.A., 1503); and 
at Freiburg (M.A., 1505), where he studied theology 
in connection with law after 1506. He maintained 
relations with the greatest humanists of his day, 
and was highly esteemed by Erasmus. He was first 
a clerical of the lower order; occupied the position 
of secretary to the cathedral provost at Strasburg, 
1517-23; was an earnest member of the Strasburg 
society of learning; and in 1522 devised a plan for 
the reorganisation of the University of Heidelberg. 
In 1524 he entered the municipal service, being 
elected to the great council, as a member of which 
he represented Strasburg and other imperial cities, 
in the government of the empire. From 1526 he 
was one of the " college of thirteen," was chosen 




fttdtmeister thirteen times from 1527, and soon 
•dnoced to the leadership of Strasburg statesman- 
ship. The wise moderation of Strasburg in the 
Fnnnts' War was due to his influence. His fear- 
Is* championship of the Protestant cause and his 
eloquence at the Diet of Speyer of 1526 (see Speyer, 
Ddrb of) secured for his city the leadership in 
upper Germany. In the quiet movement of the 
Beformation at his native city, he took the ground 
of liberty of conscience in church matters, recog- 
wng neither pope nor emperor in matters of faith. 
Hence Strasburg became a center of toleration and 
freedom. He held aloof from the Eucharistic con- 
troversy, declining the communion for years; but 
via present at the conference at Marburg (q.v.). 
At the Diet of Speyer in 1520 he advocated the abo- 
lition of the mass, took sides with the protesting 
estates, and assisted Philip of Hesse to prevail upon 
then not to concur in the condemnation of the 
Mb. At the Diet of Augsburg (1530) he helped 
m drawing up the Con/essio tetrapolitana and strove, 
though unsuccessfully, for unity. He participated 
in the deliberations before the Wittenberg Concord 
of 1536. Simultaneously he was employed upon 
ecclesiastical organization at Strasburg; he was 
president of the synod of 1533, and took a part in 
the preparation of the church order which appeared 
in 1534. Shortly after he succeeded in founding 
the Strasburg gymnasium. Since 1528 he had been 
one of the supervisors of public instruction. During 
the Interim, he humbled himself, though uncon- 
(pered, to the emperor, thus parting with M. Butser, 
whom he had hitherto supported ; yet sustaining the 
dignity and Protestant freedom of the city. As a 
rtntegic point on the Rhine, he took every precau- 
tion to fortify Strasburg against the French. Sturm 
held the respect of all parties as well as of his op- 
ponents and of the emperor; and from 1525 to 1552 
represented the city of Strasburg ninety-one times 
at political and religious conferences. Unsurpassed 
as an administrator and statesman in the history 
of Strasburg he was a man of deep moral and re- 
Ejgious conviction, of circumspect wisdom and high- 
minded Christian patriotism. 

(Johannes Ficxeb.) 

BnuoomAPirr: Sources are: E. Winkelmann, Urkunden- 
buck der Univereitat Heidelberg, i. 214 sqq., Heidelberg. 
1886; the Opera of Zwinsjli, paasim; Politieche Korre- 
epondene der Stadi Straeeburg im Zeitalter der Reforma- 
tio*, ed. H. Virck and O. Winckelmann, vols, i.-iii., Stras- 
borg. 1882-97; J. Strickler. Akteneammlung der echweie- 
ieehen Reformationegeechichte, 16*1-5*, 5 vols., Zurich. 
1878-84: and M. Lena, Briefweched Landgraf PhUipp dee 
Gro oemuti gen von He— en mil Bucer, 3 vole., Leipaio, 1880- 
1801. For biographical material consult: J. Sturm, Con- 
eoiatio ad eenatwn ArgenHneneem de morie . . . Jacobi 
fltenvm, 8traaburg, 1553; Stein, Jacob Sturm (Jena dis- 
sertation), Leipsic, 1878; H. Baumgarten, Hietorieehe und 
politieche Aufedtse und Reden, pp. 458 sqq., Strasburg, 
1864; ADB, xxxvi. 5 sqq. For light on various sides of 
Sturm's activities consult: A. Jung, Geechichte der Refor- 
mation der Kirch* in Straeeburg, vol. i., Leipsic, 1830; 
T. W. Rohrich, Geechichte der Reformation in Bleaee und 
beeon der e in Straeeburg* 3 parts, Strasburg, 1830-^32, 
A. W. Strobel, Hiet. du gymnaee protectant de Straebourg, 
ib. 1838; J. W. Baum, Capito und Butter, Elberfeld, 1860; 
H. Baumgarten, Ueber Slexdane Leben und Briefwecheel, 
Strasburg, 1878, A. Baum, Magietrat und Reformation in 
Straeeburg bie 16*9. ib. 1887, C. Engel, Dae Grundunge- 
tahr dee proteetantiechen Qymnaeiume mu Straeeburg, pp. 
113 sqq., ib. 1888; idem, L'BcoU latin et Vamdenne oca- I 

demie de Straebourg {1688-16*1), ib. 1000; M. Foumier 
and C. Engel, UUnivereiU de Straebourg et lee academiee 
proteetantee francaieee, Paris. 1804; J. W. Richard. Philip 
Melanchthon, pp. 18, 176. 185. 226, 264, New York. 1808; 
8. M. Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, pp. 312, 324, 330, 2d 
ed., ib. 1003; Cambridge Modem Hietory, ii. 204, 258, ib. 
1004; and works on the history of Strasburg. 

STURM, JOHANNES: German humanist and 
schoolman; b. at Schleiden (60 m. s.w. of 
Cologne) Oct. 1, 1507; d. at Strasburg Mar. 3, 
1589. He entered, in 1521 or 1522, upon his hu- 
manistic studies at the school of St. Hieronymus 
at Luttich and completed them at the University 
of Louvain, where he had a share in a printing- 
press and issued several Greek works. Visiting 
Paris in 1520 to sell his books, he was induced to 
teach dialectics and give lectures on Cicero and 
Demosthenes. Influenced by the writings of M. 
Butser, he adopted the principles of the Reforma- 
tion. After participating in the attempt to recon- 
cile the Protestant and Roman Catholic parties 
in 1534, upon a new outbreak of persecution, he 
repaired to Strasburg to organize the new gymna- 
sium. Dependent on Melanchthon, he followed the 
principle of training in rhetoric and eloquence, 
based upon Humanism and Evangelical piety, for 
the offices of the Reformation movement and the 

Although a Protestant, Sturm had many Roman 
Catholic connections and always cherished the hope 
of a reunion. His oratorical talent and diplomatic 
aptitude qualified him for many embassies in behalf 
of Strasburg, the Protestant estates, and the king 
of France. He attended the conferences at Hagenau 
and Worms, 1540; of Regensburg, 1541; and went 
with Butser to meet the elector of Cologne, 1542. 
After helping to negotiate peace between England 
and France, 1545, he again went to France, 1546, 
at the outbreak of the Schmalkald War, to procure 
the aid of Francis I. A personal friend of many 
French Protestants and especially of Calvin, Sturm 
preferred the Reformed teaching on the Eucharist, 
but, desiring a reconciliation, shared the attitude of 
Butser and Melanchthon. He spared no sacrifice 
in behalf of liberty of conscience for France, even 
demanding German aid to the Huguenots. For this 
he incurred the suspicion of the Lutherans. After 
the death of Jakob Sturm (q.v.) and with the stricter 
enforcement of the Lutheran confession after 1555, 
Sturm became involved in continuous violent con- 
troversies. He upheld the broader views of Butser, 
which formerly prevailed at Strasburg, being also 
influenced by his Biblical and humanistic tendency 
toward a non-dogmatic Christianity. This contro- 
versy, lasting more than thirty years, marks the 
division of the Strasburg church from its past. A 
consensus in 1563 on the basis of the Wittenberg 
Concord did not last long. Sturm was engaged to 
organise a number of schools upon the model of his 
own, among which was the gymnasium at Lauingen, 
1564. In 1566 he secured an imperial privilege for 
an academy, which was dedicated 1567. But the 
complaint of the theologians against the Reformed 
tendencies of himself and some of his professors 
became ever louder. The intensely partisan Johann 
Marbach (q.v.) brought on an acrimonious strife 
over the school, which a referee decided in favor of 

Sty lite* 



Sturm in 1575. But soon after, the occasion of the 
introduction of the Formula of Concord (q.v.) at 
Strasburg reopened the conflict. Coarser in method 
was the assault of Johannes Pappus (q.v.), who was 
supported by L. Osiander and Jakob Andrea (qq.v.) 
of Wurttemberg. Many virulent pamphlets were 
exchanged. The result was the removal of Sturm 
from the rectorship. He spent his last years at his 
rural house at Northeim. He had a sanguine, sym- 
pathetic nature, easily attracted or violently re- 
pelled, and was lacking in self-control. To this may 
be added his arrogance and increasing passion of 
temper as motives of his controversial spirit, pro- 
voked when his broad, international, humanistic 
attitude refused to be pressed into narrow confes- 
sional molds. His eminent capability as an organ- 
izer and teacher made the Strasburg high school 
world-renowed and one of the best attended of the 
time, and history has assigned him the fame of 
" the greatest of the great school rectors of the six- 
teenth century." (Johannes Ficker.) 

Bibliography: The book of most value is C. Schmidt, La 
Vie et lea travaux de Jean Sturm, Strasburg, 1855 (con- 
tains list of the works of Stunn and also names the earlier 
literature). As sources to be consulted are: J. Camera- 
rius, Epietolarum libri V poateriorea, pp. 496-505, Frank- 
fort, 1595; Zanchii epietolarum libri duo, passim, Han- 
over, 1609; Aechami familiarium epietolarum libri III, 
pp. 529 sqq., ib. 1610; Fecht, Hiet. eccl. eae. XVI., aup- 
plementum, pp. 836, 877, 886-896, Frankfort, 1684; A. 
Schumacher, Oelehrter Manner Briefe an die K&nige in 
D&nemark, ii. 311 sqq., Copenhagen, 1758; Zurich Let- 
ters {,1668-1602), Parker Society, Cambridge, 1845; the 
Opera of Calvin and Melanchthon in the CR; and A. L. 
Herminjard, Correepondance dee reformateure, 9 vols., 
Geneva, 1864-97. For discussions of Sturm's life and 
activities consult: L. Kuckelhahn, Johann Sturm, Straaa- 
burge crater Schulrektor, Leipsic, 1872; E. Laas, Die Poda- 
gogik dee Johann Sturm*, Berlin, 1872; E. and E. Haag, 
La France proteetante, ix. 318 sqq., Paris, 1859; F. von 
Besold, Briefe dee Pfalzgrafen Johann Casimir, 3 vols., 
Munich, 1882-1903; R. Zoepffel, Johann Sturm, Der erate 
Rektor der Straaaburger Akodemie, Strasburg, 1887; H. 
Veil, in Featachrift dee proteatantiachen Oymnoaiuma au 
Stroaaburg, ib. 1888; G. Schinid, in K. A. Schmid, Ge- 
achichte der Erziehung, ii. 2, pp. 30 sqq., Stuttgart, 1889; 

F. Paulsen, Geachichte dea gelehrten Unterrichta, passim, 
2d ed., Leipsic, 1896-97; Bourilly, in Bulletin de la ao- 
ciHi de Vhiat. du proteatantiame francaia, 1900, pp. 237 sqq., 
477 sqq.; idem and Weiss, in the same, 1904, pp. 97 sqq.; 

G. Merts, Doa Schulweaen der deutachen Reformation, pas- 
sim, Heidelberg, 1902; T. Ziegler, Geachichte der P&da- 
gogik, pp. 73-91, 2d ed., Munich, 1904; ADB, xxxvii. 21- 
38; much of the literature under Sturm, Jacob, especially 
the works there named of C. Engel, M. Foumier and C. 
Engel, H. Baumgarten, and T. W. Rfthrich, and the Politi- 
ache Korreapondenx der Stodt Stroaaburg. 

poet and hymnist; b. at Kostritz (30 m. s.s.w. of 
Leipsic) July 21, 1816; d. at Leipsic May 2, 1896. 
He received his preparatory training at the gymna- 
sium at Gera, 18219-37, and studied theology at 
Jena, 1837-41. He served as tutor at Heilbronn, 
1841-44; then was tutor of Prince Henry XIV. of 
Reuss-Schleiz-Gera, 1844-47; and attended the 
prince in the gymnasia of Schleiz and Meiningen, 
1847-50. His first volume of secular and religious 
poetry appeared with the title Gedichte (Leipsic, 
1850). He served as pastor at Goschitz, 1850-57, 
and at Kdstritz, 1857-78; was church councilor 
there, 1878-85; and privy councilor after 1885. 
Among a long series of poetic publications may be 
named; Fromme Lieder (1852); Zwei Rosen oder 

das Hohdied der Liebe (1854); Neue fromme Lieder 
und Gedichte (1858); Fur das Haus (1862); Isrodit- 
ische Lieder (2d ed., Halle, 1867); AvfwirU (1881), 
and Dem Herrn mein Lied (Bremen, 1884), both 
collections of religious poems; and his last poems, 
in Freud und Leid (Leipsic, 1896). 

(A. Fbetbe.) 

Bibliography: E. Heyden, Qalerie beruhmter und meH> 
tDurdiger Reuaaenlander, Frankfort, 1858; O. Knot, 
Geietliche Lieder im 19. Jahrhundert, pp. 543 sqq., 2d ed, 
GQtereloh, 1879; Zuppki, in Uneer VogUand, ii. 1 (1805), 
2-10; R. K6nig, in Daheim, xxxii. 37 (1896), 592 iqq.; 
F. Hoffmann, in R. Virchow and F. von HolUendorffi 
Gemeinveratandliche wiaaenechaftliche Vortrage, part 308, 
Hamburg, 1898; K. L. Leimbach, Auagewahlte dadtdu 
Dichtungen, iv. 2, pp. 345 aqq., 13 vols., Frankfort, 1899; 
Julian, Hymnotogy, p. 1100. 

STUTTGART, stut'gOrt or stut'gOrt, SYH0D 
AND CONFESSION OF: The convention in 1559 
which gave solemn sanction to the Lutheran doe- 
trine of the Lord's Supper. The immediate occa- 
sion of the synod was an accusation brought against 
Bartholomaus Hagen, pastor at Dettingen, and 
preacher to the Duchess Sabina of Wurttemberg, 
mother of Duke Christopher, of being an adherent 
of the Swiss doctrine. At the command of the 
duke, Hagen was cited to appear in Apr., 1559, at 
Stuttgart and was given a month's time to offer a 
categorical explanation on the article of the pres- 
ence of Christ. After this had been referred to aD 
the superintendents and their judgments received, 
an extraordinary synod was summoned at Stutt- 
gart, which consisted of four general superintend- 
ents, the clerical and lay members of the consistory, 
the rector, and the theological faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Tubingen, and all the special superintend- 
ents of the country. The synod met on Dec. 13, 
1559. Jakob Andrea (q.v.) was appointed to con- 
duct the disputation with Hagen before the assem- 
bled synod, presenting, after a conference with 
Johann Brens (q.v.), the same arguments on the 
ubiquity that appeared later in the " Confession " of 
the synod. Hagen was finally obliged to confess his 
defeat and to acknowledge the doctrine of the Wurt- 
temberg Church as true and Scriptural. On Dec. 
19 Brena presented a formula which was signed by 
all the theologians, and published in German and 
Latin under the title, Confessio et doctrina ttes- 
logorum et ministrorum verbi Dei in ducatu Wirtmr 
bergenei de vera pr essentia corporis et sanguinis Jesu 
Christi in coma dominica (Tubingen, 1560-61). The 
main points are here summarized: (1) In the Lord's 
Supper, by virtue of the Word, or institution of 
Christ, the true body and blood of Christ are truly 
and essentially given and transferred with the 
bread and wine to all who partake; so that both 
the body and the blood, as given by the hand of 
the minister, are received by the mouth of those 
who thus eat and drink. (2) The nature and sub- 
stance of the bread and the wine are not trans- 
formed, but are ordained and sanctified by the Word 
of the Lord to serve in the distribution of the body 
and blood of Christ. Yet they are not merely sym- 
bols, but just as the substance of the bread and 
wine is present so also the substance of the body 
and the blood is present, and by means of those 
signs is truly given and received. (3) This does 





not imply a confusion of the bread and the wine 
with the body and blood of Christ, there is no spa- 
tial enclosure but only such a sacramental union of 
the bread and body as is described by the Word 
of the Lord; hence, there is no sacrament aside 
from the use. (4) The ascension of Christ into 
heaven is no obstacle to the doctrine, inasmuch as 
Christ in his majesty and glory at the right hand 
of the Father fills all things not only by his divin- 
ity, but also by his humanity, in a mysterious way 
conceivable not to reason but only to faith. (5) Not 
only the pious and worthy, but also the godless and 
hypocrites receive the body and blood, the latter 
to their judgment; therefore to be received by the 
godless does not detract from the glory and majesty 
of Christ, because as a just judge for him to punish 
the impenitent is as laudable as to show grace to the 
penitent. This " Confession," which was claimed 
to rest upon Scripture and to be in accord with the 
Augsburg Confession (q.v.) and the Wittenberg 
Confession submitted to the Council of Trent, was 
forthwith incorporated with the Wurttemberg 
church order. 

The historical significance of the Stuttgart Synod 
fies in the fact that there, for the first time, was the 
difference between the Lutheran and the Calvinistic 
doctrines of the Lord's Supper sharply distin- 
guished; namely, the three main points: giving 
and receiving by hand and mouth, partaking by the 
unbelieving, and the founding of the doctrine of 
the Lord's Supper on the teaching concerning the 
person of Christ and his sitting at the right hand of 
the Father. Epoch-making was the last, in which 
Brens, in strict dependence upon Luther, coor- 
dinated the doctrine of the Lord's Supper with 
Christology, which occasioned a renewal of the doc- 
trine of Ubiquity (q.v.), a name charged by the 
opponents but disavowed by Brens. This synod 
marked a rallying of the original Lutheran doctrine 
at a crisis in which it had been well-nigh supplanted 
by the ever-spreading view of Calvin and Melanch- 
thon. Moreover, the advancing unionistic tendency 
promoted by the alliance of the influences of Me- 
lanchthon and Calvin was thwarted, and for Ger- 
man Protestantism the cleavage was fixed. Duke 
Christopher vainly hoped to make the " Confession " 
a basis for his tireless efforts to effect union, and 
despatched it throughout Germany and France, but 
it was almost universally ignored. Within Wurt- 
temberg this assertion of the conservatism of its 
reformer and organiser, Brens, marked the begin- 
ning of a new scholastic theology, and proved not 
only exclusive to neighboring lands for a century, 
but also oppressive to many of the clergy at home. 

(H. Hermelink.) 

BkmuoomArar: The confiion ie printed in Acta et ecripta 
ptANca mxUnm WirUmbergicm, ed. C. M. Pfaff, pp. 334 
sqq., 3^0 eqq., Tflbinsen, 1720. Matton of importance are 
to be found in the Opera of Calvin, vols, xvi-xix., eepe- 
emlry xviL 622-625, six. 350-353 (in CR, xliii.-xlvii.). 
GoneuK further: J. V. Andrea, Fama Andreana refloreecene, 
pp. 94 eqq.. Straaburg, 1630; C. A. Salic, VolUtandigt Hie- 
tmrU der avgepurviecke Confession, iii. 424 eqq., Halle, 1735; 
C. F. Schnnrrer, BrUkvtervngen der vrQrtUmberaUchen Kirch- 
tmd QeUhrtenoeeckickte, pp. 250 eqq., T0- 
1798; Q. J. Planck. OeechichU der BnUUhuno dee 
Le hr btgriffa, v. 2, pp. 398 eqq., Leipaie, 
1799; J. Haxtmann and K. Jager. Johmm Brent* ii. 372 

eqq., Hamburg, 1842; H. Heppe, Geechichte dee devteche* 
Proteeta n tiemtie, i. 311 eqq., Marburg, 1852; H. Schmid, 
Der Kampf der lutherieehen Kirche urn Luthera Lehre vom 
Abendmohl, pp. 226 eqq., Leipsic, 1858; B. Kugler, 
Chrietoph Herzog eu Wirtemberg, ii. 171 eqq., Stuttgart, 
1872; WHfUembergieche KirchenoeechichU, pp. 393-394, 
ib. 1893; W. K&hler, BtUiooraphia Brentiana, noe. 368- 
370, 391, 600, Leipaie, 1904. 

in their desire for complete separation from the 
world and extreme asceticism, passed their lives on 
pillars. The first pillar saint was Simeon the Elder, 
who was born in Sisan or Sesan, in northern Syria, 
about 390. Originally a shepherd in the lonely 
mountains, he visited a church for the first time at 
the age of thirteen and immediately resolved to be- 
come a monk. His extreme asceticism caused the 
monks to expel him, and after living for three years 
as a hermit near Tel Neskin (Telanessa), continuing 
excessive mortifications, he began, about 420, his 
pillar life. This he selected, he said, in consequence 
of a divine revelation, as well as to escape the im- 
portunities of the masses. He accordingly built 
himself a pillar, at first only four ells high, but later 
reaching the altitude of thirty-six or forty ells. 

The later stylites practically imitated Simeon 
with slight modifications. They lived on the cap- 
itals of pillars of varying height, these capitals being 
sufficiently large for the construction of a small cell 
on them. They were surrounded by a railing to 
keep the stylite from falling, and communicated 
with the ground by a ladder. 

Simeon at first roused sentiments other than ad- 
miration. The Nitrian monks, fearing the loss of 
their prestige as incomparable patterns of monas- 
ticism, threatened him with excommunication; and 
the Mesopotamian abbots likewise disapproved his 
ascetic methods. But the purity of his life and mo- 
tives soon silenced his critics, and Simeon became 
renowned as a worker of miracles, a healer of the 
sick, and a converter of the heathen. He was a 
powerful factor in promoting peace and in the cause 
of the suffering and oppressed; he also took part 
in church polity, as when, in 429, he induced Theo- 
dosius II. to revoke an edict which restored to the 
Jews of Antioch their synagogues, and, in 457, the 
Emperor Leo I. asked his advice concerning the 
troubles in Egypt, whereupon the saint espoused 
the cause of Chalcedonian orthodoxy in two letters 
to the emperor and Bishop Basil of Antioch. Until 
his death, in 459, Simeon remained on his pillar. 

The example of Simeon Stylites was quickly imi- 
tated, at first by only a few, but later by so many 
that the stylites formed a regular order in the East. 
The immediate pupil of Simeon and his first succes- 
sor was Daniel of Maratha near Samosata, who 
began to live on a pillar in the vicinity of Constan- 
tinople shortly after his teacher's death. Like Sim- 
eon he zealously defended the Chalcedonian creed, 
even leaving his pillar once for this purpose. He 
enjoyed the special protection of Leo I., who built 
for him a new pillar and later prevailed upon him 
to permit the construction of a tiny cell on the 
pillar to protect him against the elements. Daniel 
died in 493. In the sixth century lived Simeon the 
Younger. He is said to have left his father's house 
at the age of five and to have lived as a stylite for 




sixty-nine years until his death in 506 near Antioch. 
He sought to surpass Simeon the Elder in his aus- 
terities, against tie warnings of his teacher. Dur- 
ing the reign of Heraclius, Alyphius lived as a sty- 
lite at Adrianople in Paphlagonia. Like nearly all 
the stylites he reached an advanced age, though 
for the last fourteen years of his life he was unable 
to stand, lying crouched on his pillar until his death. 
Mention may finally be made of the stylite Lucas 
the Younger, who in the tenth century lived on a 
pillar near Chalcedon, reaching the age of 100 years. 
Many other stylitea are known by name, and the 
system was flourishing in the tenth century. The 
last stylites known were among the Ruthenian 
monks in 1526. 

Stylites were most numerous in Syria, Palestine, 
and Mesopotamia, though they were also found in 
Greece and in the Russian church. Only one effort 
is known to have been made to introduce stylitism 
into the West. In 585 a deacon named Wulflaicus 
erected a pillar near Treves, but the bishops com- 
pelled him to descend from it and then destroyed 
it. Occidental antagonism to extravagant asceti- 
cism, episcopal opposition to a body of men who 
might easily withdraw from their control, and un- 
favorable climatic conditions all combined to ren- 
der stylitism impossible in the West. 

(Q. GbCtzmacheb.) 

Bibliography: Several early Viim of the earlier Simeon are 
collected, with commentary, in A SB, Jan. L 261-280; the 
Vita by Theodoret of Kyros, HieL reHoiaea, xxvi.; the 
Acta mistakenly ascribed to Cosmas is in 8. E. Assemani, 
Acta aanctorum martyrum, ii. 268-398, cf. fl>. 230 sqq. (a 
poem by Jacob of Sarug), Rome, 1748. Consult further: 
O. Lautcnsack, De Simeon* Stylita, Wittenberg, 1700; 
F. Uhlemann, Symeon der erete SaulenheUige in Syrien, 
Leipsic, 1846; P. Zingerle, Leben und W irk en dee heiligen 
Simeon Stylites, Innsbruck, 1855; H. Delehaye, in Compte 
rendu du 3. congree edentifique dee eatholiguee a BruzeUee, 
vol. v., Brussels, 1895; E. Marin, Lee Moinee de Constan- 
tinople, Paris, 1897; H. Lietsmann, Dae Leben dee heiligen 
Symeon Stylitee, Leipsic, 1908. A Vita of the younger 
Simeon with commentary is in ASB, Hay, v. 298-401. 

SUAREZ, swa'reth, FRANCISCO: Jesuit scholas- 
tic; b. at Granada, Spain, Jan. 5, 1548; d. at Lisbon 
Sept. 25, 1617. He was of noble birth; studied law. 
at the University of Salamanca, 1561-64; but 
decided to enter the order of Jesuits. After Ms 
novitiate of three years he studied philosophy at 
Salamanca; lectured on Aristotle at Segovia and 
A vila after 1572, and on theology at Valladolid, 
1576-78, at Rome, 1578-85, at Alcala, Spain, 1585- 
1592, at Salamanca for a year; and at the Univer- 
sity of Coimbra, Portugal, 1597-1617. His lectures 
are said to have been sensational in their popularity. 
Spanish grandees came to hear the " prodigy and 
oracle of his age," and in an episcopal approbation 
of one of his writings occurs the term, " a second 
Augustine "; but Suarez never relinquished his 
modesty. He lived only for knowledge and pious 
exercises. He fasted three times a week and on no 
day took more than one pound of nourishment, 
and flagellated himself daily with a wire-woven 

Suarez's literary activity was directed mainly 
to the discussion of the Aristotelian philosophy 
and to scholastic theology. His works were pub- 
lished, Opera omnia (23 vols., Venice, 1740-51; 

28 vols., Paris, 1856-61). The last two volumes of 
the former of these two editions contained metsv- 
physical disputations and a complete index to the 
metaphysics of Aristotle, and was so widely recog- 
nised that it formed a text-book in Protestant 
institutions for a long time. Vols, i.-xx. consist of 
disputations and comments on Thomas Aquinas. 
As vol. ix. represented the "congruism" of Luis 
Molina (q.v.), it failed to receive the imprimatur 
of the pope, and was not allowed to appear until 
1651. In the field of morals Suarez discussed only 
the three theological virtues (vol. xi.), the State, 
religious discipline, and the duties of monks (vok 
xii.-xv.). In accordance with the taste of the age 
and of his order, he heaped up scholastic problem 
without end by means of his remarkable gift of 
invention, and with a refined subtlety resolved them 
by means of dialectic. He wrote his Defensio fidd 
catholiccB et apostolicc* adversus anglicana seete er- 
roret (Coimbra, 1613) at the instance of Pope Pad 
V. against James I. of England and the English 
oath of allegiance, in which he laid down the prin- 
ciple that the pope had the power to depose tem- 
poral rulers for heresy and schism, and that this 
must be accepted as an article of faith on the 
ground of the power of the keys. James had the 
book publicly burned by the executioner in front 
of St. Paul's. It was also burned in Paris, but 
Philip II. of Spain accepted the principle as genu- 
inely Roman Catholic, and the pope gratefully ap- 
plauded the work in a personal letter to the author 
Sept. 9, 1613. (O. ZftcKusnt.) 

Bibliography: The on© work of importance is C. Werner, 
F. Suaree und die Sckolaetik der leteien Jahrhunderte, 2 
vols., Regensburg, 1861. Consult further: the biography 
printed with the collected works; B. Saxtolo, El Doctor 
F. Suaret, 2d ed., Coimbra, 1731; KL, xL 923-029. 

SUBDBACON: A clerical order in the Roman 
Catholic and Greek Churches, ranking next below 
the deacon. The orders in the ancient Church 
were only those of bishop, presbyter, and deacon 
(see Organization of the Early Church). 
From the diaconate branched the subdiaconate, 
not uniformly, however, as shown by its frequent 
absence as late as the middle of the ninth century. 
Pope Cornelius mentions among the clergy at Rome 
seven subdeacons, which goes to show the existence 
of the office by 250, as well as its origin at Rome. 
When Alexander Severus divided the city into 
seventeen administrative districts, Fabian, not to 
exceed the Apostolic number, added seven sub- 
deacons to the seven deacons for the corresponding 
ecclesiastical divisions. In Spain they are mentioned 
in connection with the Synod of Ancyra (c. 305); 
in Africa, according to Cyprian, they existed at the 
middle of the third century, and in the East they 
were known at the middle of the fourth. The sub- 
deacons performed minor functions. They might 
handle the holy vessels when empty; they received 
the oblations, had superintendence of the graves of 
the martyrs, guarded the church doors during the 
communion, and poured the water into the chalice, 
to which duties was added the chanting of the epistle. 
Gregory the Great extended the obligation of celi- 
bacy to the subdeacons, and a council under Urban 
II. granted them permission to become bishops. 





In the Eastern Church they remained a lower order, 
but in the West Innocent III. decided that they con- 
stituted a higher order. Their ordination, however, 
differs from that of deacons; they are not presented 
by the archdeacon, and the ordination is the " tradi- 
tion of instruments and vestments." The age of 
consecration fixed by the Council of Trent is the 
entrance upon the twenty-second year. One year 
must intervene before the diaconate is reached, 
a rule from which the bishop may depart. The 
office of subdeacon is assumed as transitional, and 
its functions are fulfilled chiefly by laymen and 
presbyters. In the Evangelical Church, when it 
occurs, the title subdeacon indicates a difference of 
outer rank only, not of ordination. 


finuooBAivr: An adequate and authoritative historical 
pra aotation will be found both in Bingham, Orioinf, 
m.. ii, ind in DCA, ii. 1938-39. Consult further: H. 
Baiter, Do* Subdiakonat, deuen hidorioche Bntvriekdung 
tmd HturffiacK-kanonistUeke Bedeutteng, Augsburg, 1890; 
F. Wieland, DU gtnetUche Bntw%ekd%tng der •ooenannten 
Orduua mmom in dm enten Jahrhtmderien, Rome* 1897. 

SUBIRTRATION. See Tbansubstantiation, 
IL, § 4. 

A name for female ascetics who lived together with 
men although both parties had taken the vow of 
celibacy with earnest intent. It is a nickname that 
arose relatively late when the practise was con- 
demned, and has had not a little influence in con- 
fusing opinions on this form of asceticism. The 
practise was widely prevalent throughout Christian 
antiquity. In Antioch Paul of Samosata had 
several young girls in his entourage (Eusebius, Hist. 
eccl., VII., xxx. 12 sqq., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 315). 
In Cyprian's time dedicated virgins dwelt with 
confessors, clericals, and laymen. The rigorous 
Tertullian advised well-to-do Christians to take 
into their houses one or more widows " as spiritual 
consorts, beautiful by faith, endowed by poverty, 
and sealed by age," and suited that " to have 
several such wives is pleasing to God ** (" Ex- 
hortation to Chastity," xii.; " Monogamy," xvi.; 
Eng. transl. in ANF, iv. 56^57, 71-72). Among 
heretics the chiefs of the Valentinians lived with 
" sisters " (Irenieus, Harr., I., vi. 3, ANF, i. 324); 
the Montanistic Alexander was bound in spiritual 
marriage with a prophetess (Eusebius, Hist, eccl., 
V., xviii. 6 sqq., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 236), and the 
liarcionite Apellea had two spiritual wives, one the 
prophetess, Phihimene (Tertullian, Praxcriptione, 
xxx., ANF, iii. 257). This spiritual marriage, 
springing from ascetic motives, had its real place in 
Monasticism in which it retained its original form, 
even far into the Middle Ages. In the desert, where 
the monk and his companion dwelt in seclusion, 
she frequently became his servant. It should, 
however, not be forgotten that the motive that 
drew them both into the desert was a common as- 
cetic ideal. In the ancient Irish Church, the organ- 
isation of which was built upon asceticism, men and 
women of distinction were permitted to participate 
in ecclesiastical functions. In the cloister, monks 
and nuns lived together until 543 (Haddan and 
Sfelbbs, Councils, ii. 2, p. 202). When the Irish 

missionaries came to Armorica, the Gallic bishops 
regarded it specially censurable that they were 
accompanied by women who like the men exercised 
sacramental functions. A new form of spiritual 
marriage was developed as the wealthy circles in 
the great cities entered the Christian Church. 
Rich widows and maidens disdained marriage, but 
in order to provide a master over their houses and 
estates joined themselves in spiritual marriage 
to priests or monks. This variation did not always 
lead to happy results; the woman retained both 
the possession of her property and the reputation of 
unwedded chastity. No matter how seriously 
asceticism and the soul-tie were taken, the clerical 
could not escape compromise, and his position 
varied all the way from steward or chaplain to 
spiritual paramour. This was the role acted by 
the French abbe" in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. At the time of Chrysostom (MPG, 
xlvii. 495 sqq.) the abuse was prevalent in Constan- 
tinople, and likewise in Gaul according to Jerome 
(Bpiet., cxvii., NPNF, 2 ser., vi. 215-220). Best 
known is the spiritual marriage of the clergy. 
Marriage being disparaged, and the clergy being 
required to lead spiritual lives, celibacy became the 
rule and spiritual marriage followed. The purity of 
the original motive gradually declined. The spirit- 
ual bride became a mere housekeeper, suspected of 
being a mistress. She came to be called mvlier 
extranea, received the same recognition as a maid- 
servant, and Spanish synods about 600 ordered 
that she be sold as a slave and the proceeds given 
to the poor (e.g., Synod of Toledo, 589, capitulum 
5, Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, iii. 51, Eng. transl. iv. 
419, Fr. transl. iii. 1, p. 225). Gregory IX. dis- 
tinctly prohibited clerical concubinage. Likewise 
in the Orient the syneisaktos was regarded as no 
more than a housekeeper of the clerical by the 
twelfth century. Practical exigencies had replaced 
the earlier common ideal. The original motive of 
cohabitation was the natural result of two op- 
posing tendencies in early Christianity: fraternal 
love fostered in communal life; and ascetic contempt 
of the sexual relation, and the renunciation of 
marriage as sensual. The inconsistency of the social 
ideal of intimate community life with another that 
increased the distance between man and woman 
resulted in this unnatural combination of asceticism 
and fraternal love, with a form of cohabitation 
which in its moment of spiritual enthusiasm failed 
to foresee its pitfalls. Naturally, at first Christians 
of the highest standing, such as prophets, bishops, 
and confessors, lived in spiritual marriage. The 
" spiritual wives " were those who, as " brides of 
Christ," enjoyed especially honorable consideration; 
such were the widows, virgins, and prophetesses. 
The opinion of the Church regarding the institution, 
at first favorable, however, changed, and beginning 
with the Synods of Elvira, Ancyra, and the Council 
of Nicsea in the fourth century the edicts against 
codwelling with eubinbroductce do not cease. In 
case of disobedience the clergy were corrected or 
dismissed, and the monks and laity received stern 
warning. The change of attitude on the part of the 
Church was caused by its rapid increase in the 
first three centuries and the absorption of elements 




which undermined the austerity against carnal 
Bins. Spiritual marriages tolerable in email com- 
munities could not be entrusted to large societies of 
mixed elements, and the increasing sternness of the 
prohibitions prove the obstinate resistance to the 
effort at extermination. Concerning the remoteness 
In time of spiritual marriages, first mention occurs 
in the Shepherd of Hermits (Visions, L, i. 1, Eng. 
transl., ANF, ii. 9; Similitude*, ix. 11, 3, 7; x. 3, 
Eng. transl., ANF, ii. 44-47, 55). The passage I 
Cor. vii. 36-38 has been brought into connection 
with spiritual marriage (E. Grabe). In the Dt'vita 
contemplativa, a genuine work of Philo, irfMM h 
made to the Therapeutic in Egypt who repudiated 
marriage and the sexual relation and dwelt top-ther 
in ascetic companionship like the later Christian 
ascetics, except that the element of fraternal love 
was there absent. It is to be concluded that spiri- 
tual marriage belongs, in the primitive life of Chris- 
tianity, to an ascetic effort to replace marriage with 
brotherly love, and was not an outgrowth of clerical 
celibacy and monasticism. (B. Acheus.) 

BiSLioaKiFHY: H. Achelis, Virgin** tMniroducta. Bin 

Entry tun / Kvr. vii., Leipaic. 1902 (cf. Jillicher. in 

Archiv far ttdiaionsintttntchaft, vii. 373 aqq.); Pseudo- 
, Cyprian, £)■ rinQvlantitc cltri&rrum (edition of it promised 

in TV, new serin, ix. 3): DCA, ii. 1939-1941; and the 

oommentuiM on I Cor. vii. 

SUBLAPSARIAHISM: The view held by moder- 
ate Calvinists, first applied to the Remonstrants 
(q.v.), according to which the decree to create log- 
ically preceded the decree of the fall. God deter- 
mined to create the world and man notwithstanding 
tin: fuel that he foresaw man's fall. Cf. Supralap- 
sarianism and Infralapsarianiam in Calvinism, { 8. 

SUBMISSION. See Obedience. 


I. The Anglican View: The handing on of the 
iiiirii.-tcrial commission and authority, given by 
the Lord Jesus Christ to his apostles, hy a regular 
chain of successive ordinations. It presupposes the 
formation by Christ of a visible Church on earth, an 
organised society, the kingdom, or the embodiment 
rjf the kingdom, which the Messiah was to set up, 
to cany on his work by witnessing to the truth 
revealed, by ministering covenant gifts of grace, 
and by guiding and training its members in life 
and character. If Christianity were a philn.-ophy 
scattered broadcast for men to follow as isolated 
individuals, there would be no need of or room for a 
&ur cession of ministers. The theory of a traditional 
1 1 i i 1 1 i .-■ ( ry is I hi Km I w i T It tin- U.'licf in ;i vi-ibl.- Church, 
l-i rrc.-ponding, in its outward organisation and its 
inward spiritual life, with (lie law of the Incarnation, 
specialized functions belong to an organised body. 

In the society which he formed. Christ ordained a 
particular body or order of ministers to act for him 
und with his authority. Out of the general company 
of the disciples he chose the twelve that they should 
be with him and then go forth in his name. By a 
trial mission during his own earthly ministry they 
were in part prepared for the commissions he gave 
them to represent him when he left the earth (Matt. 

xxviii. 18,19; John xx. 21-23). The twelve apostlts 
formed a distinct company within the general 
society; within the body mystical, as within the 
body physical or social, there is a differentiation of 
functions. This is marked in the New Testament, 
e.g., by certain powers being conferred on the 
Seven, who preached and baptized, but apostles 
were sent after them to confirm (Acts viii.). Doubt- 
less all acted as organs of the body, representing the 
whole society, but they were like the eye or ear in the 
natural body, divinely appointed and constituted 
organs, whose functions cannot be changed at will, 
nor the limitations of their several commissions 
enlarged. Accordingly while the officers may and 
should be chosen from below, they are endowed 
with authority from above — not merely deputed 
from below. This authoritative stewardship of 
pastorate was intended to be perpetuated in every 
Ki'ivratioii. The giftn were not personal but 
official. God's gifts last as long as the needs which 
they are designed to supply. The authoritatively 
ciiiniiiis-ioiicil ministry is the normal instrumental' 
ity through which Christ, the exalted and invisible 
head of the Church, working by his Spirit, com* 
mnnicatcs to his people his promised gifts of grace. 
It is the guaranty of his presence and action. 

The episcopate (see Bishop; Efiscopact) is the 
normal organ for transmitting this authoritative 
ministerial commission, the organ of spiritual gen- 
eration. Bere certain distinctions must be made. 
(1) In the New-Testament writings the named 
" presbyters " or " elders " (see Presbyter) and 
"bishops" are apparently used to designate the same 
officers, the pastors of local churches. It was not 
till later that the title " bishop " was reserved for a 
single chief pastor who presided over a number 
of presbyters (see Ouganization or the Earlt 
Chough). But in the New-Testament writings, 
though the names are interchangeably used, i 
difference of functions may be recognized. Timothy 
and Titus exercise authority over the presbyters as 
over the church generally in their respective dis- 
tricts; while others cooperate, they are respon- 
sible for ordaining men to the ministry (I Tim. 
iii., v.; Titus i. 5-9). The organisation seen in in 
beginning at Ephesus and in Crete seems to ham 
been thoroughly established in Asia Minor before 
St. John, the last of the original apostles, passed 
away, and thence it spread, if it had not already 
been independently adopted, generally throughout 
the Christian Church. (2) The " bishop " differed 
in two respects from the apostle proper, to who*; 
authority in general he succeeded. The origins! 
apostles had their special function as witnesses to 
what they had seen and heard with the incanute 
Son (Acts i. 8, 21. 22; I John i. 1-4). This, of course, 
could not be handed on. The bishops were limited in 
the exercise of their office, each to one church in i 
district, whereas the apostolic office had been more 
general. The twelve exercised a concurrent or 
collegiate world-wide jurisdiction. (3) It is possible 
that in some churches the rule by a body of presby- 
ters continued for some time after the monarchical 
episcopate had been elsewhere established. But 
this would make no exception to the doctrine of 
apostolic succession rightly understood, since this it 







ctneerned not so much with the exact form of the 
Bunnby, as with the transmission of the commission 
to execute ministerial functions by those who have 
received authority to transmit it. The college of 
presbyters at Alexandria, to which Jerome refers, 
m probably a college of presbyters possessed of 
foil ministerial power, including the right of or- 

All this was generally recognized in the Christian 
Church for 1,500 years. Where the rule was then 
iebctantly abandoned, this was done (as was 
thought) by force of necessity, as the lesser of two 
evils, in order to preserve a pure faith. 

Two further points should be mentioned. It was 
to the consentient testimony of the Scriptures and 
of the due successors of the Apostles that Irenasus 
(u>. 180) appealed against false teaching (Har., 
ill. 2, 3). As a matter of history the traditional 
faith has been linked with the traditional ministry; 
the one has very largely depended on and failed 
with the other. The episcopate with its chain of 
succession serves as a link of historical continuity, 
men as is needed in a universal spiritual society. 

Arthur C. A. Hall. 

H The Syrian Succession: The doctrine of apos- 
tolic succession, which includes necessarily the his- 
toric episcopate as continued generation after gen- 
eration in all branches of the Christian church, was 
scarcely ever questioned (or denied) during the con- 
ciliar and medieval ages. The first serious opposition 
occurred when various leaders of the several reform- 
ing movements of the sixteenth century had gained 
sufficient popular support to enable them to dispute 
the truth of the traditional Catholic teaching of an 
ecclesiastical hierarchy consisting of three orders, 
bishops, presbyters, and deacons. 

Of the immediate results of the ecclesiastical 
conflicts of that memorable period in the progressive 
development of the Western church, the first, the 
steady and continuing weakening of the inner or 
spiritual authority of the Latin church, as exem- 
plified by the increasing deviations from the accepted 
doctrines of the medieval theologians, was soon fol- 
lowed by the defiance of its outer or hierarchical 
authority, by the ordination of presbyters by 
Presbyters instead of by bishops. This departure 
from the historic, ecumenical order of the Catholic 
Church was then and is even now justified by the 
appeal not only to the assumed presbyteral polity of 
tfe Apostolic Church, but also by the citation of the 
rtatements of certain of the Fathers and ecclesias- 
tical historians of the primitive and conciliar ages. 
Although the presbyteral polity was first introduced 
by the German reformers into those parts of con- 
tinental Europe which had generally accepted their 
ecclesiastical leadership, through the influence of 
the Genevan reformers it soon passed into Scotland 
J?d England, in which latter country it in turn gave 
birth to an even more radical departure from the 
episcopal government of the Latin church, Congre- 
Satoonahsm or Independency. There are, as a re- 
*p of these various reforming movements in the 
^atern church, the three distinct theories of the 
Christian ministry, the episcopal or monarchical, the 
JJ^tbyteral or collegiate, and the congregational or 
."tUKfcratic, corresponding closely to the three 

modern forms of the secular state, autocracy, 
limited monarchy, and democracy (see Polity, 
Ecclesiastical). The solution of the question of 
apostolic succession, or the constitution of the Chris- 
tian Church, is of even greater importance to-day 
than during the Reformation and post-Reformation 
periods, because the antagonisms and polemics of 
those centuries are all but forgotten, and the con- 
sciousness of the weakness of the divided Western 
Church is inspiring an increasing longing for the 
suppression of sectarianism, and for the restoration, 
especially in America, of that imposing unity and 
visible solidarity which was the glory of the post- 
apostolic age. 

It is a fundamental fact, not sufficiently recognised 
or emphasised in the discussions of the original 
constitution of the Christian ministry, that the 
apostolic age of the Church was a formative period 
during which neither the New-Testament canon, the 
polity, nor the ritual was defined decisively or fixed 
finally. Therefore it is in the post-apostolic or con- 
ciliar canons and decrees, rather than in the primi- 
tive or ante-conciliar writings descriptive of the tran- 
sition state from a Judeo-Hellenic to a pan-Hellenic 
homogeneous ecclesia, that this debated question 
of the received polity of the one holy, catholic, and 
apostolic Church of Christ can find a satisfying his- 
toric solution of the perplexing problems involved. 
That monarchical episcopacy, as it has been es- 
tablished for many centuries in both the Latin and 
the Greek church, was not known in the apostolic 
age, is no longer authoritatively asserted by eccle- 
siastical historians of the present period. The 
earliest evidence in favor of the former, or tradi- 
tional, theory, are the well-known quotations from 
the epistles of Ignatius of Antioch (q.v.). These 
impassioned pleas for the willing recognition of each 
parochial bishop as the only head of the Christian 
congregation of the city, used again and again as 
positive proof of the apostolic authority for a mon- 
archical episcopacy, are now met by other equally 
credible citations from contemporaries and even 
from later writers, whose several statements suggest 
unmistakably that isolated peculiarities of a per- 
sisting presbyteral polity were well known to them. 
That monarchical episcopacy, whether or not owing 
its final form to the Apostle John, as one tradition 
asserts, became slowly and silently the prevailing 
polity of the entire Christian Church, as is admitted 
by all historians, can be explained only on the as- 
sumption that the experience of the early Church 
with sectarianism, already evident during the apos- 
tolic age, emphasized the necessity of concentrating 
in the bishop, as the head of the established pres- 
bytery of parochial clergy, that spiritual authority 
which was formerly exercised in common by them 
with the itinerant prophets and other apostolic 
coworkers mentioned in the Pauline epistles, the 
Didache (q.v.), and other newly discovered authen- 
tic descriptions of the congregations and services of 
the primitive period. The correctness of this theory 
of the general adoption of episcopacy in its final 
form, is indicated by the fact that in the first ecu- 
menical council of the Church, convened at Niccea 
in 325, bishops from all parts of the then known 
world assembled as the sole representatives of their 




several sees, for the discussion and the definition of 
the fundamentals of the Christian faith, summarised 
in that creed of the Catholic church accepted by 
every separate branch which professes orthodoxy. 
Furthermore, among the decisions of the preparatory 
synod of Alexandria in 324 is one concerning the 
question of the ordination of presbyters by presby- 
ters (Athanasius," Defence against the Arians," 12, 
76, Eng. transl. in NPNF, 2 ser., iv. 107, 140). This 
synodal action recognising the exclusive right of 
the bishops to ordain presbyters (reaffirmed in a 
similar case by the Council of Sardica in 347, Canon 
20) was evidently not contested by any opponent 
during the subsequent sessions of the Nicene Coun- 
cil, which not only declared the accepted faith, but 
also decided other less vital questions affecting the 
ritual and the clergy in general. The authoritative 
canonical action of the assembled bishops in refu- 
sing to recognise the regularity of non-episoopally 
ordained presbyters can be rejected by any dissent- 
ing communions only by repudiating in toto the 
apostolic authority of this the first undisputedly ecu- 
menical synod of the undivided Christian Church, 
in declaring definitely what is and what is not 
binding on all who accept the teachings of Christ 
and of his apostles and their successors. 

This, then, should be the authority for the prin- 
ciple of the historic episcopate, the authority of the 
Catholic Church as it developed under divine direc- 
tion from its formative state under the care of the 
apostles themselves, through various minor changes 
in its primitive polity necessitated by its varying 
needs, until, at the time of the Council of Nicaea, 
unity in polity and organisation had been fully 
attained through the general acceptance of the doc- 
trine that the bishops, as the recognised successors of 
the apostles, are the centers of Christian and Catho- 
lic communion. This doctrine of apostolic succes- 
sion is not only Scriptural in asserting the authority 
of the apostles, and of their recognised successors, 
in exercising the plenary power of binding and of 
loosing (see Keys, Power of the), committed to 
them by Christ himself, but is also consistent 
throughout with the historic development of the 
ecclesiastical hierarchy, which recently discovered 
writings of the primitive periods describe in 

The several departures, during the troubled times 
of the Reformation, from the established episcopal 
polity of the entire Catholic Church, both East and 
West, have scarcely justified their introduction, in 
view of the division and subdivision which have re- 
sulted in every Reformed church that has rejected 
the historic episcopate universally accepted (until 
the Reformation) since the ecumenical Council of 
Nicsea. While, on the contrary, those Reformed 
churches which retained the historic episcopate, the 
Anglican and Scandinavian communions, have been 
comparatively free from sectarianism, a positive 
proof in modern times of the truth of the traditional 
Catholic teaching, that the bishops are ever the 
centers of unity in the Christian Church (through- 
out the centuries). There is this further view of the 
historic episcopate, considered in connection with 
the question of reunion, not only of the divided 
churches resulting from the Western Reformation, 

but also of their eventual mteroommunion with the 
older Latin, Greek, and Eastern branches of tst 
One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of Chmk 
That the restoration of the primitive historic eps> 
copate with its college of presbyters, assisted by 
the deacons and subdeacons and lower ordera of 
laymen, developed so practically for effective pit- 
toral service by the successors of the apostles then- 
selves, will work marvels in regaining the wavering 
allegiance of the unchurched people of our free secu- 
lar states by solving the pressing problems of our 
intricate modern civilisation, can neither be doubted 
nor denied. 

Then, if this be generally recognised, the question 
must naturally arise: From what source can a his- 
toric episcopate be obtained, since both the Latin 
and the Greek churches view with suspicion the 
several churches developed from the reforming 
movements of the sixteenth century, and have re- 
peatedly insisted that intercommunion with them 
can be secured only by the unreserved and unque* 
tioning acceptance of their respective dogmatic de- 
crees on the Catholic faith, the seven sacraments, 
and their ritual in its entirety? Heretofore then 
was no independent historic episcopate in the West- 
ern patriarchate which was not derived directly or 
indirectly from the Latin church of the pre- and poet- 
Reformation periods. Therefore, all episcopal suc- 
cessions in the Western church are involved in 
the notorious apostasies, heresies, and simonies of 
those past centuries, filled as they were with 
mutual papal depositions, accusations, and counter- 
accusations of irregularity, invalidity, and schism, 
ending usually with mutual anathemas and excom- 

But in the year 1801, the Syrian patriarch of 
Antioch, to whom can be ascribed as the historic 
successor of the first bishop of Antioch, the Apostle 
Peter himself, whatever preeminence and primacy 
of jurisdiction the leader of the apostolic college 
could impart to another, authorised the elevation 
to the episcopate of the Old Catholic priest Pere 
Vilatte (q.v.) of Wisconsin. The solemn patri- 
archal bull permitting this canonical archiepiscopal 
consecration by eastern prelates, of a western priest, 
and investing him with the plenary power and apos- 
tolic authority of the primatial dignity, is given 
verbatim as translated from the authentic Syrian 

" In the name of the Essential, Eternal, Self 
Existing, Almighty God: His servant Ignatius 
Peter III., Patriarch of the Apostolic See of Antioch 
and the East. 

" We, the humble servant of God, hereby allow 
the consecration by the Holy Ghost of the Priest 
Joseph Rene" Vilatte, elected for archiepiscopal dig- 
nity, Archbishop-Metropolitan in the name of Mar 
Timotheus, for the church of the Mother of God in 
Dykesville, Wisconsin, United States, and other 
churches in the archdiocese of America, vis., the 
churches adhering to the orthodox faith, in the 
name of the Father, amen; and of the Son, amen; 
and of the living Holy Ghost, amen. 

" We stand up before God's majesty, and raising 
up our hands towards his grace, pray that the Holy 
Ghost may descend upon him, as he did upon the 



at the time of the ascension of our Lord, 
irist, by whom they were made patriarchs, 
and priests, and were authorized to bind 
e, as written by St. Matthew, 
therefore, by virtue of our authority re- 
ran God, authorize him to bind and loose, 
ating our voice, we offer thanks to God, and 
1 Eyrie Eleison, Kyrie Eleison, Kyrie Elei- 
gain, we pray to God to grant him cheer of 
>re his throne of majesty, and that we and 
be made worthy to glorify him, now and at 
i for ever and ever. 

ai on the seventeenth of Konum Kolim of 
of our Lord, eighteen hundred and ninety- 
responding to the twenty-ninth of Decem- 
lteen hundred and ninety-one) from the 
ud palace of the monastery of Mardin." 
" (Signed) Ignatius Peter III." 
sremony performed in conformity with this 
i authorization was unique in the simul- 
use of both the western and the eastern 
episcopal consecration. The Portuguese 
lop Alvarez, himself consecrated by Syrian 
conferred the episcopate on Pere Vilatte, 
g to the forms of the Latin ritual, while 
atly, the two co-consecrating Syrian metro- 
likewise conferred the episcopate according 
rms of the Syrian ritual, so that the validity 
new apostolic succession in the western 
late is indisputable either respecting ca- 
uthority, intention, or rite. It will be no- 
it the title of consecration of Pere Vilatte 
as archbishop-metropolitan of the arch- 
»f America. This plenary canonical power 
ristently conferred on Archbishop Vilatte 
fttriarch of Antioch, because it is admitted 
biased canonists that, as the Western con- 
is unknown during the conciliar ages, it is 
r exempt from the exclusive jurisdiction of 
larch, either of the eastern or western 
of the Holy Catholic Church of Christ. 
is therefore in the western patriarchate, 
he Latin succession of the Independent 
Church of Holland, derived in 1724 from 
ich Bishop Varlet, the canonical Syrian 
a of Archbishop Vilatte, who has already 
annly recognized in his archiepiscopal 
• not only by the Church of Holland, but 
the Holy Office of the Roman Catholic 

w of this fact, the several reformed com- 
in the Western Church are not now de- 
fer a historic episcopate, either upon the 
Anglican succession dating from the Eliza- 
Btoration, or upon the valid but irregular 
l of the Old Catholic bishops of Europe, 
re is now available this newer apostolic 
nical episcopate derived direct from that 
er of Christianity itself, that oldest of all 
;hes of the primitive Church, the Syrian 
F Antioch. Ernest Margrander. 

pbt. W. E. Gladstone, Church Principles Con- 
n their Results, London, 1840; W. Palmer, A 
on the Church of Christ, 3d ed., 2 vols., London, 
. P. Ldddon, A Father in Christ, 3d ed., London, 
. Gore, The Church and the Ministry, London, 
Tod, Protestant Episcopacy in Relation to Apos- 


tolic Succession, London, 1889; W. Earle, The Reunion 
of Christendom in Apostolical Succession, London, 1895; 
C. H. Waller, Apostolical Succession, St. Leonards, 1895; 
J. Brown, Apostolical Succession in the Light of History 
and Fact, London, 1898; R. C. Moberly, Ministerial Priest- 
hood . . . with an Appendix upon Roman Criticism of 
Anglican Orders, London, 1897; T. F. Loekyer, The Evan- 
gelical Succession, or, the Spiritual Lineage of the Christian 
Church, London, 1899; R. Bruce, Apostolic Order and 
Unity, Edinburgh, 1903; W. H. M. H. Aitken, Apostolical 
Succession in the Light of the History of the Primitive 
Church, London, 1903; R. E. Thompson, The Historic 
Episcopate, Philadelphia, 1910; and the literature under 
Apostolic SuccnaaiON. 

SUCCOTH-BEHOTH: A term used in II Kings 
xvii. 30, evidently as the name of a deity of Babylon. 
The passage in which the term occurs (verses 24- 
41) describes the settlement in the district of Sa- 
maria of the colonists brought by Sargon from dif- 
ferent parts of the East to replace the northern 
Israelites carried by him into exile after the cap- 
ture of Samaria (q.v., II., 1, § 1). The phrasing of 
the passage is peculiar in that it is said that these 
settlers " made " (Hebr. 'cut*) the deities and " put 
them in the houses of the high places." Appar- 
ently the idea is that they made images of the dei- 
ties and put them in the shrines left by the Hebrews; 
possibly, however, the meaning is simply that they 
installed the worship of these deities on the high 
places. At first sight the passage seems very cor- 
rupt, for out of seven deities named only one, Ner- 
gal, is certainly recognizable (see Adrammelech; 
Anammelech; Ashima; Nibhaz; and Tartar); 
and yet it seems to pass the bounds of probability 
that in a short passage from a context that is gen- 
erally clear six out of seven names should be so 
utterly distorted as to be unrecognizable. 

With slightly different vocalization the term 
should mean " tents of (the) daughters," yet no 
deity is known whose name or title could be even 
approximately thus represented; and Marduk as 
god of Babylon is the deity whose name would be 
expected here. The various attempts at solution 
offered in the commentaries and elsewhere throw 
little light on the subject. Selden (De dis Syria, 
ii. 7) supposed a shrine where marriageable girls 
(banoth) offered their virginity as a religious duty; 
Ge8enius (Thesaurus) changed banoth to bamoth 
(" high places "). A number of students see in the 
term a corruption of Zirpanitu (Zirbanit), the name 
of Marduk's consort. No progress is made by com- 
parison of the word with the sikkuth of Amos v. 26 
(cf. R. V. margin). And other suggestions in the 
commentaries display ingenuity but give no solu- 
tion which has commanded acceptance. 

To be remembered is the fact that the colonists 
introduced by Sargon were almost certainly from 
the lower orders, who worshiped, in all probability, 
deities or spirits of an animistic sort whose names 
have not been transmitted. As in modern times in 
non-Christian lands (e.g., India) the state cults are 
often not those of the masses of the population 
(Kipling makes a countryman in Kim speak of " the 
good ' little gods 1 "), so in ancient times it is de- 
monstrable in many cases that the objects of wor- 
ship were deities whose names do not appear in the 
official records. Some of these names may in exact 
or confused form be present in the text awaiting 


Geo. W. Gilmorz. 

Bibuoo&afbt: Besides the eommen tunes on Kings eon- 
lult: P. Scholi. ti,4*rndien*t unit Za-uherwaen bri den 
atom HmrAtra, pp. 407-400, Rogsnsbur*. 1877; F. De- 
titsach. Wo lac dot Parotic*, pp. 2].'. Jlt>, Leiir>ir. 1RSI: 
A Jnremins, Dew X. 7*. \m LiiJile del allrn Orienit, p. 322, 
ib. 1904, En«. tranil.. London. 1911; Nag], in ZAT, 1904, 
pp. 417-418; Dfl. iv. 828; SB, iv. 4820. 

SUDAILL See Stephen b. 

5UEVL swi'voi, 1J1 SPAIH, THE: A branch of the 
tliTiiuimc people of that name which removed from 
tin- Ithiiii' during (In' migntiuri of mil ions. More 
inconstant than the other migratory peoples, the 
Suevi manifested six religious epochs in their his- 
tory: (1) la the heathen period (409-448 or 449), 
Under the kings Hermcric and Rechila, these tyrants 
*.. vii-iiimilly came into conflict with the Roman 
Church; but while they plundered the property, 
they were indifferent to the religion of their con- 
quered subjects. The organization of the Church 
remained intact in Galicia, the core of the kingdom 
of the Suevi. (2) During the first Catholic period 
(448 or 449-c. 464), the Suevi were brought into 
the Church under King Rechiar and remained Cath- 
olics under bis successors until 463 or 464. Many, 
however, may have clung to their primitive forest 
li' i( In TiiMin. Rechiar, in spite of his orthodoxy, 
married the daughter of the Arian Visigothic King 
Theodoric I.; and he surpassed his heathen prede- 
cessors in love of plunder. Ho wns vjnijiiishi -.1 it in I 
made captive at Astorga (456) by the VngOtbfa 
King Theodoric II. (3) The first Arian period (c. 
464-c. 550) frjlluwi'd ivh'-ii lii'inisiiiimd had re- 
stored his shattered kingdom and married a Visi- 
gothic woman, ;>c^rli;ipH a relative of Theodoric, in 
Order to estnUi-li fii> ii'lly n-htiim? with his more 
powerful neighbor. He went over to Arianiam, and, 
with the help of the renegade Ajax, led over a ma- 
jority of his people. Under Euric (466-485) the 
Suevi lost all their possessions in the southeast of 
the peninsula, and were driven back to Galicia, and 
during this dark and little-known period the diocesan 
organisation continued. This statement is sup- 
ported by an inscription found at Braga which nar- 
rates that a nun Marispalla dedicated a church 
under King Veremundus, implying freedom of cul- 
tws to Roman Catholics, and by the letter of Pope 
Vigilius of 538, to the resident bishop Profuturus 
of Braga, which shows that the Arian regime did 
not in the least disturb the Roman church organisa- 
tion ; that free intercourse with Rome was allowed 
to the orthodox episcopate; that the orthodox 
clergy were allowed a free hand in combating all 
heresies. Prise illianism as well as Arianiam; and 
that Arianiam refrained from propaganda by peace- 
able persuasion no loss than orthodoxy, (4) The 
second Catholic period continued from c. 550 to the 
collapse of the kingdom 585. About the middle of 
the sixth centniry the Arian (rings were replaced by 
Catholic princes. Zealously orthodox kings like 
Theodemir (559 or 560-570) and Miro (570-583) 
succeed ed in winning back the great majority of 

the people, assisted by the Panoonian Martina ;i 
580), abbot of Dumium and later n 
Braga, who was known as the " Apostle of 
It is disputed whether the reaction a 
Carrarie (550-559) or Theodemir (559 oi 
Miro was conquered (583) by Leovigild, the k>_ 
Arum Y'isigoth king, and made a vassal. L.ivi^ I 
took advantage of the contests for the throne  
broke out after the death of Miro to incorporate flil 
kingdom of the Suevi in bis kingdom as the pi 
of Galicia. (5) and (6) were the second Arian (S8(- 1 
536) and the third Romanizing (587 and 589)ps£<l 
oris. After their absorption Leovigild, wishing to 
attach the Suevi to his moderate Arianism, iritW 
using measures of force, appointed Arian duplintt 
bishops to certain dioceses, namely, Lugo, Oporto, 
Tuy, and Viseu. Many Suevi adopted Arianimte 
please their new ruler. A little later they at 
themselves just as hospitable to the opposite re- 
ligious policy of Recared (586-601), and beam 
again Roman Catholics at the command of tail 
" Spanish Constantine." (Franz Corks] 

Bibuookapst: Souths are: The continuation of U»H» 
nymian eirenicon by Hydatids. In MOB. Aid. Alt,* 
(1883), 21-26, 85-03, 212 sqq.. also Joannea Bkk™. 
CAronim.and the Biil.Galhanim of Isidore of SeviDifef 
same volume; Isidore of Seville, Suatonim tiaorij, a I 
Opera, ed. Arevalus. vii. 134 aqq., Rome, 1803; Muta 
Broun, F ormufa a. vita henata, ed. A. Wddncr.lnilU 
deburg /Voflromm, 1872, pp. 3-10: Martin of Blip, 1 
eomOiom ruMicorum, ed. C. P. Caapari, Christian* IS 
Consult further: J. Aschhiu b. (?..-. ■'.,. -'■(.: ,1- HV.', : : . 
Frankfort, 1827: F. W. LemMuj. GrteMditt roa Spmai 
Hamburg, 1831; P.R.Ouna.KirduiiaaekidiUTa»Sttm 
vol. ii., 3 vol*., Rcwensbur*, 1862-79: F. Dahn. DuK'iti 
der Germonsn, vol*, v.-vi., Leipaic. 1870; LGelw.JViV 
pagntde* Oolht tt da Arabn, Puis. 18S2; J. DrtoekaB 
ZWT, mviiillSSS), 508-508; F. (lor™, in JakAHAaSH 
prolritanliirhr Thtotogit. "ii- 132-174. and in ZWT. verm 
(1886), 319-325, xixvt, 2 (1SB3), 642-578: E Peril Pool 
Hi*, de lot insfiiurionei taciatet d* la Erpatta Call. 4 vnk, 
Valencia. 1890; J. Orti^a Rubio. toi Vitigodo* » EipsM. 
Madrid, 1903: R. de Ureda y Smenjaud. La LarisbcM* 
s . ?,.-,,-/:,,-,„,,:,!. Madrid, 1B06; DCB, iii. 84S-64S. 8M; 
KL. viil. 922-021; and literature on Goras. 

SUFFERING: Any state of physical or mental 
pain. In the general view, anything detrimental 
to self-preservation is an evil, anything favorable 
to self-preservation a good. In many respects tie 
Oiri.-lLiii view is just the opposite. Here self-pres- 
ervation is thought of not for this natural life but 
for life eternal. Thus, what would seem to be in 
evil becomes a good when viewed sub spent attnata- 
tis, and similarly a good becomes an evil. Sickness, 
for instance, by awakening the religious con- 
■oiotUBim, becomes a good; and riches, by encour- 
aging worldliness, become an evil. Even from the 
worldly point of view suffering has value, since it 
develops character and enriches experience. From 
tin 1 Christian point of view, a good is that which 
promotes the attainment of the kingdom of God, 
which is the highest good, and an evil is that which 
opposes its attainment. However, it is a mistake 
to suppose that pain and suffering cease to be such 
for the faithful; if they did, they would lose their 
potentiality for good. It would be fantastic to 
deny that for the Christian real pain and evil still 
exist. God sends to every Christian his measure 
of suffering, and particularly those persecutions 
incident to the enmity of the world (John xv. 18-21; 


K«r York. 1 

t. v. 10-12, x. 38, xvi. 24). To practise aseeti- 
n and inflict pain on oneself is not only un- 
antagonistic to God (Col. ii. 23). 
■a task of the Christian is rather to bear patiently 
ie sufferings actually sent by God and make them 
s of righteousness (Heb. xii. 11; II Cor. iv. 
. For the real Christian all trials and tribulations 
[tribute to the attainment of the highest good 
rnrse suffering may have just 
* opposite result, in case of a weak Christian 
" i. 21). It is the moral obligation of the 
to take effective action against threaten- 
i, and his position in the world makes 
B accessary. Stupid resignation is as unchristian 
m rank fatalism. 

Pain and suffering are the means appointed by 
God to wean the Christian from the pleasures of the 
■odd and the flesh and bind him close to the king- 
dom of God. Whom the Lord loveth he chastcneth, 
d if he sends afflictions he Bends at the same time 
strength to bear them or overcome them (II Cor. 
" 7_ "r, 8-4)). God may send sufferings and tribu- 
ktions to punish offenders (Ps. xxxviii. 5; Lam. i. 
, W; Ex. xx. 5), to prove and educate his children 
 (Beb. xii. 5-12; II Cor. xiii. 5), or to glorify himself 
1 (John fee. 3, xi. 4). (L. Lemme.) 

 : E. Bunitt, The Million of Great Suffering; 

66; W. G. Eliot, The Discipline of Sorrow. 
awenBe. Tie Mystery of Suffering, 
num. The Mueteru of Fain, Bos- 
ton. IW3; C. C. HoJl, Does Ood sen,! Trouble 1 ib., 1894: 
D. O. Mean. Inspired through Suffering, New York, 1897; 
V.C. Harrington. The Problem of Human Suffering . . . 
frnm the Standpoint of a Christian, ib. ]SW; G. MiliW. Ilia 
LeidalsiU Wuriel des Gluckes. Berlin. 1800; J. H. Brooke. 
The Uueseruof Suffering, New York. 1903; J. Hinton. The 
Mystery of Pain, London. 1909; Pen Laurent, The Minion 
efPom, ib. 1910. 

SUFFRAGAH: A title apph'ed to certain claasea 
of bishops (see Bishop; Bishop, Titulab; and 
Vicah). The word does not appear to have been 
employed in classical Latin, but is frequent in the 
ecclesiastical language of the Prankish kingdom 
(M~GH, Leg. i., Cap. Ttg. Francomm, p. 79, 1835), 
where it appears in the sense of " helper," and so, 
B4S-, Am&larius of Treves (q.v.) understands it. The 
term becomes equivalent also to " vicar." The term 
" suffragan " is applied to titular bishops who assist 
or substitute for diocesan bishops; also to diocesan 
bishops, expressing their relation to the metropoli- 
tan [cf. Bingham, Origin**, II., xiv. 14-15], The 
ordinances bearing on the relative rights of suffra- 
gans and metropolitans are collected in Gratian, 
causa III., qu. 6 and IX. 3. For suffragans in the 
United States see Protestant Episcopal! ass, IL, 
| 1. (A. Haock.) 

SOGER: Abbot of St. Denis; b. in 1081, prob- 
ably in the neighborhood of St. Omer; d. at St. 
Denis Jan. 12, 1151. He was the contemporary of 
St. Bernard and Abelard, and one of the greatest 
statesmen France produced during the Middle Aprs. 
He was educated in the monastery of St. Denis, 
together with Louis VI.; and when the latter 
ascended the throne, in 1108, he immediately called 
the monk to his court, and made him his pritii-ipal 
councilor. In 1122 Suger was elected abbot of St. 
Denis; but he remained at the court, and continued 

to live as a man of the world till 1127, when he 
came under the influence of the reformatory move- 
ment of his time. He at once ;iwuiiici| the habits 
and practises uf severe asceticism, but he continued 
to be a politician rather than an ecclesiastic. After 
the death of Louis VI., in 1137, he was appointed 
regent during the minority of Louis VII., and again 
when the latter, in 1149, made a crusade to the 
Holy Land: and during his lifetime hardly any- 
thing of consequence took place in French politics 
without his immediate intervention. His leading 
idea was the consolidation of the monarchy as a 
divinely established institution. He was planning 
and preparing to conduct in person a crusade when 
he died. His w ri tings embrace I.ibi litis de cannerrn- 
tione. enirsiir a sr inlifirntir el trnrixtutiiine corporum 
s. Dionysii ae sodorum eius facia anno lllfi; Liber 
de rebus in sua administration? ijfstin; and Vita 
Ludoinci 17. Grossi sive Craasi regie Franco-nun 
(t 1137), PhUippi I. JUii; all of which are found 
most conveniently in MPL, clxxxvi. 1211-1340. 
They were also edited by A. Lecoy de la Marche, 
Paris, 1807. 

W. Suger is ii. MPL. dxx\i-i. "lf.H-li'js, !ir „t in il„. ,,|. 
of the "Works " liy Lecoy de in Man-lie, at -up., pp. :177- 
411. Consult further: J. Baudouin, Lb Bfjufiftll Mtte, 
reprfsmif sous Louis VI. en la pereonne de Suger. Para, 
1640; M. Bau.iior, Hit. de f administrali n de Suger, 
abbe de St. Deny*. Paris. 164:.. new ml.. 1600; F. A. Ger- 
vtiee. Hist, de Suger, ahbi ite St. Denis, 3 vols , Paris, 
1731; A. Ncttement, Il,st. de Su-jer. Paris. 1842; A. de 
Sttinl-Mery. Sttger, tJu le Frunze 'in ji'.. M.V, r .-. I.fjiii,.^.^, 
1851; F. Om'.es. i;,IMir,Si/ m P.m.,. IS.-,;'; A. HuEui'iiui, 
£tude sur rabbi Suger. Paris, 1883; I.. de fame. Let Fan- 
dateure de Taniti fran-nUe: Saner. Pari-, 1K5B; J. L. T. 
Bachrlct, La Grands Minister* fran-ai,, itimen. 1K.W; 
A. Vctault. Snare. Pari*, 1871; P. V.ollct. in BOrfiothioue 
de VeeoU des chartes. xxxiv. 241-254. Paris, 1373; E. 
Menault, Suger .  . regent de Franee, pere de la patrie, 
Paris. 1884; A. Lecoy da la Marche, in La Franee chrt- 
tienne, 1S96. pp. 148 sqq; Hist. HUtraire de la Franee, xii. 
:tni-,t(W: KL. ni. '.'75-077; rentier, Auleurs saerts, xiv. 
373-378 st puBim. 

author of the Thesaurus <ccUninsik<tx; b. at Zurich 
June 26, 1620; d. there Dec. 29, 1684. He began 
his studios in the schools of his native city, and 
ei (triplet ed them at Motitaubau and Sauraur, return- 
ing in 1154-i to Zurich for his examination, rind bcine, 
sent as pastor to Basodingen in Thurgau; he was 
called to teach in Zurich. Kill; became inspector 
of the Alumnatcs and professor of Hebrew, 1646; 
professor of catechetics, 1649; of Latin and ( ireek 
in the ('olIeKiuro humanitatis, 1656; and of Greek 
at the Carolinum, 16titl; retired on account of fail- 
ing health. 1083. He served theology well through 
his works in philology, many of them Ruing through 
several editions. Amnng his published works may 
he named: SyUoge romm Xmi Testamenti (Zurich, 
1643); Novi Testamenti tliction'tm Ki/IOyr. Graro- 
Latitia, issued by Hagenbuch in 1744 as JV. T. (ilos- 
aarium Qraco-LaUnum; the celebrated Thesaurus 
ecdesiasHcus (2 vols,, Amsterdam, 168*2; encyclo- 
pedic^; atal fji'j-iViiM (irimi-Ltitinum el Latino-Grar- 
cum (1683). He left other works in manuscript, 
among them his apparatus for a new edition of 
the lexicon of Hesychius. (P. Schweiier.) 




theologian, son of the preceding; b. in Zurich in 
1646; d. in Heidelberg Sept. 23, 1705. He studied 
in Zurich and Geneva; was professor of Greek and 
philosophy in the gymnasium at Hanau 1665-67; 
then became pastor at Birmensdorf near Zurich; in 
1683 succeeded his father at the Carolinum; and 
went in the spring of 1705 as first pastor and eccle- 
siastical councilor to Heidelberg. He caused con- 
siderable excitement by the publication of his book 
on Revelation (1674), and it was suppressed, but 
he had it and his Lapis Lydius printed anonymously 
in Holland (1676), after which he received a repri- 
mand from the council of Zurich. Outside of his 
commentary on Colossians, his other works were on 
subjects in philosophy or church politics. 

(P. Schweizer.) 

SUICIDE: The intentional killing of oneself, 
the term excluding both the shortening of life by 
excess or recklessness, and self-sacrifice, or the sur- 
render of life to gain a higher moral good, since only 
in suicide is there a conscious and deliberate con- 
tempt for life per se and an entire absence of desire 
to attain any superior good (as in self-sacrifice) or 
even a greater degree of pleasure (as in excess or 
recklessness) . The history of suicide reveals marked 
variations according to race and period. Among 
peoples of simple civilization and those with a 
fixed code of morals and an unshaken 

History, belief suicide is very rare, and is 
deemed unnatural and reprehensible. 
This was the view of the early Greeks, and of the 
Pythagoreans, Plato, and Aristotle; but with the 
decay of national thought and character Stoicism 
taught indifference to life and death as mere exter- 
nal phenomena, and advocated voluntary surrender 
of life as a means of gaining independence for the 
soul. This view, which failed to distinguish clearly 
between self-sacrifice and suicide, and was also 
irreconcilable with the Stoic doctrine of the virtu- 
ous man's submission to the universe, was eagerly 
defended by the Romans of the early Empire, par- 
ticularly by Seneca (q.v.). While Biblical religion 
conquered this attitude of despair and the useless- 
ness of life, neither the Old nor the New Testament 
contains any specific prohibition of suicide, though 
the principles enunciated in the sixth command- 
ment and in such passages as Rom. xiv. 7-9, I Cor. 
vi. 19, and Eph. v. 29 may be extended by analogy 
to suicide. Even where cases of suicide are recorded, 
as of Saul (I Sam. xxxi. 4), Ahithophel (II Sam. 
xvii. 23), Zimri (I Kings xvi. 18), and Judas (Matt, 
xxvii. 5, Acts i. 18, 25), there is no word of con- 
demnation of the act in itself. On the other hand, 
Paul once prevented suicide (Acts xvi. 27-28). 
The lack of express prohibition finds explanation 
partly in the extreme rarity of suicide among the 
Jews, and partly in the national abhorrence of it, 
the sole exception being when patriotic motives 
entered into the question (Judges xvi. 28-30; 
II Mace. xiv. 37-46; Josephus, Ant, XTV., xiii. 10). 
Christianity worked here, not by prohibitions, but 
by creating a new attitude of mind, teaching the 
fatherly love of God (I Cor. x. 13; I Thess. v. 9), 
giving life a distinct ethical content (Phil. i. 22 sqq.), 

and interpreting suffering as a divine dispenaatior 
(Rom. v. 3 sqq., viii. 18). The early Church finri^ 
opposed suicide, although practically the only cut 
in which such a tendency appeared was in the 
overzealous desire for martyrdom (see Mabttm 
and Confessors). Whether, in time of persecu- 
tion, Christian women might commit suicide to 
escape dishonor was a moot question, lauded by 
Eusebius, Chrysostom, and Jerome, but condemned 
by Augustine (De civitate Dei, i. 16 sqq.), the latter 
position also being taken by church councils, some 
of which forbade the suicide honorable burial (Or- 
leans, 533, canon 15, Hefele, Conciliengesckickk, 
ii. 757, Eng. transl., iv. 187, Fr. transl., ii- 2, p, 
1135; Braga, 563, capitulum 16, Hefele, ut sum 
iii. 19, Eng. transl., iv. 385, Fr. transl., iii. 1, p. 180). 
The rise of the tenet of personal freedom in the 
period of the early Illumination wrought a marked 
change, although many of the earliest works advo- 
cating the permissibility of suicide could appear 
only posthumously, as J. Donne's Biathanatos 
(London, 1644) and D. Hume's essay on suicide ia 
his Two Essays (1777). In the general literature of 
the eighteenth century suicide was frequently dis- 
cussed as a psychological and moral question, as 
by Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Goethe; but while 
these authors advocated a less rigorous attitude, 
theologians and all the best philosophical writer*, 
such as Spinoza, Wolff, Mendelssohn, Kant, and 
Fichte, condemned it. Modern pessimism main- 
tains a rather indeterminate position toward the 

The increasing frequency of suicide had been sta- 
tistically proved in the nineteenth century, the rate 
being at least trebled in the great civilized coun- 
tries. A large number of suicides, about a third, 
may be traced to mental derangement, thus indi- 
cating a close connection between sui- 
Conditions cide and insanity. Suicide is more fre- 
and quent in cities than in the country, 

Remedy, increasing with ease of communication 
and the progress of education; it is 
far more frequent among Protestants than among 
Roman Catholics, but is in inverse proportion to 
crimes against the person. All this does not imply 
that higher culture involves despair and disgust for 
life, but that as needs increase, the number of those 
increases who, unable to satisfy these needs, des- 
pair since they have within themselves no means of 
consolation. The highest percentage of suicides is 
found among the Germanic peoples, next coming 
the Romance peoples and the Slavs. The reasons 
for the excessive frequency of suicide among the 
Teutons has been ascribed either to the use of in- 
toxicants or to the results of unrestricted investi- 
gation in science and religion, although it seems 
more probable that the true explanation lies in 
Germanic idealism and individualism, with a touch 
of sentimentalism, which is ill adapted to cope with 
stern and circumscribing conditions. A still more 
potent factor than all others, however, is the decay 
of religion and of moral conviction during the nine- 
teenth century, which has deprived large masses 
of influences most potent in counteracting the tend- 
ency to suicide; for it is only a spiritual and inward 
strength which can enable the individual to stand 




ipinst the pressure and the vicissitudes of complex 
vodera civilization; though natural elasticity and 
ttmog sense of duty may give similar results within 
» limited area, the only reliable foundation of a 
patience and a hope which do not fail even in the 
mt desperate situations is religion. And as once 
Christianity brought new regard for life into a de- 
cadent civilization, so only the Gospel can heal the 
destructive and deadly tendencies of modern cul- 
tare. The battle against suicide thus becomes, in 
the last analysis, identical with the validation of a 
Christian view of life and morality. He who knows 
that he has a duty to perform toward God is bound 
to go on, be conditions what they may; and he who 
■convinced that there is forgiveness for the penitent 
and help for the fallen can never despair. The 
Christian Church has naturally condemned utterly 
an act which she can not but regard as absolute 
legation of the fear of God and of trust in him, and 
as an insult alike to divine judgment and to divine 
grace. It is, therefore, inadvisable to break down 
the barriers erected by law and custom against the 
suicide, for such procedure would only invite still 
greater laxity of public opinion. While in some 
eases the suicide may deserve pity rather than 
blame, the act itself must uncompromisingly be re- 
garded as morally impossible for the Christian. At 
the same time, it is hopeless to look for great results 
merely from laws and disciplinary measures; only 
the Gospel can create a new spirit, and thus heal 
the evils of modern civilization. (O. Kirn.) 

Bouoorapht: C. F. St&tidlin, Geachickte der VoreteUunaen 
v*d Lehren vom Sdbttmord, Gdttingen, 1824; A. Wagner, 
Die Gtsttzmoseiakeii in den scheinbar willkurlichen menech- 
Hchen Handlungen, Hamburg, 1864; A. Legoyt, Le Suir 
cid* ancien et moderne, Paris, 1881; T. Q. Maaaryk, Der 
Sdbetmord ale eoriale Maeaenerecheinung der modernen 
Civilisation, Vienna, 1881; H. Moreelli, Der Selbetmord, 
Leipaic, 1881, Eng. transl., Suicide, London, 1881; J. J. 
OT>ea, Suicide; Studies on iU Philosophy, New York, 
1882; G. Garrison, Le Suicide dans VantiquiU et done lee 
temp* modernem, Paris, 1885; M. Imhofer, Der Selbetmord, 
Augsburg, 1886; C. A. Geiger, Der Selbetmord im klassi- 
echen AUertum, Augsburg, 1888; E. Motta, Bibliografia 
dd euicidio, Bellinsona, 1890; E. Rehfisch, Der Selbst- 
mord, Berlin, 1803; £. Durkheixn, Le Suicide, Paris, 1807; 
H. H. Henson, Suicide, Oxford, 1807; F. H. P. Coste, 
The Ethic* of Suicide, London, 1808; J. Gurnhill, The 
Morale of Suicide, 2 vols., London and New York, 1000; 
H. Host, Der Sdbttmord ale sosialstatistische Erscheinung, 
Cologne, 1005; H. A. Krose, Der Sdbatmord im 19. Johr- 
hundert; and Die Uraachen der SeVbstmordhaufigkeii, 2 
vols., Freiburg, 1006; W. W. Westcott, On Suicide, Lon- 
don, 1005; W. Spark, Der Selbstmord, seine Folgen und 
ine Verhutung, Freiburg, 1000. 

SUID AS, swf'das: Greek lexicographer. Nothing 
is known of the personal history of Suidas, even his 
period is only with probability assigned as that of 
Johannes Tzimisces, Basil II., and Constantine IX., 
therefore before the end of the tenth century; his 
home is conjectured to have been Samothrace. His 
Greek lexicon, probably finished c. 976, is a most 
important, even indispensable, reference-book for 
the classical philologist, and is equally valuable for 
the theologian and church historian. He drew upon 
older dictionaries and collections, upon Hesychius 
Milesius for facts of literary history, upon the dic- 
tionary of Harpokratio, perhaps also upon that of 
Photius, upon the Biblical glossators, and upon the 

scholiasts. His articles on secular and ecclesiastical 
history are derived chiefly from, the book of excerpts 
of Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos and from George 
the Monk. He also read a great number of sources 
at first hand. From all this it is easy to explain the 
manifold character of Suidas' work. It resembles 
now a lexicon, now an encyclopedia. It is a reper- 
torium for the study of the classics and the Bible, 
of secular and ecclesiastical history. 

Of interest from a theological point of view are 
especially the Biblical glosses derived from Hesy- 
chius and such Greek exegetes as Theodoret and 
(Ecumeniu8, relating to Biblical names and the 
more important New-Testament words and con- 
ceptions. It is still worth while to consult Suidas 
on such words as iuuuoaivfj t duau&pa, 66£a deov, 
lKoraai£ t evxapurrla, v6fio£, ir^ovroc, irvevpa, %bvxuc6^. 
The theological and dogmatic point of view of 
the work may be inferred from such entries as 
6e6c. The general scientific and philosophic in- 
terest of Suidas appears abundantly. Finally 
Suidas offers a large register of patristic names 
and choice excerpts, enriched with biographical 
and literary details. The notice of Hypatia's life, 
studies, and death may be cited. The opinion of 
the author and his church appears not seldom in 
the account. For example, Dionysius the Areop- 
agite receives the appellation of " the most famous 
man," who attained the summit of Greek wisdom, 
and as a pupil of Paul was by him made bishop of 
Athens. Chrysostom is praised yet more highly. 
His eloquence was like the cataracts of the Nile 
and was never equaled; only God could count the 
number of his works. 

The lexicon was first issued by Demetrius Chal- 
kondylas (Milan, 1499; Aldine ed., Venice, 1514). 
Other editions are Cambridge, 1705, by K lister; Ox- 
ford, 1834, by Gaisford; best ed. by Bernhardy, 
Halle, 1853; and the reprint by Bekker, Berlin, 
1854. (Philipp Meyer.) 

Bibliography: The introduction in Bemhardy's ed., ut 
sup.; Krumbaoher, Geechichle, pp. 562-570, where a 
large list of helps is furnished; Fabricius-Haiies, Biblio- 
theca Or oca, vi. 38^-595, Hamburg, 1705. 

SUIDBERT, swid'bart: Apostle of the Frisians; 
d. at what is now Kaiserswerth in Mar., 713. He 
was one of the twelve who under the leadership of 
Willibrord (q.v.) began the mission to the Frisians. 
He was chosen bishop by his companions and placed 
at the head of the undertaking, and this has given 
rise to many explanations of the passing over of 
Willibrord, the real leader; the probable reason 
was Willibrord's youth and Suidbert's maturity. 
Suidbert was consecrated by Wilfrid of York late 
in 692 or early in 693. Soon after his return to his 
field of work he abandoned it and went to labor 
beyond the Rhine among the Bructeri, a course 
probably to be explained by a difference between 
him and Pippin, who had the right of confirmation 
of bishops in his realm. The only notice of Suid- 
bert's success is Bede's brief statement that " by 
his preaching he led many into the way of truth " 
(Hist. eccl. f v. 11); but this success aroused the 
animosity of the heathen Saxons who scattered the 
Christians. Suidbert was then presented with the 




island on which he founded the cloister of Kaisers- 

werth, where he passed the remainder of his life. 

(A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: Early material is oollected in ASB, Apr., 
iii. 802-805, March, i. 67-86; ASM, iii. 1, pp. 239-246; 
and MPL, cxxxii. 547-550, 557-550. Consult further: 
Bede, Hist, eccl., v. 11; P. Heber, Die vorkarolingiechen 
christlichen Glaubensboten am Rhein, Frankfort, 1858; 
K. W. Bouterwek, Swidbert, der Apostel dee bergiechen 
Landee, Elberfeld, 1859; P. P. M. Alberdingk-Thijm, Der 
keilige Willibrord, pp. 108 sqq., M Ouster, 1863; W. 
Diekamp, Die Falschung der Vita S. Suidberti, in Histor- 
iechee Jahrbuch der Gorres-Gesdlschaft, ii (1881), 272-287; 
Analecta BoUandiana, vi (1887), 73-76; Rettberg, KD, 
ii. 396, 460, 524; Hauck, KD, i. 437, ii. 367; DNB, lv. 
155; DCB, iv. 745; Ceillier, Auteure eacrie, zii. 218, 783. 

SUIDGE& See Clement II. 

SULPICIANS: A congregation the foundations of 
which were laid by Jean Jacques Olier (q.v.) in 
1642. The society arose through the promise of 
great usefulness afforded by the seminary founded 
by Olier first at Vaugirard and later moved to the 
church of St. Sulpice at Paris. This society received 
the protection of Anna, queen-regent of Austria, 
and being devoted principally to the cause of edu- 
cation was soon engaged in that work in other sem- 
inaries established in various cities of France, in 
Canada, and in 1790 in the United States. The Sul- 
picians are bound by no vows, but have been noted 
for their fidelity to the church which they serve and 
for the model of " regularity " which they have 
furnished. In the United States St. Mary's Sem- 
inary and St. Charles' College in Baltimore are under 
their care, as was the seminary of Brighton, diocese 
of Boston, till 1911, and they have the spiritual 
direction of the students of theology in the Catholic 
University at Washington. The events of the years 
1903-06 in France (see France, I., § 5) bore with 
especial hardship upon this congregation, bringing its 
activities to an end, and leaving North America the 
most important field of work. 

Bibliography: Besides the literature under Olier, Jean 
Jacques, consult: Q. M. de Fruges, J. J. Olier, Paris, 
1904; Vie de Emery . . . precede* e d"un precis de Vhist. du 
ehninaire et de la compagnie de St. Sulpice, 2 vols., Paris, 
1862; J. St. Vangan, in The Dublin Review, 1866, pp. 22 
sqq.; J. H. I card, Traditions de la compagnie de prHree 
de St. Sulpice, Paris, 1886; M. Siebengartner, Schriften 
und Einrichtungen zur Bildung der Geistlichen, pp. 428 
sqq., 431 sqq., Freiburg, 1902; Heimbueher, Orden und 
Kongregationen, iii. 442-449. 

STJLZER, SIMOIf: Swiss theologian of Lutheran 
tendencies; b. in the Haslithal above Meiningen (24 
m. s.s.w. of Lucerne) Sept. 23, 1508; d. at Basel 
June 22, 1585. He was educated at Bern under the 
humanist Rubellus of Rottweil and at Lucerne 
under Oswald Myconius (q.v.); in 1530 he was in 
Strasburg, where he heard lectures from Butzer and 
Capito, and in Basel in 1531, where Simon Grynseus 
(see GRYNiEus, 1) taught him, where he also helped 
the printer Herwagen, taught at the Collegium, 
later the Padagogium; in 1533 Capito and Butzer 
had him called to Bern as a teacher with occasional 
preaching duties and the work of inspecting six dis- 
trict schools; in 1536 he went to Basel to continue 
his studies, and the same year visited Luther at 
Wittenberg. From this time his Lutheran tend- 
encies became marked. In 1538 he was again called 
to Bern, and in 1541 succeeded Sebastian Meyer as 

leader of the Lutheran movement; then he and lb: 
following strove in vain to abolish the oath tfeejj 
bound the prepchers to a recognition of Zwingfifc; 
doctrines and to introduce the Lutheran viewef 
the Lord's Supper. In 1544 he succeeded Kuro m 
preacher, but in 1548 was deposed from his position 
after a quarrel which, it is supposed, he provoked 
in order to pose as a martyr in the Lutheran cam 
He was made pastor at St. Peter's, Basel, 150; 
professor of Hebrew, 1552; successor to ObwiH 
Myconius at the minster, and antistes of the Baal 
church, 1553. He was happy and active in fail 
double position, defended the persecuted Lutheran*, 
and advocated union between Germans and S™. 
He could not conceal his anti-Zwinglian vieu, 
which ultimately became plain to everybody. 

Sulzer's efforts to introduce Lutheran idea* ii 
Basel had no lasting effect. He never dared to put 
aside the first Basel Confession of 1534, although he 
relegated it to the background. After his death, the 
Basel church was brought back to Zwinglianiam and 
united to the Swiss churches. His efforts were more 
successful in Baden. He became acquainted with 
Margrave Karl II., who in 1555 began the Refor- 
mation of the lower part of his margravate. Sulser 
recommended and ordained over twenty paston, 
and was named superintendent of Roteln, Schopf- 
heim, Mullheim, and Hochberg. His activity w» 
remarkable, but his undeniable services to the 
schools of Bern and the churches of Basel and 
Baden are somewhat shadowed by his weak charac- 
ter and his injudiciously partisan opposition to the 
traditional Swiss church. (W. Hadobn.) 

Bibliography: Hundeshagen, in F. Trechael'i Betir&Qtm 
Geschichte der schweiserisch-reformirten Kirckc, pp. 105 
■qq., Bern, 1844; G. Linder, Simon SuUer und uin A*kl 
an der Reformation im Lands Baden, Heidelberg, 1890; 
A. Fluri, Berner Schulordnung von 1648, Berlin, 1901. 

SUMER. See Babylonia, V. 


first clause in the title of a noted book which first 
appeared in Ley den, 1523. The full title reads: 
Summa der Godliker Serif turen, oft een duyteche The- 
ologie, leerende en onderwijsende oBe 
History menschen, wot dot Christen ghdoue u, 
of the waer doer wi aUegader salich worded 
Work. ende wot dot doepsel beduyt, nae & 
leeringe des heUigen evangeiijs ende 
sinte Pauwels episteln. It was suppressed by the 
stadtholders in the name of Charles V., orders were 
given for its destruction as containing prohibited 
doctrines, all persons were forbidden to own, read, 
buy or sell the book, while in 1524 the publisher, 
Jan Zwerts, was banished for life and his fortune 
confiscated. Fresh editions continued to appear, 
however, as well as translations into other languages, 
although it was placed on the Index of the Church 
and on that of the Louvain Theological Faculty. 
In England various edicts issued in 1526, 1535, 1539, 
against the Latin original and the English version 
(The Summa of Holy Scripture, 1542, etc., five edi- 
tions). The Sorbonne condemned it in 1550, in 
Italy it was found on all the indexes after 1549, 
in Spain the indexes of Valdez, 1559, and Quiroga, 
1583, mention it, and it was known at the court of 
Charles V. It had an important part in the Ref or- 




maiion in the countries named. Having performed 
its mission during the Reformation, the book was 
forgotten until 1877, when Professor Boehmer, of 
Zurich, discovered in the public library a copy of 
the Italian version and enabled Professor Milio, of 
Florence, to publish it in Rivista Cristiana and in 
a special edition. Benrath found a Dutch edition 
of 1526, published a German translation (Leipsic, 
1880), and judged that there must have been an 
earlier original Dutch issue in 1523. It appeared, 
also, that a second part was published in low Ger- 
man, presumably the following year, the author of 
which claimed the authorship of the first part, but 
the second part was written originally in low Ger- 
man, and does not appear in other languages. The 
first part, however, with the prologue, is a transla- 
tion, and from the Latin, as Benrath surmised and 
Van Toorenenbergen proved, the author himself 
being the translator. 

An edition of the Latin and the oldest Dutch 
translation were published by Prof. J. J. van Toor- 
enenbergen, of Amsterdam, in 1882. The Latin, 
(Economica Christiana in rem Ckris- 

The Latin. Hanam instituens, quidve creditum in- 
genue Ckristianum oportet, ex evangelicis 
Uteris eruta, was published, Strasburg, 1527. Com- 
parison shows that the Summa is much less com- 
plete than the QScononrica, which was evidently 
intended to enlighten the minds of the clergy and 
educated laity regarding the truths of the Gospel, 
and also to combat the corruptions of monastic life, 
and especially the illusion that the life, in itself, was 
sanctified. One portion is practical; the other, 
theoretical. The Summa is adapted to the popular 
understanding, and consequently is abridged in 
many places, especially those portions that refer to 
monastic life. The author was at first reluctant to 
publish the Latin original, and it is questioned 
whether he indorsed its publication in 1527. Van 
Toorenenbergen surmises that a friend of the author, 
Gerardus Goldenhauer, being in straitened circum- 
stances, handed over the work to the Strasburg 
publisher, Christian Egenolphus. The original 
(Economica was probably written in 1520. The 

author was evidently still in the Roman church and 
desired to reform, but not abolish, monasticism. 
The influence of Luther's writings is traceable, 
among others the " Sermon on Baptism " (1519), 
the " Babylonian Captivity/' and " A Christian's 
Liberty " (1520). In the Summa, the Reformers 
also speak. In the edition of 1523 is a formula for 
the celebration of the Lord's Supper: Dot Testa- 
ment Jesu ChrisU datmen tot noch toe de misee ghe- 
naempt heeft, verduyts(t) duer Joannem Oecolam- 
padium to Adelenburch, and in the edition of 1526 
is an entire chapter taken almost verbatim from 
one of Luther's writings. In all editions prior to 
1526, the twenty-ninth chapter contains a merci- 
less condemnation of war, unless it be for the 
protection of subjects from foreign or internal op- 
pression. This is evidently an almost verbatim 
transcript of Luther's treatise of 1526, Ob KriegsleiUe 
im sdigen Stande sein k&nnen. The author 
be responsible for this change of sentiment, 
no one else would have ventured to introduce it, 
on the title-page of the edition of 1526 stand 

the words " new and thoroughly revised edition." 
The author's name does not appear on either the 
(Economica or the Summa. Van Toorenenbergen 
and Benrath both incline to ascribe the authorship 
to Hendrik van Bommel, a preacher in Wesel in 
1557, who then acknowledged himself the author 
of Summa der deuUchen Theologie, which had ap- 
peared thirty years earlier. 

The (Economica consists of two parts, the first 
containing fifteen, the second fourteen, chapters; 
the Summa contains thirty-one chapters and a pro- 
logue. The first fifteen chapters of 

Contents, both works treat of the doctrine of 
faith under the same headings: What 
is baptism; What baptism insures, and that it is 
not a mere sign; What Christians celebrate in bap- 
tism; What Christian faith is and what those must 
believe who would be saved; On the surest way of 
salvation; That by God's goodness alone, and not 
by works, are we saved; In what manner our salva- 
tion is assured by his death who gave us his Testa- 
ment; How, according to the Gospel, faith is never 
without works; Faith stirs your souls to obey God's 
commands; Who is a son, and who a hireling; 
Two kinds of men in the Christian world; The fruits 
of faith; Of many beliefs mentioned in Holy Scrip- 
ture; The condition of Christendom; That death 
should not make us sorrowful. In the fourteen 
chapters of (Economica (second part), the author 
shows how all conditions of men should live accord- 
ing to the Gospel, and also in chaps, xvi. to xxxi. 
of the Summa; but in (Economica eight chapters 
are devoted to monks and nuns, and in the Summa 
only four, which are materially abridged, with a 
special chapter on parents who dedicate their chil- 
dren to monastic life. Chaps, xi. and xii. of (Econ- 
omica deal with the rich, the married, burghers, and 
magistrates; chap. xiii. shows that the Gospel for- 
bids war; chap. xiv. closes with the inquiry: " By 
what Gospel authority may princes levy taxes? " 
and discusses the corresponding duties of subjects. 
In the Summa, chap. xxii. deals with the question 
of married life; xxiii. with the Christian rule of 
children by parents; xxiv. considers the life of the 
middle classes; and xxv. tells how the rich should 
conform to the teaching of the Gospel. Chap, xxvi., 
which treats of worldly and spiritual rule, shows that 
the author was familiar with Luther's Von weUlicher 
Obrigkeit; chap, xxvii. points burgomasters, magis- 
trates, and other officers to the Gospel; xxviii. re- 
sembles chap. xiv. of (Economica; xxx. deals with 
the life of men- and maid-servants and day-laborers; 
and xxxi. with widows. 

A truly remarkable work is the Summa, and it 
indicates that a wholesome spirit of reform pre- 
dominated in the Netherlands earlier than else- 
where, where was, so to speak, an individual refor- 
mation, of which the Summa was the expression. 
It also bears evidence of a growing sympathy with 
Luther and Zwingli. In fact, the Netherlands sup- 
ported and furthered the reform movement in other 
countries partly by the Summa, which spread abroad 
and fostered the intellectual awakening of the re- 
form spirit. (S. D. van Veen.) 

Bibliography: Besides the introductions to the editions 
named in the text, consult the articles in the Thtologir 


Sun «nd Snn Worship 



eche Studien (of Utrooht), i (1883), 313-323, and ii (1884), 
447-461, by H. G. Kleyn, ii (1884), 146-162, by Van 
Toorenenbergen; K. Benrath, in JPT, vii. 127 aqq.; 
DOaterdieck, in OOA, 1878, and Kattenbusch, in the same, 
1883; P. Hofstede de Groot, in De TijdepiegeU 1882-83; 
and M. A. Ooossen, in Odoof en Vrijheid, 1882. 

SUMMENHART, KOHRAD: Scholastic theo- 
logian; b. at Calw (20 m. w.n.w. of Stuttgart), 
Wurttemberg, or more probably in the village of 
Sommenhardt (close by Calw), between 1450 and 
1460; d. at the monastery of Schuttern near Off en- 
burg (17 m. s.s.w. of Carlsruhe), Baden, Oct. 20, 
1502. He was a representative of the scholastic re- 
action against William of Occam's formalism, which 
constituted the realistic transition to humanism, 
and has been lauded as a precursor of the Reforma- 
tion. Summenhart studied first at Paris, and in 
1478 went to Tubingen, where, from 1489, he lec- 
tured on canon law, sociology, and natural philoso- 
phy. The writings left by Summenhart, mainly his 
Tubingen lectures, fall into three groups. The 
TrackUu8 bipartitus de decimis (Hagenau, 1407) 
and Septipertitum opus de contractibus pro foro con- 
sciential (1500) belong to the borderland of theol- 
ogy, sociology, and canon law. The second group 
consists of Commentaria in summam physics Atberti 
Magni (Freiburg, 1503), essaying a pious explana- 
tion of nature. The third group is composed of oc- 
casional addresses: Oratio funebris pro Eberhardo 
(Tubingen, 1498); Quod deus homo fieri voluerit; 
and Tractatulus exhortatorius super decern defections 
virorum monasticorum (1498), against monastic 
abuses. (H. Hermelink.) 

Bibliography: J. J. Moaer, Vita profeeeorum Tubingeneium, 
pp. 36-41, Tubingen, 1718; F. X. Linsenmann, Konrad 
Summenhart. ib. 1877; K. Steiff, Der erete Buchdruck in 
TUbingen, pp. 50-53, 228-233, ib. 1881; H. Hermelink, 
Die theologieche Fakultat in Tubingen vor der Reformation, 
pp. 156-162, 104-195, ib. 1906; WUrttembergieche Viertel- 
jahrehefte fUr Landeegetchichte. 1906, pp. 331 sqq. 

SUMMERBELL, MARTYN: Free Baptist; b. 
at Naples, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1847. He was educated 
at the College of the City of New York (A.B., 1871), 
pursued a post-graduate course in New York Uni- 
versity (1886-89; Ph.D., 1889), and was non-resi- 
dent professor of pastoral theology in the Christian 
Biblical Institute, Stanford ville, N. Y. (1874-1901). 
He has held successive pastorates at the Christian 
Church of the Evangel, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1866-80), 
the First Christian Church, Fall River, Mass. (1880- 
1886), St. Paul's Evangelical Church, New York 
City (1886-88), and the College Church, Bates Col- 
lege, Lewiston, Me. (1888-98). He was instructor 
in church history at Cobb Divinity School, Lewis- 
ton, Me. (1895-98), and was elected president of 
the Palmer Institute, Starkey Seminary, Lakemont, 
N. Y., in 1898, which position he still occupies. In 
theology he holds to " fellowship for active Chris- 
tians of every name on the basis of vital Christian 
piety." He has written Special Services for Chris- 
tian Ministers (Fall River, Mass., 1885) and is joint 
author of The People's Bible History (Chicago, 1895). 

SUMMERFIELD, JOHN: Methodist Episcopal; 
b. in Preston (28 m. n.w. of Manchester), England, 
Jan. 31, 1798; d. in New York June 13, 1825. He 
was educated at the Moravian Academy at Fairfield, 
near Manchester; was sent into business at Liver- 
pool; removed to Dublin, 1813; was converted in 

1817, and next year became a local WesJejva 

minister. In 1819 he was received on trial in tfae 

Methodist Conference of Ireland, and in Mar., 1821, 

having emigrated to America, in the New Yak 

conference. He leaped into astonishing popularity 

by reason of his eloquence, and in 1822 he preached 

in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, every. 

where heard by great crowds. Because of ill-health 

he was in France and England, 1822-24, returning 

to New York Apr. 19, 1824, but he was not able 

again to do full work. He was a founder of the 

American Tract Society. His Sermons and Skttdm 

of Sermons was published (New York, 1842). 

Bibliography: Iivea were written by J. Holland. New Yak, 
1829, and W. M. Willitt, Philadelphia, 1857. Court 
further: N. Bangs, Hut. of the M. B. Church, iiL 321-3&, 
New York, 1860; W. B. Sprague, Annal* oftheAmmim 
Pulpit, vii. 539-664, ib. 1861; and literature (und* 
Methodists) on the early history of Methodiim a 

Episcopal South; b. near Confe Castle (18 m. e&e. 
of Dorchester), England, Oct. 11, 1812; d. at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., May 5, 1882. His early religious train- 
ing was Calvinistic. He came to America, 1830, 
and united with the Methodist Church; joined the 
Baltimore Conference, 1835; was ordained deacon, 
1837, and elder, 1839; was an organiser of the first 
Texas conference, 1840, and a missionary to Texas, 
1840-43; member of the Alabama conference, 
1843-76; and secretary of the Louisville Conven- 
tion in 1845, at which the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South was organized. In 1846 he was ap- 
pointed by the general conference to assist Bishop 
Wightman as editor of The Southern Christian Ad- 
vocate, published at Charleston, S. C; while there, 
he edited for four years the Sunday-School Visitor- 
He was the general book editor for the organization 
of the church, editing some 300 volumes; he re- 
moved to Nashville in 1855, where he took charge 
of The Quarterly Review; performed pastoral work 
in Alabama, 1862-66; in 1866 was elected editor of 
the Nashville Christian Advocate; was professor of 
systematic theology in Vanderbilt University, Nash- 
ville; also dean of the theological faculty and ex- 
officio pastor, 1874-^82. He was secretary of every 
general conference of his church, devoted much time 
to hymnology, and was chairman of the committee 
that compiled the hymn-book, which he edited. 
Possessed of encyclopedic knowledge, and always 
abreast of the times, he was thoroughly Wesleyan 
and Arminian in his creed, but in hearty sympathy 
with all Evangelical denominations of Christians. 
He edited Songs of Zion: Supplement to the Hymn- 
book of the Methodist Episcopal Church South (Nash- 
ville, 1851); Biographical Sketches of Itinerant 
Ministers, Pioneers within Bounds of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South (1858); and wrote Baptism: 
its Nature, Perpetuity, Subject . . . With Strictures 
on Howell's " Evils of Infant Baptism " (1852) ; com- 
mentaries on the Gospels (1868-72), the ritual 
(1873), and the Acts (1874). 

Bibliography: O. P. Fitogerald, Dr. Summers, a Life Stud** 
Nashville, 1884. 

SUMNER, JOHN BIRD: Archbishop of Canter- 
bury; b. at Kenilworth (44 m. n.n.w. of Oxford), 
England, Feb. 25, 1780; d. in Addington (12 m. & 




Sun and Sun Worship 

of Charing Cross) 8ept. 6, 1862. He studied at Eton, 
1791-08, and at King's College, Cambridge (B.A., 
1803; M.A., 1807; D.D., 1828). In 1802 he be- 
came assistant master at Eton; was rector of 
Maple Durham, 1820-48; became canon of Dur- 
ham, 1820; bishop of Chester, 1828; archbishop of 
Canterbury, 1848. He was untiring in his efforts to 
provide for schools and to further the erection of 
churches, and had consecrated more than 200 new 
churches by 1847. He was the leader of the " evan- 
gelical party " in the Church of. England, and ear- 
nestly opposed to Romanism and the Oxford move- 
ment. His primacy covered the restoration of the 
Roman Catholic hierarchy to England, the period of 
Essays and Review* (q.v.), and the revival of the 
synodical power of convocation. His publications in- 
clude commentaries on Matthew and Mark (London, 
1831), Luke (1832), John (1835), on Romans and 
I Corinthians (1843), II Corinthians, and Galatians, 

Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians (1845), and 
Thessalonians (1851); also, A Treatise on the Rec- 
ords of the Creation, and on the Moral Attributes of 
the Creator; with particular Reference to the Jewish 
History, and to the Consistency of the Principle of 
Population with the Wisdom and Goodness of the 
Deity (2 vols., 1816) ; The Evidence of Christianity, 
Derived from Us Nature and Reception (1824); Ser- 
mons on the Principal Festivals of the Christian 
Church; to which are added three Sermons on Good 
Friday (1827); Four Sermons on Subjects Relating 
to the Christian Ministry (1828); Christian Charity, 
its Obligations and Objects, with Reference to the 
Present State of Society, in a Series of Sermons (1841) ; 
On Regeneration and Grace (1850); Practical Re- 
flections on Select Passages of the New Testament 
(1850); and numerous occasional sermons. 

Bxbuoobapht: DNB, lv. 168-170 (gives references to scat- 
tering notioes). 

I. Among the Hebrews. 
Names and Titles (f 1). 
General Conceptions (f 2). 
Worahip (| 3). 
Date of Introduction (f 4). 
II. In Other Lands. 


1. In General. 

2. Babylonia. 

3. Egypt. 

4. Aramea, Syria, and Phenida. 
Place Namee (f 1). 
Personal Names (f 2). 
Monumental Testimony (f 3). 

Arabs and Nabatsjans (| 4). 

5. The Hittites. 

6. India. 

7. China and Japan. 

8. Western Indo-European Peoples. 

9. Primitive Peoples. 

L Among the Hebrews: In the Old Testament 
the usual name for the sun is shemesh, a name which, 
with various vocalisation, appears in most of the 
Semitic languages, as in Babylonian-Assyrian, 
Aramaic, Arabic, Phenician, and Pal- 
I. names myrene (cf . the name of the god 
and Titles. Shamaah, Babylonia, VII., 2, | 4, and 
see below, II., 2). The signification of 
the word is unknown (Brown-Driver-Briggs, He- 
brew and English Lexicon, p. 1039, Boston, 1906). 
The word is in the Hebrew prevailingly masculine,* 
but sometimes feminine (as in Gen. xv. 7), as is the 
Aramaic shemsha; the Assyrian-Babylonian form 
is invariably masculine, and the Arabic (shams) is 
always feminine (Albrecht, in ZATW, xv., 1895, p. 
324). Poetical names for the sun in Hebrew are 
kmmak (probably " the glowing one "; Job xxx. 
28), and heres (Job ix. 7; meaning of the root of 
the word doubtful). In Gen. i. (where the sun is 
not called shemesh, but is spoken of as the greater 
of the " two great lights ") the purpose of the sun 
kpm as " to rule the day," " to divide the light 
htm the darkness," and " to be for signs, and for 
■awns, and for days, and for years "; that is, the 
function of the sun was conceived as being to indi- 
cate morning, noon, and evening, the seasons of the 
7*^1 and therefore the religious festivals in their 

An interesting question is raised with reference to the 
*« of theme* in Gen. xxxvii. 9. The " sun and the 
"*° ud the eleven stars " (signs of the sodiao] represent 
:J**» Rachel, and the eleven brethren of Joseph (cf . verse 
"'• But the word for " moon " is invariably masculine, and 
J* V*°*l that consequently ehemeeh must here be feminine. 
J* *• other hand, the order in verse 9 is as above and the 
*® corresponds in place to Jacob, the moon to " thy mother," 
~*f*°0Q. Moreover, where Semitic Babylonian influenoe 
Y*£b the male is the superior (note the insignificance of 
r*°ri°Qi*ii female deities after Sumerian influenoe had be- 
!]** decadent; see Abbtbia, VII., | 1), sad in theology 
<Qt '»a takes precedence of the 

recurring times. The sun as a measurer of time 
naturally comes into connection with both the Day 
and the Year (qq.v.; see also Moon; and Time, 
Biblical Reckoning of). The arrangement for 
an intercalated month in later times reveals the 
fact that the lunar year was made to square, at 
least approximately, with the solar year, at any 
rate in the later period of Jewish history. 

The Hebrew notions regarding the sun were those 
of the region in which Palestine was situated, and 
of the period when Babylonian influence prevailed. 
The luminary was regarded as " going forth " in 

the morning from his pavilion at the 

a. General eastern end of the heaven (cf . the seals 

Conceptions, in which the Babylonian Shamaah is 

represented as issuing from a gate, rep- 
resented by posts, in W. H. Ward, Seal Cylin- 
ders of Western Asia, chap, xiii., Washington, 
1010) with the joy and confidence of a bride- 
groom (Ps. xix. 5), while his setting is called an 
" entering " (i. e., of gates in the West; cf. the cog- 
nate Babylonian thought, P. Jensen, Kosmologie 
der BabyUmier, p. 9, Strasbourg, 1890); and this in- 
volved the idea of a subterranean course in the 
night in order to be in his place of rising in the 
morning (Ps. xix. 5-7; Eccles. i. 5, the latter a 
conception slightly more developed). An eclipse or 
darkening of the sun was considered to be ominous 
of evil, and is one of the signs constantly associated 
with the Day of the Lord (q.v.; cf. Job iii. 5; Isa. 
xiii. 10; Joel ii. 10, iii. 15; Amos viii. 9; Matt. 
xxiv. 29, and often). Interference with the orderly 
course of the sun is conceived as within God's power 
(Job ix. 7), and its progress is reported to have been 
stayed to work salvation in battle for Israel (Josh, 
x. 12-13) or even reversed as a sign to Hezekiah 
(the shadow of the dial or steps is reversed, II Kings 
xx. 9-11; the sun itself, Isa. xxx viii. 8). With the 

fan «nd Sun Worship 



exegesis of these passages the present article does 
not deal further than to say that the attempt to 
relieve the earlier passage of difficulty by calling 
attention to its poetical character seems unneces- 
sary because of the existence of the second and 
much later passage, where not merely suspension 
of progress but actual reversal equivalent to forty 
minutes in time is stated as an actual fact (if the 
" degrees " be of a circumference). If the Hebrews 
of Hezekiah's age and later could accept as historical 
such an event, it is not necessary to have recourse 
to the usual palliative explanations of a statement 
arising so much nearer a primitive (and more credu- 
lous) age dealing with the stopping (apparently for 
twenty-four hours, cf. Josh. x. 13, last clause) of 
the sun's progress. The effects of the sun's action 
on the earth were, according to Hebrew belief, in 
general, the production of crops (Deut. xxxiii. 14; 
II Sam. xxiii. 4) ; it was his also to give light (Gen. 
i.; Eccles. xi. 7; Rev. vii. 16) and heat (Ps. xix. 6). 
In respect to this last function it is noteworthy that 
the references to the scorching heat of the sun, to 
what may be called its malign influence, are com- 
paratively infrequent (Ps. cxxi. 6; Isa. iv. 6, xxv. 
4, xlix. 10; Jonah iv. 8; Rev. xvi. 8-9), though the 
conception of its malevolence comes out frequently 
in other lands, as in India (see below, II., 6) and in 
Babylonia, where Nergal was a god of destruction 
(see Babylonia, VII., 2, § 4). The prevailing Bib- 
lical idea of the sun was that of its might and glory 
as a luminary, and these naturally became the basis 
of poetical comparison for heroes and the faithful 
(Judges v. 31; II Sam. xxiii. 4; Ps. xix. 5-6; Cant, 
vi. 10); Yahweh is himself in metaphor called a 
sun (Ps. lxxxiv. 11; Isa. lx. 19), and his healing 
grace is in the same manner compared with a sun 
of righteousness (Mai. iv. 2). The passage in Isa. 
xxiv. 23 is noteworthy — the glory of the restored 
Zion and Jerusalem is to be so great that even the 
sun in his brightness will be abashed (there does 
not seem any basis for the quite common exegesis 
of the passage which regards the sun and moon 
here as demonic powers which are put away, e.g., 
W. von Baudissin, in Hauck-Herzog, RE, xviii. 519, 
and Semiti8cke Studien, i. 118 sqq., Leipsic, 1876). 

The evidence for the worship of the sun among 
Israelites is limited and late. II Kings xxiii. 11 
records the destruction of the chariots and removal 
of the horses of the sun from the Tem- 
3. Worship, pie at Jerusalem. Ezek. viii. 16 de- 
scribes a vision of the prophet in which 
he saw twenty-five men at the door of the Temple 
worshiping the sun in the East and " putting the 
branch to their n